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TUE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY, 



INCLUDINa 



ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, and GEOLOGY. 



(bEI.VO a continuation of the 'annals' combined with LOUDON AND 
CIIAKLH-JWORTll's ' MAGAZINE OP NATUItAL, tltSTOllY.') 



CONDUCTED BY 

ALBERT C. L. G. GUNTHER, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., 
WILLIAM CARRUTHERS, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 

AND 

WILLIAM FRANCIS, F.L.S. 



VOL. XIII.— SEVENTH SERIES. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS. 

SOLD BY SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, AND CO., LD. ; 

BAILLIEKK, PARIS : HODGES, FIGGIS, AND CO., DUBLIN : 

AND ASHER, BERLIN, 

1904. 



"Omnes res creatoe sunt divinse sapientias et potentias testes, divitiaj felicitatis 
humanie: — exharum usu bonitas Creatoris; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini ; 
ex ceconomia in conservatione, proportions, renovatione, potentia majestatis 
elucet. Eariira itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibi relictis semper jestiinata ; 
a Tsre eruditis et sapientibus semper exculta; male doctis et barbaris semper 
inimica fuit." — Linn^hs. 

" Quel que soit le principe de la vie animale, il ne faut qu'ouvrir les yeux pour 
voir qu'elle est le chef-d'eeuvre de la Toute-puissance, et le but auquel se rappor- 
tent toutes ses operations." — Bruckner, Theorie du Systeme Animal, Leytlen, 
1767. 

The sylvan powers 

Obey oiu* summons ; from their deepest dells 

The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild 

And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs 

That press with nimble step the mountain-thyme 

And purple heath-flower come not empty-handed, 

But scatter round ten thousand forms minute 

Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock 

Or rifted oak or cavern deej) : the Naiads too 

Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face 

They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush 

That drinks the rippling tide : the frozen poles, 

Where peril waits the bold adventurer's tread, 

The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, 

All, all to us unlock their secret stores 

And pay their cheerful tribute. 

J. Taylor, Foru'ich, 1818. 







CONTENTS OF VOL. XIII. 

[SEVENTH SERIES.] 



NUMBER LXXIir. 



I. The Prototheca of the Madreporaria, with Special Reference to 
the Genera Calostylis, Li ds., and Moselei/a, Quelch. By Henry M. 
Bernard, M.A. Cantab., F.L.S. (Plate I.) 1 

II. Some Parasitic Bees. By T. D. A, Cockerell 33 

III. Description of a new Genus of Frogs of the Family Dysco- 
phidcB, and List of the Genera and Species of that Family. By 

G. A. BouLENGER, F.R.S. (Plate IL) 42 

IV. The Collections of William John Bm-chell, D.C.L., in the 
Hope Department, Oxford University Museum : — 

I. Introduction. By Edward B. Poulton, D.Sc, M.A., F.R.S., 

&c. (Pla*e III.) 45 

II. On a new Stridulating-organ in Scorpions discovered by W. 

J . Bmxhell in Brazil in 1828. By R. I. Pocock, F.Z.S. 
(Plate IV.) 56 

V. Notes on Depastrum cyathiforme, Gosse. By E. S. Russell. 
(Plate V.) 62 

VI. On a new Genus of Spiders from Bounty Island, with Remarks 

on a Species from New Zealand. By H. R. Hogg, M.A., F.Z.S. . . 65 

VII. On new Forms of Anoinalurus and Sciurus from Tropical 
Africa. By Harold Schwann 70 

VIII. On new Species of LyccBnidce from Sierra Leone. By D. 
Cator ^. 73 

New Books: — Catalogue of the Collection of Birds' Eggs in i the 
British Museum (Natm-al History). Vol. III. By Eugene W. 
Gates and Capt. Savile G. Reid. — The Geological Structure 
of Monzoni and Fassa. Bv Marie M. Ogilvie Gordon, D.Sc, 
Ph.D .' 76, 77 

A Correction to " Notes on some Medusae from Japan," by R. 
Kirkpatrick, F.Z.S 80 



IV CONTENTS. 

NUMBER LXXIV. 

Page 

IX. Notes on Mantidcs in the Collection of the British Museum 
(Natural History), South Kensington, with Descriptions of new- 
Species. By W. F. KiRBY, F.L.S., F.E.S 81 

X. The Collections of William John Burchell, D.C.L., in the Hope 
Department, Oxford University Museum : — 

III. Rhipidocerides et Malacodermes recueilles par W. J. Burchell 
dans ses voyages en Afrique australe (1810-1815) et au 
Bresil (1825-1830) ; avec la description de quatre especes 
nouvelles. Par J. Bourgeois 89 

XI. Rhynchotal Notes.— XX. By W. L. Distant 103 

XII. A Contribution to the Characteristic of Corals of the Group 
Rugosa. By Prof N. Yakovlefp 114 

XIII. On the Distribution of Marine Animals. By Prof. M'Intosh, 
M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., &c 117 

XIV. Descriptions of new Frogs and Snakes from Yunnan. By 

G. A. BOULENGER, F.R.S 130 

XV. On some Fishes from the Lakes of the Cameroon Mountain. 

By Dr. Einar Lonnberg, C.M.Z.S. &c 135 

XVI. Descriptions of new Species of Lycepnidce from Borneo and 
New Guinea. By Hamilton H. Druce,F.Z.S., F.E.S 140 

XVII. Two new Mammals from South America. By Oldfield 
Thomas 142 

XVIII. On the Classification of the Crustacea Malacostraca. By 

W. T. Calman, D.Sc 144 

New SooJcs : — Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United 
Kiugdom. The Cretaceous Rocks of Britain. Vol. II. The 
Lower and Middle Chalk of England. By A. J. Jukes- 
Browne, B.A., F.G.S. With Contributions by William 
Hill, F.G.S. — A Treatise on Zoology. Edited by E. Ray 
Lankester, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., &c. Part I. Introduction 
and Protozoa 158, 159 



NUMBER LXXV. 

XIX. A Synopsis of the Suborders and Families of Teleostean 
Fishes. By G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S 161 

XX. On a Collection of Fishes made bj^ Mr. John Graham at 
Yunnan Fu. By C. Tate Regan, B.A 190 

XXI. Rhynchotal Notes.— XXI. By AV. L. Distant 194 

XXII. New Bats from British East Africa collected by Mrs. Hiude, 
and from the Cameroons by Mr. G . L. Bates. By Oldfield Thomas, 206 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 

XXIII. Descriptions of uew Species of Aculeate and Parasitic 
Hjnienoptera from Northern India. By P. Cameeon 211 

XXIV. Preliminary Note on certain Points in the Anatomy of 
Ei-yx and other Boidce, partly indicative of their Basal Position 
among the Ophidia. By Fbank E. Beddard, M.A., F.R.S 233 

XXV. Description of a new Genus of Spatangoids. By F. 
Jeffrey Bell, M.A. 236 

XXVI. Description of a new Barhiis from Cameroon. By G. A. 
BOULENGEB, F.K.S 237 

XXVII. Notes on the Structure of the Teeth of some Poisonous 
Snakes found in Travancore. By R. Shunkara Narayana Pillay. 238 

Obituary Notice : Dr. William Francis 239 

NUMBER LXXVI. 

XXVIII. Descriptions of some new Species of Lepidoptera Hete- 
rocera from Tropical South America. By Herbert Druce, 
F.L.S. &c 241 

XXIX. New Forms of Saimiri, Saccopteryx, Balantiopteryx, and 
2'hrichomys from the Neotropical Region. By Oldfield Thomas. 250 

XXX. Descriptions of new or little-known Fishes from Mexico 
and British Honduras. By C. Tate Regan, B.A 255 

XXXI. Descriptions of Holoce7itrum osculum, Poey, and of a new 
Fish of the Genus Centropomus. By C. Tate Began, B.A 259 

XXXII. Descriptions of Two new Genera of Frogs of the Family 
Runidce from Cameroon. By G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S 261 

XXXIII. Rhynchotal Notes.— XXII. By W. L. Distant .... 263 

XXXIV. Description of a uew Fish of the Genus Chcetodon from 

tlie New Hebrides. By C. Tate Regan, B.A 276 

XXXV. On some new Species of Hymenoptera from Northern 
India. By P. Cameron " 277 

XXXVI. An undescribed Genus of Coreidce from Borneo. B}' 

W. L. Distant , , 303 

XXXVII. The Collections of William John Burchell, D.C.L., in 
the Hope Department, Oxford University Museum : — 

IV. On the Lepidoptera Rhopalocera collected by W. J, Bur- 
chell in Brazil, 1825-1830. Bv Cora B. Sanders, of 
Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. (Plate VI.) 305 

XXXVIII. Note on an undescribed Weasel from the Atlas 
Mountains, and on the Occurrence of a Weasel in the Azores. By 

G. E. II. Barrett-Hamilton \ 323 

Neiv Boole : — Report on the Sea Fisheries and Fishing Industries 

of the Thames Estuary. Prepared by Dr. James Mueie .... 325 

Proceedings of the Geological Society 326 — 328 



VI CONTENTS. 

NUMBER LXXVII. 

Page 
^y XXXIX. The Phylogeny of the Teleostomi. By C. Tate Eegan, 

B.A. (Plate VII.) 329 

XL. Rhynchotal Notes.— XXIII. By W. L. Distant 349 

XLI. The Collections of William John Burchell, D.C.L., iu the 
Hope Department, Oxford University Museum : — 

IV. On the Lepidoptera Rhopalocera collected by W. J. Bur- 
chell in Brazil, 1825-1830. By Cora B. Sanders, of 
Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford 356 

XLII. Notes on 'PhasmidcB in the Collection of the British Museum 
(Natural History), South Kensington, with Descriptions of new- 
Species.— No. I. By W. F. KmBY, F.L.S., F.E.S 372 

XLIII. On the Genus Ortmannia, Rathb., and the Mutations of 
certain Atyids. By E. L. Bouvieb 377 

XLIV. Notes on a new Species of Acis. By W. D. Henderson, 
M.A., B.Sc, Zoological Laboratory, the University, Aberdeen .... 381 

XLV. A new Bat from the United States, representing the Euro- 
pean Myotis {Leuconoe) Daubentoni. By Oldeield Thomas .... 382 

XLVI. Three new Bats, African and Asiatic. By Oldfield 
Thomas 384 

XL VII. Notes and Descriptions of some new Species and Sub- 
species of Mustelidce. By G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton 388 

Ntiv Books: — Mostly Mammals. By R. Lydekker. — Catalogue of 
the Lepidoptera Phalaense in the British Museum. Volume IV. 
Catalogue of the Nocfiiidce in the Collection of the British 
Museum. By Sir George F. LIampson, Bart. — The Fauna of 
British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Published under 
the authority of the Secretary of State for India in Council. 
Edited by W. T. Blanford. Rhynchota : Vol. II. Part 1 
(lleteroptera). By W. L. Distant. — Memoirs of the Geo- 
logical Survey. Palseontologia Indica. Series IX. The 
Jurassic Fauna of Cutch. Vol. III. Part 2. The Lamelli- 
branchiata. No. I. Genus Trigonia. By F. L. Kitchin, M.A., 
Ph.D., Geol. Survey England. — Circulars on Agricultural 
Economic Entomology. Issued by the Trustees, Indian 
Museum 395 — 399 

Proceedings of the Geological Society 399, 400 

The Action of Human Serum oa certain Pathogenic Trypanosomes, 
Action of Arsenious Acid upon Tnjpanosoma gambiense, by 
A. Laveran ; Relations between the Development of the 
Tracheal Apparatus and the Metamorphoses of Insects, by 
Jules Anglas 401—403 



\ 



CONTENTS. VU 



NUMBER LXXVIII. 

rage 

XLVIII. On Mammals from Northern Augola collected hy 
Dr. W. J. Ansorge. By Oldfield Thomas 405 

XLIX. On Fell's ocreata, better known as Felis caligata, and its 
Subspecies. By Harold Schwann 421 

L. On certain African Butterflies of the Subfamily Pierincp. By 
Arthur G. Butler, Ph.D., F.L.S., &c '. 426 

LT. Notes on Phastnidce in the Collection of the British Museum 
(Natural History), South Kensington, with Descriptions of new 
Genera and Species.— No. II. By W. F. Kirby, F.L.S., F.E.S. . . 429 

LIT. Diagnoses of Three new Species of Barbus from Lake 
Victoria. By G. A. Boulengee, F.R.S 449 

LIII. Descriptions of Three new Snakes. By G. A. Boulengeb, 
F.R.S 450 

LIV. Descriptions of some new Species and Varieties of Catcndus 
from the Collection of the late Hugh Nevill, Esq. By Hugh 
Fulton 452 



LV. Natural History Notes from H.M. Indian Marine Survey 
Steamer ' Investigator,' Commander T, H. Heming, R.N. — Series 
III., No. 1. On Mollusca from the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian 
Sea. By Edgar A. Smith, I.S.O. . .' 453 



New Books: — Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United 
Kingdom. The Cretaceous Rocks of Britain. '\'^ol. III. The 
Upper Chalk of England. By A. J. Jukk.s-Browne, With 
Contributions bv William Hill, F.G.S. — Pictures of Bird- 
Life. By R. B.'Lodge 473, 474 



Teleostome Phylogeny : a Correction , 475 



Index 47G 



PLATES IN VOL. XIIL 

Pi-ATE I. Prototheca of tlie Madreporaria. 

II. Colpoglossiis Brooksii. 

III. Map : W. J. Biircbells Travels in Brazil. 

IV. Stridulating-organ in Scoi-pions. 
V. Depastrum cyathiforme. 

VI. Lepidoptera Rhopalocera from Brazil. 

VII. Pbylogeny of the Teleostomi. 



THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NAT[JRAL HISTORY 

[SEVEN'TH SERIES.] 



" per litora spargite museum, 

Naiades, et circum vitreos considite fontes; 
Pollice virgineo teneros hie carpite flores : 
Floribus et pietuin, divae, replete canistrum. 
At V09, o N"ym|ili8e Craterides, ite sub undas ; 
Ite, recurvato variata eorallia truneo 
Vellite muscosis e rupibus, et mihi conchas 
Ferte, De<e pelajji, et pingui couchylia succo." 

N.PartheiiiiGianitef/iisi, Eyl. 1, 



No. 73. JANUARY 1904. 



I. — The Prototheca of the Madreporaria, -with Special 
Beference to the Qeneva Calostylis, Linds., and Moseleya, 
Qaekh. By Henry M. Bernard, M.A. Cantab., F.L.'S. 

[Plate I.] 

The task I have set myself is to sketch what appears to have 
been the leading features in the evolution of the Madrepo- 
rarian skeleton. The researches on which the arguments are 
based have been almost entirely limited to the skeleton, not 
because the importance of a close study of the soft parts is 
not recognized, but because, for the attainment of accurate 
results, the widest possible survey of homologous structures is 
indispensable. This condition can never be supplied by the 
soft parts. They can at the most be studied in a few recent 
specimens, whereas the vast majority of tiie forms presented 
by the Madreporarian system are fossil. Further, let me 
add in passing that I do not believe that the study of the 
individual development of a few living forms can by itself 
establish anything certain about the past history of the group, 
for the simple reason that we cannot tell whether any special 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. 1 



2 My. II. M. Bernard on the 

developmental feature is a repetition of some ancient con- 
dition or a recent adaptation*. As I have already often 
maintained, lines of pliylogenetic growth can only be satis- 
factorily established by the discovery of connected series of 
variations, morphologically and chronologically arranged. 
The skeleton alone can supply us with such series, and that 
of the corals probably with a more complete series of forms, 
extending /rom the Palceozoic era to the present day, than will 
ever be obtained of any other animal group. Whether, there- 
fore, the skeleton be of great or of little importance in itself 
in the morphology of the corals, it alone supplies us with 
what we want' — a continuous series of homologous structures. 
On this account alone, then, when our aim is taken into 
account, we are obliged to confine our attention to the 
skeleton. 

As a matter of fact, the skeleton is of paramount importance 
in the coral organism. Tiiere is a sameness in all the soft 
parts which limits their morphological importance in any 
comparative study. Their chief variations may, for practical 
purposes, be said to be repetitions of the variations of the 
skeleton which they secrete. The skeleton is, par excellence, 
the chief structural feature of the coral, its relation to the soft 
parts being extremely simple. It is, as we now know, thanks 
to the researches of von Koch, Heider, Fowler, Bourne, 
Ortmann, and Miss Ogilvie, an excretion of the basal parts 
of the outer wall of the body, and hence morphologically it is 
external to the organism. At times very complicated, it is 
an organ of protection and support for the body of the polyp, 
or, in colony formation, for the colonies of polyps, the polyps 
themseh^es, thus protected, having, as a rule, remained simple 
and primitive. I'he corals, indeed, present us with a group 
of organisms still primitive enough to illustrate the fact that, 
of the earliest niorphological modifications of the living 
matter, skeletal formations were the most pronounced. This 
is strikingly exemplified by the Foraminifera and Kadiolaria, 
in which there is a wealth of skeletal formations with little 
or no visible variation of the soft matter. Again, in the 
sponges the skeletal variations far outrun those of the soft 
parts. The same is true of the stony corals. 

In what follows, therefore, I shall make no detailed refer- 
ence to the soft parts or to the excellent work which is being- 
done with their help by Dr. Duerden towards the elucidation 

* N. Guldberg and Nansen, " On the Development and Structure of 
theAVhale," Bergens Museum, 1894, p. 39; also Sedgwick, Proc. Fourth 
luternatinnal Congress of Zoology, 1898. p. 74. 



rrototheca of the Mad rf-por aria. 3 

of tl)e same problem as that which here interests us. I shall 
confine myself solely to showing- how some of the chief 
transformations of the skeleton can be linked into series and 
how, in a few cases, the causes which led to those transforma- 
tions are apparent. We are justified in hoping that the 
conclusions obtained from the cojitinued studies of the soft 
parts on the one hand and of the skeleton on the other will 
ultimately coincide. 

I wish to make it specially clear that only a few of the 
lines of modification can be dealt with, but those few, being 
some of the earliest, are, I believe, the most fundamental and 
important for the elucidation of all the later transformations 
of the coral skeleton. To deal with the whole of these latter 
would be to write a complete systematic account of the stony 
corals. This is the aim of the great catalogue now being 
prepared and published by order of the Trustees of the 
British Museum, and must be a work of years *. 

The researches of the writer in reference to this work so 
far hardly entitle him to speak with confidence on any other 
of the larger divisions than the Perforata ; no other has as 
yet been systematically dealt with by him, at least in the 
thorough manner required for a British Museum Catalogue. 
It would not, however, have been possible to discover the 
morphology of tliese highly specialized Perforate forms 
without a study of and constant reference backwards to earlier 
and simpler types. In this way certain lines along which the 
stony corals have travelled, viz., those leading from the most 
primitive to the most specialized, have been growing clearer. 

* The last attempt to deal ^ith the whole of the coral system in the 
' Hist. Nat. des Coralliaires ' of Milne-Edwards aud Haime, completed 
iu 18G0 by Milue-Edwaids aloue, was founded on comparatively small 
collections aud written at a time when the relations between the skeleton 
and the polyps were not understood. The excellence of the results which 
were nevertheless obtained is, on the one hand, a tribute to the genius of 
the great French naturalists, and, on the other, a witness to the compa- 
rative unimportance of the polyp, morphologically, as compared with the 
skeleton. 

The new catalogue projected by the authorities of the British Museum, 
and rendered necessary by the immense increase in the collections due 
especially to the sending out of scieutitic expeditions, was started in 1876, 
but was interrupted by the death of Dr. Briiggemann, who was engaged 
for the purpose. After fourteen years Mr. George Brook undertook the 
work, but again death intervened soon after the tirst volume was published 
in 1893. Two years were again lost, when the present writer was 
appointed to continue the work. There are now four volumes published, 
aud the fifth is rapidly approaching completion. Each volume is practi- 
cally a monograph of one, or at the most two, genera, and, like the earlier 
attempt of Milne-Edw^rds and Haime, it now describes the fossil as weJl 
as the recent forms. 

1* 



4 Mr. n. M. Bernard on tlie 

The following pages sum up the principal conclusions he has 
arrived at. 

The most important stage to establish in an evolutionary- 
history is the first, or that which we may consider as the 
first, inasmuch as from it all the modifications we wish to 
compare can be deduced. Tlie first stage in the evolution of 
the coral skeleton was first dimly recognized by me in the 
minute sowcer-shaped cups of young M adreporidan colonies — 
so young as to consist only of a parent calicle and one or two 
daughters. In none of the Madreporids have I yet found the 
earliest stage in which the cup containing the parent alone 
was CMjo-shaped. Such a stage, however, may be legitimately 
assumed. 

The discovery of such colonies made three points clear to 
me : — 

1. The parent calicle of a colony rises out of a basal cup — 
the Peototheca *. 

2. This prototlieca is not a composite structure, but a 
morphological unit, the rim of which can be bent up, flattened 
completely down, and indefinitely expanded in any direction 
as a film, from the upper surface of which, as originally 
from within the cup, the coral skeleton arises. 

3. This film is the EpiTHECAf. 

These conclusions received complete confirmation from a 
study of the Palaeozoic ioxniFavo sites and of its modern 
descendant Alveopora. I have already described and figured 
the prototlieca of the latter genus |. Its rim, as shown in the 
figures referred to, does not usually flatten down, but grows 
upwards and outwards to form the irregular film-like invest- 
ments characteristic of the colonies of this genus. 

In both cases — that is, in Madreporidai and Favositid^ 
alike — it was easy to see the bars of the intracalicular skeleton 
rising directly out of the wall of the cup as internal projections 
from its surface ; this point is of importance, because 
von Koch, whose developmental researches also revealed to 
him the prototheca, was led by what he saw to regard it as a 
composite structure consisting of a hasal portion (" Basal- 

* Lindstrom suggested the word " initium " for tlie earliest cup-like 
skeleton ; the term " prototheca " was suggested to me in conversation 
by my friend Prof. Jeffrey Bell. 

t The fact that the skeletal elements rise from the surface of the 
epitheca was pointed out by Martin Duncan in 1884 (Jouru. Linn. Soc, 
Zool. xvii. p. 361) as indicating the importance of that element of the 
coral skeleton. 

X Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxvi. 1898, p. 49o, pi. xxxiii. 



Prototheca of the Madreporarla. 5 

platte," sole) and of a peripheral portion [epitheca). This 
appears, however, now to have been a too literal rendering of 
the facts of his observations, for no one who had seen several 
of these epithecal saucers of different sizes and with edges 
turned up to different heights at different curves, and the 
skeletal bars springing indifferently from the sides and the 
base, could possibly divide it into a basal and a peripheral 
portion. 

Besides, in a young saucer-shaped colony it is obvious that 
the turned-down side (the " epitheca ") of the parent becomes 
the "basal plate" of the daughter, and in this successive 
flattening down of the rim we can see the explanation of the 
characteristic wrinkled appearance of the supporting epitheca 
of so many horizontally expanding corals, whether single or 
compound. Each furrow represents a pause in the outward 
growth long enough to allow the rim of tl)e widening saucer- 
shaped epitheca to grow upwards a short distance. The 
next period of growth carries it downwards and outwards 
again. This process has been actually seen by Lacaze- 
Duthiers * in the development of BalanophijUia regia. This 
writer observed three attempts of the basal secretion of the 
larva to turn up to form a cup or " envelope calicinale," but 
they were always futile ; the septa overran them and the edge 
was flattened down again and continued as a basal secretion 
{cf. PI. I. fig. 10). 

Before continuing with the history of this prototheca — that 
is, with our account of some of its earliest modifications — it 
will strengthen our argument to mention a few instances in 
which earlier writers have come near to recognizing this 
identity of the prototheca with the epitheca. As we might 
expect, such an identification would be more probable in 
relation to Palaeozoic forms, in whicli the primitive cup 
remained longest in evidence and had not become so distorted 
and masked as it is in the majority of the modern forms. 
Milne-Edwards f, in describing the Palaeozoic genus Za- 
jihreyitisj which, from its appearance in time, might have 
been expected to have retained the prototheca^ says that it is 
completely surrounded by an epitheca. Nicholson could not 
distinguish the epitheca of these same corals from the wall. 
Miss Ogilvie \ declared that in Zaphrentis the epitheca 
" supplied the primitive base and periphery in one," and 
again that the primitive wall of corals was epithecate ; and 

* Arch. Zool. exp^rimentale, (3) vol. v. 1897, pp. 179-183 & 230, pi. x. 
figs. 19-24. 

t ' Les Coralliaires,' iii. p. 335 (1860). 
X rhil. Trany. 1896, p. o2Q &c. 



6 Mr. II. M. Bcriuin] on the 

again the same writer recognized the wall of Zaphrentis as 
''euthecate," which means that the persistent prototheca in 
these early corals is the entheca or true primitive wall of 
Heider and Ortmann, as compared with which all other thecae 
are secondary. To this last opinion we shall return. 

Mention should also surely be made of Ludwig *, who, so 
long ago as 1866, attempted to found a classification upon 
his recognition of the prototheca as the primitive shell 
(" Gehiiuse ") of the coral polyp. But beyond the interest 
attaching to the fact that he thus emphasized the importance 
of the prototheca in Madreporarian morphology his work has 
no value, for he was led astray in his further analysis by a 
fancied analogy with the shell of the mollusk. 

In the present paper, then, we start again from the recog- 
nition of the prototheca, but this time, avoiding Ludwig's 
mistake, we shall try to analyze some of the actual modifica- 
tions which this primitive coral skeleton has undergone in the 
progress of its evolution. So far from being as simple as 
Ludvvig appears to have assumed it to be, it is a task of 
considerable complexity to follow and of no small ditficulty to 
describe. This paper, indeed, was begun five years ago, and 
has been frequently rewritten. 

As I have shown, those parts of the coral skeleton called 
epitheca must for the future be referred to the rim of the 
prototheca. This seems simple and clear now, but in the past 
the epitheca has been the stumbling-block of coral morphology. 
It has been this for the very reason that it waited for the 
discovery of the prototheca before there was any possibility of 
its elucidation. The fact of tiie confusion in the prevailing 
views as to what the epitheca is is familiar to every coral 
student. For instance. Prof. Gregory, of Melbourne, after 
all his years of work at corals, characteristically summed up 
his despair of ever making anything out of it by declaring 
that " there was no part of the coral skeleton over which 
more time had been wasted " '\. This attitude and that 
which is taken in this paper are poles asunder. Between 
these two, authors and text-books hover. None are so bold 
as Prof. Gregory, yet none have succeeded in formulating an 
intelligible doctrine. 

We may here state that there is ample excuse for this 
confusion, for even now that we know that the epitheca, as it 
occurs in the majority of specimens, is only an extension of 
the rim of the original cup, still in each case the problem as 

* ' Palfeontographica,' vol. xiv. 

t Pal£eontol. Indica, ser. ix. vol. ii. p. 11 (IDOO). 



Prototheca of the Madreporarla, 7 

to liow this can be requires unravelling. It may, for in- 
stance, be the rim extended indefinitely and continuously as 
a chalky film round a colony (e. g. Aheop ira), or, again, it 
may be discontinuous and represent the separate riins of an 
aggregation of corals, each with its own cup, as in so many 
Palaeozoic forms. In this case it depends upon the way in 
which the corals are aggregated whether the rims are easy or 
difficult to recognize. Add to these difficulties the fact that 
apparently any part of the surface of a polyp may dis down 
and secrete a calcareous film * which is purely adventitious 
and has no morphological significance, and it is obvious that 
until we had a key to its elucidation the epitheca could not 
fail to be a source of bewilderment. 

Diagram 1 (PI. I.) shows the three earliest growth periods of 
a primitive Madreporarian skeleton. All that we see is a deep 
cup with three tabular floors. The process is explained in 
diagram 2, in which we see three cups progressively modifying 
their shapes. The lowest of these is the prototheca in the 
strict sense of the word f, but it is advisable to apply the 
term to all simple repetitions with free edges. Fig. 2 is so 
far diagrammatic, inasmuch as with cups of this shape it is 
impossible to say how far the rim of each cup extended before 
the soft parts of the base of the polyp became detached from 
the base of its prototheca. Cases, however, do occur in 
which the change in the shape of the new thecee was rapid, 
and for this and also for other reasons the rims of the separate 

* The formation of calcareous films somewhat irregularly over the skin 
of corals is hardly to be wondered at. The prototheca was but the 
primitive secretifin of the basal portion of the polyp, forming- a protective 
cup into which the animal could retract the oral and exposed end of its 
body. Above the rim of this cup calcareous secretions were not usual, 
otherwise they would have interfered with the process of retraction, but 
the power of secreting them was not lost. Indeed, some forms actually 
secreted lids, which, when the polyps retracted, closed down over the 
prototheca {Cnlceola, GmiiophyHum). A histological difference between 
these secondary films and true epitheca may sometimes be noticed. The 
former may be built up of separate plates, each of which starts round 
some point of the skeleton and grows by concentric increments. 

t The prototheca is here drawn quite diagrammatically. Figure 8, 
after Lacaze-Duthiers, is one of the best figures from life. My own 
figures, already referred to, of a young Alveopora are of a prototheca 
somewhat distorted. Theoretically we might expect a slight constriction 
above the flattened sac, for as the soft larva settled down we might 
expect its aboral end to flatten out somewhat wider than the neck 
carrying the oral disk and tentacles. The base of the second prototheca 
might eat;ily be rounded or pointed, for it would hang down in the 
hollow of the prototheca proper. The later development of convex tabulaj 
and vesicular dissepiments may have been due to the jjuUs of mesenterial 
nuiscles. 



S Mr. H. M. Boniard on the 

cups may be distinguishable. For instance, the development 
of exsert laminate septa may lift the cups above one another 
(see PL I. figs. 3, 11, 12). ' 

Fig. o refers to Month'valda, of especial interest because it 
uas the irregular bands of epitheca round specimens of this 
genus A\ hich induced Dr. Gregory to give up this element of 
the coral skeleton in despair. We sliall now show that an 
understanding of these bands is essential to a true insight 
into the morphology of the skeleton. 

It is frequently stated * that in MontUvaJtia there is 
epitheca, but no theca. There was, however, certainl}^ a 
prototheca, and examination of the coral shows that the 
successive prototheca^ gradually flattened out until, after 
reaching a certain size, they formed a series of flat saucers 
(tig. 3, f, e, e . . .) of nearly uniform size, and piled up one 
above the other as tabular with edges which may either only 
just reach the surface or be bent sharply upwards to varying 
heights according to the accidents of secretion. On the lett 
of the figure a few of the septa are shown supporting and 
raising the successive saucers above one another. The septa 
of each pol} p continue those of that which went before it, so 
that these radial structures naturally run up continuously 
through the whole skeleton. On the left of the diagram the 
saucers alone are shown in optical section as a series of flat or 
wavy floors with turued-up rims. 

Here, then, we have the three facts necessary for the 
understanding of the case in hand : — 

1. A series of shallow thecte or protothecal saucers ending 
abruptly at the surface or with edges bent up externally. 

2. 1 he septa which, being exsert, support and lift these 
saucers above one another, so that, while the septa are con- 
tinuous, the rims of the cups may be free and separate, or, 
when bent up, may run together as irregular epithecal bands. 

3. Ihe extreme irregularity of the bands is due to the want 
of uniformity in the height to which the secretion of the rims 
of tlie saucers, if bent up, extends. 

These three factors fully explain the puzzle presented by 
the epitheca of MontUvaltia. 

It is obvious that in diagram fig. 3 the saucers might 
contain not single polyps, but gradually expanding colonies 

* -£"• il; ty 3[iss Ogilvie {I. c. p. 158), wlio, however, followed Milue- 
Edwards aud Haime, -who wrote with refereuce to Amplci-us, iu which 
the succession of saucer-shaped protothecfe is very prouounced : — 
" Quelquelbis meme la nmraille paiait niauquer et le polvpier ii'est 
constitue que par une serie de cornets ties erases et naissaut les uus 
au-dessus dcs aulres " (Ann. fcici. nat. (o^) ix. p. 8-i, 1848). 



Prototheca of the Madreporaria. 9 

(cf. the minute colonies of Madreporids already mentioned). 
Such series of gradually expandino- colonies might grow into 
columnar or massive stocks widening at the top. In all such 
stocks the tabulae which run through them must he regarded 
as the floors of successive saucers. This is well exemplified 
in the genus Goniopora, as I have already explained *. In 
this genus too we have, as we have in Montlivahia, irregular 
bands of epitheca running round tlie stocks. These are the 
rims of the protothecal saucers showing irregularly at the 
surface. In Alveopora the rims all run together to form 
continuous epithecal investments^ except, perhaps, in their 
branching forms, in which the prototheca3 may be lifted up 
above one another by the growth of the spiny septal skeleton. 

For an understanding of the morphology of the coral 
skeleton we must bear in mind that essentially the same 
process, viz. a succession of epithecal cups or saucers^ occurs 
throughout the whole of the Madreporaria. Tliey may be 
simple conical cups fitted one into the other {Zaphrentis) or 
flat plates piled up {Montlivahia, Goniopora) , or their epithecal 
floors may be thrown into complicated folds and both the 
cup and its repetitions may be difficult to unravel, but the 
fundamental principle is the same throughout. Tliere is only 
one group I can think of in which the epitheca is not nor- 
mally repeated, namely in the highest Madreporids — Madre- 
ptora, Turbinaria, Montipora, Astrceopora, and their simpler 
ancestors the Eupsaramiids. In these the purely septal 
skeleton rises rapidly above the original flattened prototheca 
which is then left behind. This is the reason of that well- 
known characteristic of these forms that the calicle cavities 
run continuously for long distances through the skeleton. 

We repeat, then, for the sake of emphasis that wherever 
the epitheca occurs it represents the rim or the coalesced rims 
of one or more protothecal cups or saucers, tiie floors of which 
are represented by the tabulae. In any individual case the 
tabula below the living layer is the n\\\ repetition of the 
original prototheca of the parent polyp. 

The main problem, then,, of the student of coral morphology, 
that is, taking the skeleton alone into account, is to trace the 
various moditications of the prototheca from its earliest simple 
cup stage to the many different shapes and positions it now 
assumes and occupies as part of the coral skeleton. 

Roughly speaking, we may say that there are two periods 
in the evolution of the Madreporaria — that in which the 
prototheca, though modified, remains in evidence, and that in 

* Vf, vol. iv. Brit. Miis. 3Iadiepor;u-ia, p. 2-1, diagram A, 



10 Mr. H. M. BernarJ on the 

which it lias disappeared from view or is difficult to unravel. 
Only in the few Madreporids (the chief families of the 
Perforata) above mentioned can it be said to have been aborted, 
and then only in a limited sense, for the whole coral skeleton 
is its product. If the original rim of the cup is replaced as 
the edge of the theca by new thecse formed either by the 
rising up of concentric folds from its floor or of radial plates 
from irs sides, or by complicated combinations of these two, 
these new thecse are strictly infoldings of the prototheca. 
The prototheca, then, however obscured its early cup shape, 
being replaced by secondary cups produced by its own 
infoldings, remains throughout the fundamental element in 
the Mudreporarian skeleton. 

I propose here to trace some of the more obvious trans- 
formations of the prototheca, treating them entirely morpho- 
logically — that is, simply as forms which admit of explanation 
and deduction from simpler forms, and without regard to their 
real phylogenetic sequences. 

The working out of these latter — that is, the attempt to 
discover the real places of these transformatory processes in 
the genealogy of the Madreporaria — must be a work of time. 
I am convinced, however, that it will at once give a new and 
much needed interest to the student of the stony corals. 

We relurn, then, to our simplest form (diagram fig. 1). It 
shows us a conical cup standing on a flattened slightly ex- 
panded base and gradually thickening upwards. The problem 
cf increasing instabiliti/ must obviously have been one of the 
first which the polyp inhabiting such a skeleton had to solve. 
1 shall endeavour to show that the earliest divisions of the 
Madreporaria were due to the different ways in which this 
problem was solved. 

I. Falling over and recovery of the upright position. — The 
simplest of all methods was to fall over so that the flesh of 
the polyp could come once more into contact with the sub- 
stratum and secrete a new cementing layer where it touched. 
From this new base the polyp could bend upwards once more 
securely attached. The following is some of the evidence 
which shows that this actually took place : — 

{a) The earliest period is specially characterized by the 
great number of single corals which are conical but curved. 
The curve is exactly what is required ; that Is, it is most pro- 
nounced at the tip, e. g. Zaphrentis, Menophyllum, &c. 

{b) All these curved corals have what is known as a fossula, 
that is a deep depression within the calicle and most frequently 
on the convex or what is called the " dorsal " side. The 
fossula has a very simple explanation, if the assumption of 



ProtoOieca of the Madreporaria. 11 

tlie falling over is correct (see diagram fig. 4). As the soft parts 
detach themselves from the base of the prototheca they might 
be expected to bag down, and they will continue to be acted 
upon by gravitation and drawn over towards the convex 
side of the coral until the vertical position has been regained. 
It is possible that this bearing over to the side may be due to 
the efforts of the polyp itself to bend up, but gravitation is a 
causa efficiens. 

In some forms, however, the fossula is not on the dorsal, 
but on the ventral side. There is abundance of scope for 
variations of all kinds : a deep cup (that is, the cup of a 
polyp which grew very slowly in width, for instance) would 
lie very prone and its fossula would fall over to the dorsal 
side (diagram fig. 4); but a shallower more open proto- 
theca (that is, one in which the polyp grew very rapidly 
in width) would, in the prone position, have one (the 
''ventral") wall nearer the vertical, and this would keep 
the skin of the point while it hung loose for the while near 
the ventral side, and the fossula would consequently also 
appear on this side (diagram fig. 5) *. 

(c) The falling over of the prototheca will explain the 
departure from a strictly radial symmetry of the septa seen in 
these curved Paleozoic corals. It is obvious that, as the 
coral is bending to the vertical, seen from above, the septa 
would have the arrangement shown in diagram fig. 6, which is 
after the classical figure of Kunth showing the septal formula 
typical of the group called Rugosa. The position of the 
fossula with relation to this modification of the septal arrange- 
ment shows that this is the true explanation. Further, it has 
long been known that, as such corals gradually reacquire a 
vertical position, the septal arrangement slowly gives up the 
bilateral and returns to the radial symmetry. Thus the 
character on which it was proposed to found a great division 
of the stony corals was nothing but a slight mechanical 

* This is not the first time that tliis orig-in of the fossula as a repetition 
of the tip of tlie prototheca has been recognized. Lud wig's figures made 
it quite clear in 1866 (" Corallen aus palaolithischen Foimationen," 
Palieontographica, xiv. 1866). But, regarding the skeletons as analogous 
to the shells of mollusks, to whose shapes he thought they were adapted, 
he failed entirely to understand the true character of the coral skeleton or 
of the causes of its changes. 

The use assigned in text-books to the fossula, viz. as a sort of crypt for 
the sexual products, is probable enough, but need not have been the cause 
of its origin. I fail to see the evidences for the existence of more than 
one true fossula in any coral I have examined. Superficial irregularities 
in the septa, due perhaps to the presence of sexual products, may be quite 
distinct from the true fossula. A longitudinal section or a fracture 
showing a complete tabula is the only evidence Avliich can be relied on, 



12 Mr, H. M. Bernard on the 

adaptation to a passing phase in the life of each individual 
coral. But it is only fair to say that the whole tendency of 
recent works on corals has been to discover the invalidity 
of the supposed division Tetracorallia. 

Into the interesting questions which this suggests as to the 
value of the existing divisions of the coral:^, we cannot here 
enter, but content ourselves with merely pointing out that 
while |)robably all the verij earliest corals fell over and, if 
they bent up again, became Tetracorallia during the process, 
it is possible that many, which later had learnt a different 
method of acquiring stability, might easily be knocked over 
and in their efforts to become vertical again might become 
Tetracorallia by accident. 

{d) The falling over of the prototheca enables us to find an 
origin for several groups which are usually regarded as corals, 
but whose position is still a matter of uncertainty. It is quite 
within the limits of probability that a certain number of these 
overturned polyps in their small protothecaj should remain 
prone and bud in this position. One such case we know of 
for certain (see p. 28, on Heliolites). We ask whether the 
creeping branching stocks of AicIopo7^a might not also have 
been formed by the early budding of a parent whose proto- 
theca had fallen over. 

From AuJopora the genus Syringcpora might be deduced. 
Syrirnjopora is said to begin with the same horizontal creeping 
stock as Aulopora, and then to bend up and form its tufts of 
wavy tubes freely communicating with and supporting one 
another. In these erect tubes very irregular tabulae are formed 
by the constant rising of the pol} p in the tube as the latter 
lengthens. The very presence of tabulse and of the rudi- 
mentary septa, consisting of rows of points, clearly indicates 
an affinity with early Madreporaria. Add to these the proto- 
thecal outer covering, and we have the same three structures 
which make up an Aheopora or a Favosites. It is only their 
dispositions and the relative developments of the parts which 
differ *. 

llalysites could also be deduced from such a prone theca by 
raj id continuous budding, in such a way that the parent and 
its buds bent up in rapid succession into the vertical, as 
shown in the diagram fig. 7, each then continuing to grow as 
a thin flattened tube. These in contact and nmtually sup- 
jjorting one another would supply the typical skeleton of this 

* The apparent affinity between Syringopora and Favosites has beau 
pointed out by Mr. Bourne (Phil. Trans, vol. 186 B, p. 474) . But Favosites 
is structurally mdistinguishable from Alveopora, and was not therefore an 
Alcyonarian (Proc. Linn. See, Zool. vol. xxvi. (1898) p. 495. 



ProfotJteca of the Madrejwran'a. 13 

remarkable genus. We Lave the same tliree elements, proto- 
tliecal tubes, tabulee, and sj)iny septa ■^. 

(e) The habit of tailing over is known still to occur in the 
genus Flabellum. 

if) Lastly, I appeal to the modifications of the prototheca 
which will be described in the following pages, every one of 
wdiich may be regarded as an adaptation for the purpose of 
solving the problem of vertical stability, that is, how to avoid 
the natural consequence of having to stand on a point while 
continuing to grow in height and bulk. For we are surely 
justified in assuming that the falling over at the very outset 
of life of an organism intended, if we may say so, to stand 
upright, would mean considerable loss of time and energy 
during the reattaiimient of the upright position. Such a loss 
might be expected to delay budding, and it is probable that 
we may have to take this into account in our ultimate classi- 
fication. We may have to form a group which arose from the 
early budding of parents still in their prototheca? (sens, sir.), 
and this would include such forms as Aulopora, Syringopora, 
and Halysites, in all of which the protothecai fell over, and to 
these we might add Chcetetes arising probably by fission. 
Whether the prototheca also fell over in this last case I have 
not ascertained. Such a group arising from parents still in 
their prototheca? proper, would stand in contrast to another 
group in which the budding was delayed until the polyp had 
grown considerably larger and had again assumed the upright 
position, and our divisions of these latter would have, in the 
first instance, to be based upon the methods adopted to attain 
this end. 

II. Badicle -formation. — This process has been carefully 
studied and described in Flabellum by Lacaze-Duthiers f. A 
small portion of the lip of a prototheca bends over until it 
adheres to the ground (see diagram fig. 8 a, i). I have myself 
seen a similar process as an occasional thing in young colonies 
of Alveojwra. It is difficult to see how the great pear-shaped 
colonies in this latter genus could possibly stand upon the tip 
of the original prototheca without gaining support on this 
principle. Extensive droopings of the rim till it touched the 
ground with subsequent bends up again are probably more 
common in this genus than the formation of thin radicles. 

Root-processes may come from the rims of different proto- 
theca? in those cases in which the corallum is built up of a 

* Cf. Fischer-Ben zon, Abhandl. wissench. Ver. Hamburg, Bd. v 2 
(1871), pp. 1-23. 

t Arch. Zool. exp^r. (3) ii. 1894, p. 445, pi. xviii. 



14 Mr. II. M. Bernard on the 

series, like those shown, for instance, in fig. 3. OmpJii/ma is 
a typical case. 

JBut this whole process need not detain us ; it has no serious 
morphological value, being obviously a device for a certain 
end. When that is attained, it has no further influence on the 
shape of the skeleton *. 

III. Early flattening out of the Prototheca. — It is obvious 
that if, by any means, the early prototheca could be trans- 
formed rapidly into a disk, a broad base could be acquired by 
the skeleton which would keep it upright. It seems to me 
clear that the morphology of many of the Palaeozoic corals can 
be explained on this hypothesis. But the different ways 
adopted of so changing the primitive conical prototheca seem 
to have been very numerous, and a review of the forms from 
this point of view is a desideratum. It is, I believe, along 
this line that we shall find a more natural set of cliaracters for 
the revision of such groups as those now included, e. g., in 
the Cyathophyllidpe, than any now adopted. 

In the present place I can only give a few samples, and, 
to avoid doubt as to the forms meant, I propose to take 
as examples certain well-known figures accessible to every 
student. 

" Zaphrentis gigantea,^'' pi. iv. of Milne-Edwards and 
Haimes's Pol. toss. d. Terr, paleozoiques. I give this in 
passing because it is interesting as a very irregular method 
of acquiring a broad flat base. Diagram fig. 9 (PI. I.) shows 
my interpretation of the process. It may be that the coral 
did not actually become detached and fall over, but that the 
method may be compared with radicle-formation, onlj^, instead 
of a narrow lip, the whole side of the prototheca bent out- 
wards and apparently became cemented to the substratum. 

It will be seen from a comparison with Milne-Edwards and 
Haimes's figures that in this diagram I am assuming what 
the early transformation of the prototheca was from the shape 
of the tabulffi in the adult stages; and this is, I believe, 
perfectly justifiable. Unfortunately not sufficient attention 
has yet been jiaid to the variations of the prototheca, which 
are still to be discovered. In certain types of modifications, 
e. g. those shown in diagrams figs. 11 and 12, the very earliest 

* Miss Ogilvie'ssuo-gested origin of the Perforata, from a great elaboratiou 
of root-processes so as to form tlie reticular coenenchyma is very ingenious. 
But it is hardly borne out by the deveLipment of young Madreporidan 
corals in which the cup- or saucer-shaped prototheca persists as a basal 
epitheca (see p. 4), and being flattened out from the tirst has no oppor- 
tunity to form radicles. 



Prototlieca of ilie Madreporarla. 15 

modifications can still be easily seen ; but in others tliey arc 
at once obscured, incorporated perhaps in the subsequent 
stock, or, ao-ain, in others worn or dissolved off. 

The tendency has been to regard the variations at the 
extreme bases of those Palaeozoic corals as accidental, and hence 
of no real value in classification. This view will, I hope, for 
the future be abandoned and special attention be paid to any 
traces which can be seen of tlie different ways in which the 
early prototheca was modified. It is quite possible, indeed, 
that many will be found to have been largely accidental. For 
instance, such a bend over as that shown in diagram fig. 9 
may have been pure accident. The same may be said of 
radicle formation. More extensive comparisons, especially 
from this point of view, are necessary before we can say 
whether such a method of formino; a broad base as that shown 
in fig. 9 became habitual in any group of early corals or not. 
It is worth noting that other corals are known which adopted 
it, as, for instance, the Dipterojyhylluin glans of Roenier 
(' Lctha^a Geognostica,' i. p. 371). 

More interesting, however, than these irregular, one-sided 
bendings over are those which took place more or less symme- 
trically all round. The most perfect of these methods, and, I 
believe, one of the most recent, is certainly that in which tlie 
edge of the prototheca is very early bent down, that is before the 
cup has any real depth, as already described above (see p. 5) 
as being the case in the Perforata. The successive bendings 
down and attempts to bend up again of the edge of this proto- 
theca will, as we have seen, account for the successive 
wrinkling of the flattened epitheca (see diagram fig. 10). The 
Perforata owe their leading characteristics to this fact, that 
upon their flattened prototheca or epitheca a purely septal 
theca arises, and as the polyps bud the new thecae are also 
septal and may mount upwards to form enormous stocks 
built entirely out of radial septa mutually supported by con- 
centric synaptacula3, leaving the ej)itheca, as in Turbinaria^ 
as a film beneath the base of the stalk. 

On the solution of the question as to when this very early 
flattening out of the prototheca arose depends that of tlie first 
appearance of the Perforata in the coral system. We get 
what appears to be a flat, very wrinkled epitheca in Cyclolites 
of the Secondary epoch, and again still earlier in the Palseozoic 
Palceocyclus. But an examination of specimens of these at 
once shows that their flattened epithecae were not continuous as 
in fig. 10. In Palceocyclus the conditions may be represented 
by the diagram fig. 11. and for Cychlites by diagram fig. 12, 



IG Mr. II. M. BeniarJ on the 

tlie tabular in this latter case being represented internally by 
vesicular dissepiments*. In these cases, then, instead of 
there being one continuously expanding prototheca, there was 
the usual repetition of prototheca which is so patent in the 
Palseozoic forms and still persisting, though disguised, in all 
corals. Even in the Perforata with tall conical septal calicles 
it must occasionally reappear, while in forms like Porites and 
Goniopora it is very marked (see above, p. 9). 

These diagrams (11 & 12) are instructive because we see in 
the Silurian Palwocyclus that the original conical shape of the 
prototheca was not yet quite got rid of but persisted as a kind 
of stalk, whereas in Cyciolites it was quite flattened out. The 
process of flattening was apparently a slow one, and we 
may assume that the earlier forms always started from a deep 
prototheca, however rapidly (as in tlie case of Pakeocydus, for 
instance) the following protothecDe may have flattened out. 
Only in time was the flattening-out process so antedated that 
the very first larval prototheca appeared as a flattened saucer. 
And then, again, it was necessary to wait for the development 
of a septal theca to take tlie place of the flattened prototheca, 
before the latter could be left to grow outwards continuously 
as a mere basal support. One factor in bringing about this 
gradual flattening of the prototheca, as seen, for instance, in 
Cyciolites, might perhaps be seen in the delaying of the 
secretion of the rigid walls of the cup, whicli was probably 
rendered possible in the case of those forms ^^hicll produced 
well-developed radial or septal thecse, the formation of which 
might, in the early stages, use up the available material !• 

There was, therefore, apparently a long period during 
which the rim of the prototheca was undergoing modification 
in the direction of bending outwards and, if one may so 
describe it, a period of uncertainty and hesitation. I am 
convinced that the gradual steps by which the various flattened 

* Tabulae are secreted when the whole basal skin becomes detached at 
once and secretes a new coutiuiious floor. Dissepiments are the secretions 
of portions of the skin coming loose at different times. We may see two 
reasons for this partial detachment, and, these if correct, would throw 
some light on the distribution of vesicular dissepiments : — (1) the mus- 
cular attachments of the mesenteries buried in tlie skeleton maj hold the 
skin down at definite spots ; (2) the original floor becomes divided up by 
radial septa, and thus the skin could not come off in one continuous 
sheet. 

In Cyciolites the rims of the tabulae, the internal parts of which are 
broken up into vesicular dissepiments, can be traced round the corallum 
as sharp lines (see fig. 12). 

t Lacuze-Duthiers, /. c, found that the septa could be the first skeletal 
elements produced in developing Perforates, whereas phylogeneticallv the 
prototheca came first. 



Prototheca of the Madreporaria. 17 

prototliecae were brouglit about deserve mucli more attention 
than has ever yet been bestowed upon them. While I would 
not deny that the rise of the radial ingrowths from the inner 
(or upper) face of tlie prototheca, that is the septa, on which 
Milne Edwards's classification is mainly based, may not supply 
during this period the best taxonomic characters, I still do 
not think that the variations in the curve of the prototheca! 
rims, or, in other words, the shapes and dispositions of the 
tabulce, can be so completely ignored as has hitherto been 
done. A few examples will show what I mean. 

Diagrams figs. 13 a-/ show some of the forms assumed by 
the prototheca of adult single Palaeozoic corals. They were 
built up of series of such prototheca^ fitting into one another 
and usually raised above one another, sometimes by septal 
folds or ridges, sometimes by vesicular arrangements of the 
tabulae of whicli only the edges showed clear and sharp, or 
sometimes the sloping sides being vesicular, while the more 
or less flattened bases are smooth. 

It is impossible now to say how far these foldings outwards 
and downwards of the rims are of the nature of accidental 
variations. But until we know I can hardly think it right 
to ignore them so completely as has been done, say, in the 
genus Cyathophyllum as given by Milne-Edwards and Haime. 
For instance, we find specimens called Cyathophyllum which 
show the prototheca of the shape given in fig. 13 a (e. g. 
C. /MrJi'««^wm,Goldfuss*, said by Milne-Edwards and Ilaimef 
to be C. ceratites, although they themselves give a figure 
of it which appears to have the prototheca of the form 13 A). 
Again, Goldfuss [l. c. fig. 8 d) gives other figures of his 
C. turlinatum with prototheca 13 c, while his C. ceratites 
(pi. xvii. fig. 2 h) is shown witli prototheca 13 d, with tabulate 
floor and vesicular sides. This latter M.-Edwards and Haime 
called C. Decheni with the same form of prototheca as their 
C. BouchardiX' C. heterophyllum § aj)pears to have a proto- 
theca of the form, 13^. Goldfuss again gives a Cyatho- 
phyllum helianthoides (in his pi. xx. fig. 2 e) with the same 
prototheca, 13 e, as that given for the genus Ptychophyllum. 

It is quite true that considerable variation in the slopes of 
these flattening rims may be expected. For instance, in 
Goldfuss's figures of C. helianthoides, just referred to, some 
have the prototheca 13 c, others wih rims even more convex 

* Potref. Germ. pL xvl. fig. 8 a. 

t Brit. Foss. Corals, pi. 50. fig. 2. 

X Pol. foss. Terr. pal6ozoin[ues, pi. x. fig. 2, 

§ Ibid, pi, X. fig. 1. 

Ann. dl- il%. N, Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. 2 



18 Mr. H. M. Bernavtl on tlie i 

than 13 f. And again variations of curve are seen in the 
fio-ured section of Chonophyllum perfoliatum'^ with proto- 
theca 13 &. 

Thus at the very oiitset we find ourselves face to face witli 
the crux of all systematic work : What is the taxonomic 
value of these slopes and curves of the rim in any individual 
case ? We know from Mr. Pace's observations f that great 
variability in the openness and flatness of the calicle can be 
correlated with the degree of miiddiness of the water. The 
sediment runs more easily off a coral with a flattened open 
theca than from one with a cup-shaped theca. Then, again, 
we are justified in assuming that these forms were developed 
in each case by slow modifications of an originally deep pro- 
totheca (age, therefore, may have something to do with the 
form) j and, lastly, we can imagine many different accidents 
which would tilt or depress such rims. 

Nevertheless we have a structure of fundamental importance 
in the coral skeleton, and the form-variations of this structure 
may justly claim to take the first taxonomic rank. But how 
are we to distinguish those of importance from those which 
are accidental in individual cases ? Tlie matter is further 
complicated in the case of these ancient fossils, because the 
transition-forms are preserved equally with those which have 
passed over finally to some well-defined type. It seems 
fairly clear that classification of such forms must be attempted 
on wholly different lines from that still in vogue. Before 
any form receives a name we should satisfy ourselves by a close 
study of series that it embodies some new principle of struc- 
ture. Three or four such distinct principles can be gathered 
from the forms of the prototheca given in Pi. I. diagram Via-g. 
In a the rim continues to show no sharp bend downwards, and 
is distinct from that in which the rim tends to bend out so as 
to form an open dish either as 13 c or 13/; and both these 
differ from the sharper curve of the edge all round (13^). 
Fig. 13 h, in which the edge bends rapidly over and then either 
hangs straight down or shows a tendency to curve up again, 
seems to me to be very easily distinguishable from 13/", for, 
even though the two might possibly pass into one another, a 
smooth curve and a sharp bend are very distinct. 

I propose now to leave all but one of these early variations 
of the prototheca, hoping that I have said enough to claim 
greater consideration for them in all future work on Palreoaoic 

* Brit. Foss, Corals, pi. 50. fig. o. The section perhaps does not run 
true. 

t Ann. & Mag^. Nat. Tlist. ser. 7, vol, vii. (1901) p. .^85. 



Pi'ototheca of the Madreporaria, 19 

forms. Fig-. 13 h, liowever, Is of very great morpliological 
interest and demands some further attention. 

In tlie first place, it sliou's a simple and very efficient 
method of enabling- the skeleton to stand upright. It differs 
from the radicle-formation in that the lip bends over all round. 

The septa which come over the lip run down on the outside 
just as we know that they run down inside tlie radicle (see 
fig. 8 h). It is also obvious that the flesh of the polyp must 
have clothed the outer surface of such a tlieca, which is no 
longer the outer surface of the prototheca. To the flesh thus 
hanging- over Bourne's term " perlsarc" may be applied, and 
lower down we will compare it with, and distinguish It from, 
another principle of structure which also involves the forma- 
tion of a perisarc. A calicle built up of a succession of such 
protothecfe as those now under discussion, one fitted inside 
the other, as in diagram fig. 1, would have a rib-like arrange- 
ment of septa running down on the outside ; but in this case 
one would expect to find traces of the hanging rims appearing 
irregularly one above another as whole or portions of rings 
round the corallum. They woukl appear to be drooping or 
perhaps even show a tendency to curl up again. 

It is because no such epithecal rims show in the fig. 2, pi. 50, 
' British Fossil Corals,' that I doubt whether its prototheca 
has this form (13 h) or belongs to the type I shall presently 
describe as also depending upon the formation of a perisarc. 
This point, then, may b3 left for the present. It is clear at 
any rate that its true place Is nowhere among the Cyatho- 
phyllid?e. 

This form 13 7i Is of special importance, however, for the 
understanding It gives of the morphology of the Silurian 
CalostjjUs as developed by Lindstrom. 

This coral has been announced as a Palaeozoic Perforate, 
and this claim has had to be dealt with for the British 
Museum Catalogue, the first section of which, it is proposed, 
shall deal with the Perforata. As I have shown above, the 
true Perforates were only possible when the prototheca was 
flattened out as shown In diagram fig. 10. When thus flat- 
tened the septal ridges towered up above it and free of its rim, 
carrying on the skeleton by themselves alone. The thecai 
being constructed solely of radial plates and their synapti- 
culse were necessarily porous. In Calostylis the prototlieca 
was not flattened out at all, but folded as shown in 13 h, and 
the septa were not laminate, but appear to have been repre- 
sented by a compact mass of large, irregular, rounded or 
subangular nodules, arranged roughly in radial rows. These 
come over the edge of the thecal fold and extend down to tho 

9^ 



20 Mr. H. M. Bernard on the 

lim of the prototbeca. The compact layer of septal nodules 
on both the inner and outer surfaces of the calicles cause the 
walls to look as if they might be perforated — as if the deep 
depressions between adjacent nodules might run right through. • 
Eut this they do not do. One of the chief puzzles of Calosti/Us ^ 
has been how to explain the pendent tongues of epitheca ) 
which hang down irregularly and at intervals round the \ 
corallum and sometimes bend even slightly outwards. There i 
can be only one explanation of them, and that is supplied us 
as soon as we have unravelled the modifications of the proto- 
tbeca and recognized that its rim was bent in tiie way shown 
in this diagram. I repeat it was of importance to have this 
point settled, for a Silurian Perforate was a difficulty which i 
the British Museum Catalogue had now to dispose of one way 
or the other. 

Turning from this to a somewhat kindred point which has too 
long been waiting for solution, and which may be partly dealt ^ 
with in this connexion : Mr. Quelch* has raised the question as 
to whether the Palaeozoic Cyathophyllidse are not still surviving 
in the form which he has called J/ose/eyo. It is quite true that 
we have in both cases skeletons built up of the same elements, 
and at first sight similarly disposed. It has already been 
pointed out by Mr. Pace that some of the suggested resera-f 
blances of Moseleya to a Cyathophyllum have no value, such! 
as, for instance, the supposed tetrameral symmetry of Moseleya.l 
But arguments based upon more or less similarity will not carry\ 
us far. The relationship can only be proved or disproved by an ' 
analysis of the principles on which the two corals are built. 
It is not merely tlie fact that both have similar elements 
somewhat similarly arranged, which is of importance, but the 
principles of their respective arrangements. Now whichever 
of the curves or series of curves of the rim of the prototheca 
shall afterwards be decided upon as that which shall charac- 
terize the genus Cyathophyllum, there is no question at all that 
the special forms which Mr. Quelch relied upon (e.g. C. Stiitch- 
huryi and C regium, at least as figured by Milne-Edwards 
and Haime in the ^British Fossil Corals ') are of the pattern 
13 d with the floors tabulate and the sloping sides vesicular. 
Hence unless Moseleya csin show a somewhat similar arrange- 
ment of tabulae or vesicles^ the relationship between the two 
cannot be maintained. Now an examination of the available 
specimens of Moseleya shows a principle of protothecal modi- 
fication which, in some respects, resembles diagram 13/^; but 
on closer analysis it appears to be nearer that other method 

* Chall. Report, xvi. 1886, p. 110. 



Prolotheca of the Madreporaria. 21 

of perisarcal formation referred to abovCj which will be de- 
scribed in detail in the next section. We shall have there- 
fore to postpone the further discussion of this point for a few- 
pages, contenting ourselves with stating that a comparison of 
the protothecal specialization of CyathopkyUum with that of 
Moseleya shows them to have been well nigh as wide apart as 
they could possibly be. 

One word before leaving these early flatten ings of the 
prototheca as methods adopted by the early Madreporaria for 
tlie purpose of retaining the upright position. It is difficult 
to see how, as single corals, they would be efficient for the 
purpose unless the rims managed to touch the ground and 
re-cement a part of the animal to the solid substratum, and 
this, judgitjg from some of the shapes assumed, does not 
appear to have taken place. But what is wanted is a closer 
study of the protothecse and their earliest modifications. One 
advantage of early flattening out they would obtain, however; 
they would grow more slowly in height, and the leverage 
would not be so great. Further, if this flattening out meant 
ever so small an increase in the size of tiie base of the proto- 
theca, we can see that it might be of some value to the 
coral, even though the rims did not again touch the ground. 

The moment these flat-calicled forms begin to bud and 
form colonies the advantages of the flattening become obvious, 
as will be seen in another section. 

IV. The Perisarc. — One of the simplest of tlie really 
important metiiods of keeping the prototheca u])right was for 
the soft parts to bag over all round the cup until they touched 
the ground, so as to form a secondary fleshy foot. This 
process differs from that shown in diagram fig. 13 ^, for it in- 
volves no gradual bending over of the rim of the prototheca. 
1 assume that the polyp simply overflowed the edge of the cup, 
that it reached the ground, and even expanded somewhat over 
the substratum all round tlie point of attachment of the 
skeleton. Bince the under surface of this overhanging flesh 
is a continuation of that which secreted the prototheca, it 
might be expected not only to secrete a layer over tlie outer 
face of the cup, but also to deposit a continuation of that layer 
where it touches the ground. This latter might be thickened 
to form a solid pedestal, in which the tip of the prototheca 
would be firmly flxed. Tlie fleshy foot secondarily formed in 
the way described may have taken almost any shape, even 
sending out radial prolongations or embracing the round 
stems of weeds, in which cases the solid pedestals which it 
secretes would encircle such stems, fixing the corals firmly. 

AVhen once fixed the coral may continue to grow in heiglit 



22 Mr. H. M. Bernard on the 

and size without fear of falling- over. If the rise in height is 
slow the soft parts hanging all round down to the ground 
may go on thickening the wall, and especially the base, 
almost indefinitely, so as to keep the corallite nearly cylin- 
drical. In such cases the septal ridges on the inner face of 
the cup may be continued over the edge as ridges (cDstas) or 
as rows of (costal) spines down the outside. On the other 
hand, as soon as the base of the prototheca is sufficiently 
firmly fixed the corallite may grow rapidly in height as well 
as in width, and in so doing may drag the soft parts away 
from contact with the ground. The latter will then persist as 
the typical ^^ edge-zone'''' or '^ Randplalte'''' round the mouth 
of the corallite. The withdrawal of the parts that thickened 
the base while the coral grows in size leads to the latter 
being turbinate. 

From this point of view the typical ^'' edge- zone'' ^ is in 
reality a vestigial structure ; it is the remains of the perisarc * 
which in the young stage formed the secondary fleshy foot. 
But even as such it may continue to fulfil some useful 
function. It will always continue to leave a layer of skeletal 
matter on the outer face of the prototheca, thus increasing the 
thickness and strength of the latter, and it will continue to 
form costal ( = septal) ridges or spines. In Galaxea advan- 
tage is taken of its gradual withdrawal from contact with the 
ground to secrete horizontal or arched films round the base of 
each calicle. In this way the corallites of a Galaxea colony 
are embedded in and supported by an increasingly thick 
layer of irregular filmy vesicular tissue t- 

We are now in a position to reconcile our statement that 
the epitheca, as usually seen in adult corals, is the rim of the 
protothecal cup perhaps indefinitely expanded, with the 
appearances which have led to the text-book statement 

* I siigg'esi this distinction between Bourne's "perisarc" and the 
'•' edji-e-zone " of Miss Ogilvie ; tlie edge-zone is tlie vestigial perisarc. It 
is important not to confuse the perisarc wliich hangs over the solid edge 
of the prototheca with the sides of the polyp of a perforate coral in which 
the prototheca has been flattened down and tlie septa alone form a 
secondary internal theca, and no bagging over of soft parts ever took 
place. 

t There is iu the Natural History Museum a specimen showing a 
group of " Cciryophijllia davits^' growing ou a piece of a tolegraph-cable 
from thp Caiibbean Sea (700 fath.). The individuals are near together 
and their perisavcs have covered the intervening spaces with a chalky 
lilm. Here and there in the angles made by the corallites with the sub- 
stratum the him is raised and slopes outward and downward from the 
sides of the_ coral. It is this kind of free iilm formation which ha? been 
specialized iu Ga/a.ix'ct, 



Pt'olvtheca of the MadreporaruK. 23 

that the epitheca is that part of the skeleton secreted by the 
edge-zone and left on the sides of the coral as it (the edge- 
zone) is drawn up with the growth of the coral. This secretion 
may show periodical wrinkles or thickenings if the withdrawal 
is intermittent; and it is aIso clearly epithecal, inasmuch as, 
morphological)}^, it must be regarded as a doubling over of 
the rim of the prototheca, as can be gathered from the diagram 
(fig, 14). But this secretion is only one of many, and, 
moreover, one of the most highly specialized, modifications 
of the rim of the epithecal cup. Hence while it is quite 
correct to call it epitheca, it is quite incorrect to define epitheca 
u\ terms of this single specialization of it. 

It is also clear that if the terra " eutheca " is applied to 
such cups as those shown in diagrams figs. 1, 2, i, and 5, in 
which the lip of the prototheca grows straight on, we want 
some other term to designate a cup in which the bagging over 
of the soft parts has practically doubled back the edge of the 
cup, so that the fold adheres to its sides (see fig. 11). But I 
would suggest that the simple unmodified theca should bo 
called prototheca, while the term eutheca would be more aptly 
applied to the theca which has been secondarily attached by 
a solid pedestal, thickened by the extra matter secreted on its 
outside, and strengthened and armed by ribs and spines. We 
might call iliQwaWoi Zaphrentis, Streptelasma,&.c. (diagrams 
figs. 1-4) " continuously protothecate " and that of Montli- 
xmliia (diagram fig. 3), or at least of those specimens in 
which the septa can be seen between the edges of successive 
saucers, discontinuously protothecate. 

But although this eutheca, with the meaning just suggested, 
is due morphologically to a doubling of the wall of the proto- 
theca by the secretion of a layer on the outside of the cup, it 
can hardly be described as due to a bending over of its rim. 
I conceive of it rather as due to the rapid bagging over of 
the soft parts, without at the moment any actual continuous 
growth of the rim, A true bending over would have been a 
growth process of the rim itself (sfie fig. lo^). I imagine 
that only when the soft parts had acquired their new position 
on the outside of the cup that they commenced secreting the 
external layer, which is nevertheless strictly a continuance of 
the rim down the outside and into the basal pedestal. 

This explanation of the morphology and origin of the edge- 
zone throws an interesting liglit upon a very specialized and 
morphologically puzzling group, viz. the small highly sculp- 
tured free Turbinolidse. Their origin can now be understood 
from diagram fig. 14, if wc suppose that the powers of secreting 



24 Mr. H. M. Bernard on the 

carbcnatc of lime were for some reason restricted, perhaps 
locally *. In tliat case the outside fleshy foot might fail to 
secrete a solid pedestal, and then if, perhaps owing to the move- 
ments of the animal itself, the prototheca became detaclied 
from the substratum, it would be completely enveloped by the 
polyp and become a small internal cup-shaped skeleton. The 
ribs or spines coming over the edge of the cup could then 
run right down to the extreme tip of the original prototheca, 
as they do in typical members of the genus. If this origin is 
correct, the genus Turhinolia will have to be regarded as an 
extreme specialization of the " Euthecate corals/' and can 
hardly, as it now does, give its name to a famil3^ 

It is evident then that a considerable reshuffling of the 
j\lilne-Edwards classification is required. For instance, as 
has already been pointed out by Bourne, the " Turbinolidse " 
can no longer contain such purely protothecate forms as 
FlaheUum and BMzotrochus, while the Euthecate corals will 
have to include such forms as Galaxea, EuphylUa^ and Massa, 
whicli were placed among the AstrreidEe by Milne-Edwards 
and Haime. Turhinolia itself will be a specialized oft'shoot of 
the Euthecate corals. It would, however, be premature to 
found such morphological divisions as Protothecata, Euthecata, 
for it miglit be discovered, for instance, that the metiiod of 
forming a perisarcal foot round the larval prototheca has been 
adopted more than once by different types of coral. Indeed, 
we seem already to have discovered two ways, viz. that 
shown in flg. 14 and that found in the Palaiozoic Calostylis 
(fig. 13/0. 

And this brings me back again to the much discussed genus 
Moseleya, already referred to as that which Mr. Quelch, 
Avorking on a single specimen, took to be a Cyathophyllid. 
Fortunately Mr. Pace was able to bring more specimens of 
Moseleya, and I have found two others in the great collection 
made by Mr. W. Saville-Kent on the Great Barrier Reef. All 
these specimens are Lithoi^hyllice. The only difforence that 
I can detect between them and the * CJhallenger ' specimen 
lies in the fact that the latter has flatter and more open 
calicles. This, as Mr. Pace suggests f, may be merely an 
adaptation to the mud which we gather is present in the parts 
where the ' Challenger ' specimen was obtained. Examination 
of the specimens with a view to discover wliat was tiie 
principle of protothecal modification overlying them reveals 
the type of structure shown in the diagram fig. 15. It is 

* They are plentiful in the Barton Clavs. 

t Ann. & Mag-. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vol. vii. (1901) p. 385. 



Prototheca of the Madreporaria. 25 

essentially the same as that shown in fig. 14, but the proto- 
theca was shallow and open and the soft parts had bagged 
over the low walls on to the ground^ doubling them as shown 
in the figure. Large wing-like septa come over the wall and 
also reach to the ground or to the rim of the epitheca all 
round outside. Between these flange-like septa, as they grow 
upward and outward, the polyps leave one basal secretion 
after another, so that both inside the cup and outside it there 
is an increasing thickness of vesicular tissue. In the diagram 
(fig. 15) the lines are drawn as so many distinct tabulse. 
But it would hardly be expected that the successive detach- 
ments of the polyp would take place simultaneously within 
each interseptal loculus, right from the centre of the calicle 
over the edge of the theca down to the ground. But as 
dissepiments are only portions of tabulae, the diagram is the 
best way of illustrating the facts. This type of structure, in 
which the vesicular tissue not only rises between the septa 
within the calicle, but also thickens the column between the 
costffi outside it, is that which lies at the base of Lithophyllia. 
It is true that emphasis has not hitherto been laid upon this 
point, for the sim)>le reason that the ])rotothcca had first to 
be discovered. Milne-Edwards and Haime merely remark 
that dissepimental tissue is very abundant, wiiile their classing 
Mussa with Lithophyllia shows clearly indeed that the 
arrangement of the dissepimental tissue had not been analyzed. 
On tiie other hand Knorr, to whose figure among others 
Milne-Edwards and Haime refer as a type of L. licera, 
mentioned the "stony films round the foot " and described 
the impression made upon him by the words " new crowns 
continually covered up the old ones^ The meaning of this 
otherwise enigmatical saying is quite clear when we glance 
at the diagram (fig. 15) here given. We conclude, then, 
that there is no generic difference between Moseleya and 
Lithophyllia and that tlie genus Moseleya is superfluous. At 
tlie same time it is due to Mr. Quelch to point out, (1) that 
the analysis of the essential structure of Moseleya was hardly 
to be discovered from the single specimen at his disposal at 
the time, and (2) if it had been, there was no existing descrip- 
tion of Lithophyllia which would greatly have helped him. 
'i'he calicle of which he made a section was old, very much 
flattened, and souiewluit distorted, and with the tissue on its 
exposed side largely killed down. This latter point is of 
gieat importance, for it is the structure of the sides of the 
column winch is essential to a correct diagnosis. Once, 
however, the clue is given, which is supplied in abundance 
by the new specimens, the structure is easy to comprehend. 



26 }\h\ H. M. Bernard on the 

With tlie striking superficial resemblance to Cyatliopliyllidffl 
to mislead him, it is no wonder that Mr. Quelch was misled. 
Nor do I see how his chiim could have been disproved without 
a clear understanding of the position of the prototheca in 
coral morphology. 

While on tliis subject I may point out that Mr. Quelch's 
figure (/. c. pi. xii. no. 5) of a small calicle of Moseleya 
showing marked tetramerai symmetry is seen on the actual 
specimen to have been distorted by too close contact with the 
shell of a moUusk much larger than itself. Its internal 
arrangement is not quite normal. Mr. Pace has presented 
the Museum witli over a dozen specimens, most of them 
single forms in all stages of growth, and not one shows any 
such striking tetramerai arrangement. On this subject of 
tetramerai symmetry in the so-called " Rugose " division of 
the Madreporaria I would refer the reader to what is said 
above (p. 11). 

Whether, after all, the subsequent classification of the 
Lithophyllidaj will ultimately admit of the existence of a 
genus Moseleya among them I cannot say. In this paper I 
am only concerned in showing that it has no place among 
the Cyathopliyllidaj. The latter are characterized by extreme 
simplicity of protothecal modification, the Lithophyllidie by 
great complexity ; they are at opposite ends of the evolution 
of the coral skeleton. 

Before closing this section I should like to refer once more 
to the difference between tlie principles of modifying the 
prototheca shown in diagram fig, 13 k and diagram fig. 15. 
in both the soft parts bag over and reach the ground, but in 
the former the lip grows with the growing of the soft parts 
and its bend is a true bend. In fig. 15 the soft parts seem 
to overflow the edge of the cup too rapidly actually to bend 
the edge. Only alter they have taken up their new position 
do they secrete a layer on the outer side of the cup, and this 
layer is practically the homologue of the bent-down edge 
shown in fig. 13 h. The two methods are thus clearly 
distinct, but it is not always easy to say whether a particular 
case belongs to the one or to the other. For instance, in those 
specimens of Litho-pliyllke in the Museum which have the 
corallites crowded together and forming pseudo-colonies, it is I 
frequently noted that where the interseptal loculi of adjacent 
corals run into one another the dissepiments are everywhere 
arched, suggesting an open bend of the thecal lip, such as is 
shown in the diagram fig. 13 /^, or even more resembling the 
bend of fig. 1 3 g, or even of 13/. But in the specimens with 
single corallites the actual lip of the theca is mostly a solid plate 



Prototheca of the Madreporaria, 27 

like those shown in diagrams figs. 14 or 15, and from It the 
dissepiments slope away on the one side into and across the 
calicle, and on the other down to tlie substratum. But it is 
doubtful whether an actual section of the wall would sliow 
that structure so straight and continuous as it is shown 
diagrainmatically in the figure (15), and it is quite certain 
that the tabulae would not be so regular and complete. 

It was some such case as that just referred to (?a specimen 
of Acarithastrcea), in which vesicular arched walls separated 
calicle from calicle, that inspired the diagram given by me on 
pi. xxxiii. fig. 10 in vol. xxvi. of the 'Journal of the Linnean 
Society of London.' I am not yet, however, prepared to 
answer the question as to which of the two metliods of edge- 
zone formation we have just been comparing — that of fig. 13 h 
or of fig. 15 — the actual case was due. For, as we have 
just seen, the Lithophrjllice show that the smooth, arched, 
vesicular dissepimental wall might be a secondary modifica- 
tion, and due to colony formation, of the true edge-zone 
formation of fig. 11, which is the subject of this section. 

V. Early Budding and Colony Forntation. — In vol. iv. of 
the ' British Museum Madreporaria,' Introduction, p. 23, I 
suggested a restricted use of the word " astra^iform," viz. 
to colonies of calicles all reaching to the same height and 
without any apparent tendency to grow and bud independently. 
The true asfraiiform colony is therefore that built up by a 
calicle which is by habit low and whose buds spread laterally 
over the substratum all round the parent. The grou]) 
Aslraidw as now understood consequently cannot be a natural 
one. It appears to me that we may have astrisiform colonies 
of corals whose protothecae are modified upon very different 
plans. And it is on these modifications of this fundamental 
element that the ultimate classification will have to be based. 

We might expect, then, a great development of astraiiform 
colonies among the Palajozoic corals from the forms in which 
the prototheca was early flattened out in the ways described. 
We might also expect that it would be those methods of 
fiattening out which were from the first symmetrical;, because 
if the parent had acquired its flattening as a secondary 
matter, after having perhaps at one time fallen over, it could 
hardly be expected that the buds would appear with the 
necessary flattened symmetry straight away, although in some 
of the Astrffiid forms with very large calicles this must 
apparently have taken place. 

While I think these conclusions are perfectly justifiable, 
we learn from the researches of Lindstrom that one great 
group of Palaeozoic astrteiform corals with very small calicles^ 



28 Mr. H. M. Bernard on the 

e. g. the genus HeUolites, developed from a prototlieca which 
liad fallen over. From Lindstrom's figures* we gatlier that 
the lip which touched the ground expanded as a flattened 
epitheca over the substratum, and buds appeared at intervals 
upon it. Especially ciiaracterislic are the various wrinklings 
and ridges which appear on the upper face of the epitheca 
between the buds. As the living layers were periodically de- 
tached from and rose above this epitheca they secreted tabulate 
floors, which repeated its wrinkles and foldings. In this way 
the structure seen in the section typical of the Heliolitidte was 
produced. Tlirough the tabulate lamina which form the 
bulk of the coral the calicles run as tubes, while smaller tubes 
also appear in many cases in the intervening tabulate tissue. 
These smaller tubes receive their explanation as the continua- 
tion of the folds or wrinkles already mentioned through the 
whole series of tabuke. Such folds or wrinkles would run as 
naturally through a series of tabular as the septa run appa- 
rently continuously through the tabulas of Montlivaltla, as 
already explained in fig. 3 and p. 8. 

If, however, we had had no knowledge of the origin of 
JlelioUtes, we should have assumed that it had been built up 
of calicles with the form shown in fig. 13./. And, indeed, 
this is the form which the calicles of the adult colony assume, 
but it is not arrived at by a symmetrical outward folding of 
the rim of tlie prototlieca, but indirectly from a parent the 
unmodified prototlieca of which fell over in the way already 
described. We owe the small size of the calicle of Ileliolites 
to this fact. 

The chief difFtrence between the Paleozoic and Hecent 
astrffiiform corals is due entirely to the more recent development 
of the radial or septal, as compared with the concentric, proto- 
thecal foldings. In Palaeozoic times the former were not very 
pronounced, so that the flattened or curved sides of the proto- ' 
thecal cups with their tabulate floors formed the most cliarac- 
teristic portion of the skeleton. The cup was, however, 
never quite flattened out, there is always the remains of the 
bend where tiie lip first turned over. These bends frequently 
form ring-folds (see fig. 13^), which become the walls of the 1 
fossa3, while tabula? form not only the floors of these fossa3, I 
but also the areas which intervene between the fossae. These 
areas are variously sculptured with radial septa, and when 
the respective areas of the individual calicles are not marked I 
off from one another, the septa of one may run into the septa ' 

* See K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Haudl. xxxii. (1899), pi. i. figs. 25-28. Com- 
pare the case of Pal(soci/clus referred to above. 



Proiotheca of the Madreporaria. 29 

o£ those around it, as, for instance^ in Darwinia and 
Phillipsastrcea. 

On turning to modern Astrreida?, we find tliat the tabulate 
character of the Palaeozoic corals has become obscured, on 
the other hand the septa have become prominent. These 
conspicuous radial folds of the prototheca make it difficult to 
discern the exact character of the concentric foldings of the 
protothecal wall. 

I would suggest that, as a rule, the rising of the radial 
septal folds has also raised the concentric rim-folds. We 
might diagrammatically express it by imagining a calicle 
like that in figure 13 j becoming changed into the form 
shown in fig. 16, which represents a calicle with high double 
walls, and on each side of it a smaller bud. We may assume 
that the tall ring-fold has been formed at the expense of the 
earlier horizontal tabulate area round the fossa. It is im- 
possible here to attempt any review of the many Astra^id 
forms, but, speaking roughly, they are built of groups of low 
calicles with the prototlieca3 modified in this way. The 
difference between this and tiiat shown in diagram fig. 14 is 
that the calicle is shallower and more open. 

Without professing any intimate knowledge, I am inclined 
to believe that most of the different forms now included 
among the modern Astraiidce may be referred to variations : — 

(1) In the distances of the corallites from one another : 
(a) they may be wide apart, as in Orbicella, Solenastrcea, 
Edmiopora, &c. ; (U) they may be close together, Favia, 
Diplon'a, &c. ; (c) they may be so close that the outer wall 
of the parent supplies the inner wall of the bud, Prionastrcea, 
Goniastnea, Leptastrcea'^ , &c. ; {d) even these single division- 
walls may be incomplete, IJydnophora. 

(2) In the ways the intercalicinal valleys are filled up. 

(3) In the characters of the septa and in the way in which 
they come over the edges of the fossaj and are distributed on 
the surfi'ce of the intervening tissue. 

Concluding Notes on the Terminology of the Walls. 

A wall built by a direct continuation of the edge of the 
prototheca should, I think, be called prototheca f. These 

* The Paljeozoic Michelinia miglit be regarded as tlie morphological 
equivalent of these forms before the development of septa disguised the 
protothecal cups. 

t The term epitheca may be retained in its usual sense, and be under- 
stood to refer to all traces of the primitive undiffereutiattd protothecal 
wall and rim, even though thev have lost all signs of having been once 
parts or expansions of a cup, 



30 Mr. II. M. Bernai-a on the 

primitive protothecal walls, recognized by Miss Ogilvie as 
equivalent to epitlieca, have been hitherto called eutheca. 
But proto- is a more appropriate affix to express primitive 
simplicity than eu-, which better denotes some special excel- 
lence. Hence I propose, once more, that eutheca be applied 
to those \valls which have been thickened, ornamented outside, 
and cemented firmly to the substratum in the way described 
above (p. 22) and illustrated in diagrams figs. 13 h, 14, 
and 15. 

We now come to the term " pseudotheca " of Heider. This 
is applied to cases in which the septa are so crowded together 
that they fuse along lines which together constitute a fairly 
symmetrical solid thecal ring. The parts of the septa within 
this ring are septa proper and tlie parts without are costte. 
Now I cannot help doubting whether this differs in any 
respect from the eutheca, for it is obvious that a eutheca, as 
here understood, over which the septa ran close together, 
would give exactly the same result. 

The suggestion that this wall is built wholly of fused septa 
does not take the possibility of a ring-fold into account. But 
from the review of coral morphology here set out it would 
appear that the ring-fold was a more primitive structure than 
the radial septa. I'urther, it is really impossible in a matter 
of such complicated folds to say how much at their points of 
crossing belongs to the radial and how much to the con- 
centric elements. 

That the concentric element plays a part we gather from 
the fact that dissepiments frequently slope up the intcrseptal 
loculi just as if, had there been space enough, they would 
mount over the walls. This giving off of dissepiments 
means that the basal floor shares in the formation of the wall. 
What is usually called pseudotheca, then, is to my mind 
simply a modification of the eutheca as here understood, and 
the word, if retained at all, should have a new significance. 
My own proposal is to apply it in the sense of Ortmann's 
*' athecalia " *. This term was suggested by that author for 
the Perforata in which the protothecal cup, being entirely 
flattened out, a new secondary theca rises up formed entirely 
out of septa with their synapticular junctions. Now it is 
obvious that no part of the old protothecal rim is found in 
this new septate thecal wall, and to mark the total distinction 
between this and all the wall-formations made by folds of 
the true lip of the prototheca, it might well be called pseudo- 
theca. 

* Zool. Jahrb. (Syst. Abth.) iv. 1889, p. 493. 



Prototlieca of the Madreporana. 31 

The term " athecalia " of Ortmann, it may be remarked, lias 
not been very well received, for it is certainly not true that 
the corallites, say, of Madrepora have no thecaj. The very 
opposite is the case; the thecas are most pronounced. What 
we want to express is that these theca; are morphologically 
distinct from the original theciie of the Madreporaria, and no 
better term could be employed than that here suggested — 
pseudotheca. 

I am aware that a long critique of the views and suggestions 
of other workers on the subject of the wall should be offered 
before proposing a revision. But I have the excuse that the 
revision of the terminology here suggested rests upon a 
somewhat far-reaching revision of the skeleton. A closer 
comparison of the terminologies would involve a closer com- 
parison and criticism of the views on the wall-structure of each 
different author, some of wdiich are, I confess, not always 
clear to me. Indeed, we seem to have had enough of detailed 
and complicated discussion. The great want is some simple 
working hypothesis which will enable us to coordinate the 
facts. 

My own work has convinced me that some order appears 
out of the chaos if we recognize the prototheca and give it 
the important place in the morphology of the coral skeleton 
here all too briefly sketched. 

In conclusion, I should like to emphasize the fact ihat this 
paper is intentionally devoted to the prototheca and its con- 
centric modifications — that is, to those modifications which 
alter its cup-shape concentrically. Only occasionally and 
where necessary reference has been made to the great and 
complicated system of radial wall-folds which are the most 
characteristic structures of the stony corals. These have, 
however, claimed the attention of workers too exclusively in 
the past. We shall only be able to obtain a true insight into 
the evolution of the coral skeleton when we understand both 
systems of modification — the more primitive concentric and 
the later radial — and can trace out their influences on one 
another. It is to me a matter of sincere regret that this 
paper was not published prior to Miss Ogilvie's comprehensive 
and patient treatise on the septa, for her valuable observations 
would then, I am convinced, have admitted of more precise 
and coherent treatment. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

Fi(j. L The three earliest growtla-periocla of <i primitive Madreporarian. 
The thiclc hasnl part is the prntotheoa (^en:i. !>tn'rf.), see tio-. 2. 



32 On the PrototJieca of the Madreporaria. 

The curved line a represents the secretion of the basal skin 
after it has been dragged (?) out of the prototheca by the 
growth of the walls in height; b represents the secretion 
formed by the skin after it has become detached from a. 

Fig, 2. The same regarded hypothetically as three separate cups, the 
lowest thick-walled cup being the prototheca (sens, strict.) ; in 
it cup a a a is inserted, and cup hhb m aaa. 

Fig. 3. A diagram to explain the morphology of Montlivaltia, The 
early cups rapidly expand and eventually become a series of 
saucers, ee . ., supported above one another by the septal folds 
which run continuously upwards. On the right half of the 
figure the upper part is in section, showing the tabulate floor 
and the irregularly bent-up rim. On the left half these rims 
are shown from the outside as irregular bauds of epitheca 
running round the coral. 

Fig. 4. An early stage like that of fig. 1, but, having fallen over and 
resecreted itself at ff, it bends upwards again. The bagging 
of the detached basal skins will take the shapes shown, and 
the fossula in the bases of the cups will be on the convex or 
dorsal side of the curved skeleton. 

Fig. 5. A diagram to show how, if the prototheca proper was wide- 
mouthed when it fell over, the fossula will come over to the 
ventral or concave side, a is again the spot where the coral 
secretes a new attachment. 

Fig. 6. The diagrammatic representation of the arrangement of the 
septa in the so-called Tetracorallia. It receives a simple 
explanation as due to tlie necessary rearrangement of the septa 
in a coral which fell over and was bending up again. See text, 
p. 11. 

Fig. 7. Diagram to illustrate the method of budding of a prone proto- 
theca and the subsequent bending upwards of parent and buds 
which might give rise to such a form as Ilulijsites. 

Fig. 8. Two figures of radicle-formation, aftor Lacaze-Duthiers. 

Fig. 9. Diagram to illustrate the one-sided bend-over of tlie prototheca 
such as it is suggested would give rise to the Znphrentis 
giga7itea of Milne-Edwards and Haime. See text, p. 14. 

Fig. 10. Diagram to explain the early flattening out of the prototheca in 
the Perforata. The rim of the cup creeps outwards all 
round, generally with successive slight bendings up and theo. 
down again. | 

Fig. 11. Diagram of the early stages in Palceocyclus. The protothecd 
proper seems to have fallen over and then suddenly to have 
widened out, the repetition of this is still more widened out^., 
and so on. What appears to have been a wa-inkled basail 
epitheca is not a continuous groNsth like that in fig. 10, but a 
repetition of so many separate protothecal rims. ) 

Fig. 12. Diagram of the early stage of Cgclolites. The prototheca i^. 
nearlj' flattened out, but it is still repeated continually, only- 
instead of the secretions of the successively detached skin/s 
forming continuous tabulse, they are broken up into vesicular 
dissepiments. Here also what appears to be the wrinkled, 
epithecal floor is in reality a concentric series of separate rimsi. 

Figs. 13 a-g. Various forms assumed by the protothecss in Palseozoid: 
corals, all in the direction of becoming flattened out. The! 
developmental transitional stages between the deep proto-j 
theea and these adult forms have still in many cases to bd 
worked out. ' 

/ 



On some Purafiitic Bees. .'^3 

Figs. 13 A and/. Two types of foldings of the wall of the prototheca — 
h, seen in Calostylis ; j, common in early astr.eiform colonies, 
e. g. HelioliteH, 

Fiy. 14. Diagram to show the overflow of the prototheca by soft parts 
which bag all round down to the ground and form a new 
fleshy foot. This secretes a pedestal which can fix the proto- 
theca firmly to the substratum and doubles tlie thickness of 
the protothecal ^v•all, This, it is suggested, should be called 
the eutheca. 

Fiy. 15. Diagrammatic section of a Lithophyllia. Large wing- like septa 
radiate out over the wall, and dissepiments are formed on 
both sides of it; within the calicle they slope inwards, ou its 
outer side they bend down aud thicken the column with 
vesicular tissue between the costse. Mr. Quelch's genus 
Moseleya is built on this plan, and cannot therefore be a 
Cyathophyllid with prototheca modified on one of the simpler 
plans shown in figs. 13 a-f. 

Fig. 16. A diagram to illustrate the principle of structure characterizing 
the modern Astrieidas : 1 is the central parent calicle with 
the prototheca moditied somewhat as in fig. 14 ; 2, 2 represent 
buds from the lateral edges, the budding thus resulting in 
the production of an astraeiforni colony. 



ir. — Some Parasitic Bees. By T. D. A. COCKERELL. 

Ccelioxifs rihisj var. Kincaidi, u. var. 

? . — Length 11-13 millim., the difference in size partly 
dependent on the extension or retraction of the apical part of 
the abdomen. 

Similar in all structural characters to C. ribis, but the 
pubescence of the head and thorax is ochi'eous, the basal part 
of the third abdominal segment is more sparsely punctured, 
and the apical dorsal plate has the apex beyond the slight 
lateral constriction a little more produced. There are distinct 
and conspicuous transverse grooves across the middle of the 
second and third abdominal segments, but not on the fourth 
or fifth. Tibial spurs black. 

Hah. Olympia, Washington State, June 9 to 24, 1895, 
June 2(), 1896, five females {T. Kincaid). 

This is the first Coelioxys recorded from the north-west. 
It is quite different from rihis in appearance, but structurally 
it is almost the same, having the same sculpture on the 
penultimate ventral segment, &c. A male collected by 
Mr. Kincaid at Olympia, June 18, 1895, is presumed to 
belong to G. rihis Kincaidi, though the pubescence (especially 
on the face) is white. This male almost exactly agrees with 

Ann. ds Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. '6 



U :\Ir. T. D. A. Coc-kerell on 

C. sodalis, Cressoiij tliougli tlie lateral teeth of the scutellum, 
while obtuse, are not short ; the apical margins of the wings 
are only slightly dusky. The tibial spurs are black, and the 
fiftli abdominal segment has no lateral teeth, though there are 
minute nodules. The lateral teeth of the sixth segment are 
long. The upper apical teeth are flattened and rounded. 
The spines on the anterior coxse are large and blunt. It is 
to be remarked that while C. rilns was described from a 
locality in the upper austral zone^ it is also an inhabitant of 
the boreal_, and probably goes far north of New Mexico. On 
June 29, 1902, my wife took females of G. ribis and 
C. Porterce at flowers of Frasera at Beulah, New Mexico, in 
the Canadian zone. 

The exact relationship of C. sodalis to ribis and Kincaidi 
will not be determined until the male of the first-mentioned 
is discovered. The localities given for sodalis are New York 
and Colorado; New York, being first mentioned, may be 
considered the type locality. I rather expect that ribis and 
sodalis will prove to be one species. 

Epeolus, Latr. (sens. lat.). 

JFemales. 

Fifth ventral segment of abdomen 

strongly concave in lateral view ; fifth 

dorsal segment truncate ; size large.. 1. 
Fifth ventral segment not so 2. 

1. Legs black Triepeolus coficavus (Cress.). 

Legs ferruginous _ Triepeolus penicilliferus 

2. Fifth dorsal segment with only a diffe- [(Brues). 

rentiated apical lunule ; small species. 

{Epeolus.) , 3. 

Fifth dorsal segment with a large diffe- 
rentiated area ; large species. ( Tri- 
epeolus.) 6. 

3. Front with a tubercle on each side ; 

scutellum red bifasciatus, Cress. 

Front simple ; scutellum black or 
faintly reddish 4. 

4. First abdominal segment hairy all over ; 

antennae red, suffused with blackish ; 

tibial spurs clear red crucis, Ckll. 

First abdominal segment with a black 

hairless area; antennfe black, with » 

little, if any, red 5. 

6. Hind tibial spurs black ; two submar- 

ginal cells; antennae entirely black; 

lower half of pleura hairless Phileremus americamis, 

Hind tibial spurs clear red ; three sub- [Cresson. 

marginal cells; second and third 



some Parafti'fic Bees. 35 

.intf^nnal joints larg-ely i"e'.l ; lower 

half of pleura covered with hair .... heulahe)isi^, Cldl. 

6. Legs blaciv 7. 

Lega red 8. 

7. Larger; black area on first segment 

narrow, /. e. not much produced 

laterally nevadensis, Cre.s.?. 

Smaller; black area ou first segment 
very broad donatus, Smith, 

8. Scutellar teeth long and sharply 

pointed, at least partly red ; dark area 

on disk of first segment very small. . 9. 

Scutellar teeth shorter, entirely black . 10. 

9. Larger; mesothorax mainly red .... jnmarum, CkW. 
Smaller; mesothorax black mesilhe, Ckll. 

10. Area on first segment a broad trans- 

verse band 11. 

Area on first segment small, not pro- 
duced laterally ; size lai'ge tc.iroim, Cress. 

11. Tegulfe clear light red; mesothorax 

with an anterior patch, not two dis- 
tinct stripes occidentalis, Cress. 

Tegulse dark reddish to dark fuscous ; 

mesothorax with two distinct stripes. 12. 

12. Larger; labrum entirely black heliantlii,Vy,oh.,yAV. 

Smaller; labrum with two red spots. . helianthi,Iloh. 

Males. 

Abdomen with eight club-shaped light 

marks verbesina, Ckll. 

Abdomen not so marked 1. 

1. Markings of abdomen orange, white on 

sixth segment naidlanm, Ckll. 

Markings of abdomen white or pale 
cream-colour 2. 

2. Mark on first abdominal segment semi- 

lunar 3. 

Mark on first abdominal segment a 

traoisverse band 4. 

3. Legs black concolor, Rob. 

Legs red lunatus, Say. 

4. Bands on second to fourth segments 

interrupted in middle line ; size 

small ; femora black olympieUus, Ckll. 

Bands on third and fourth segments, at 
least, entire ; hind femora, at least, 
red 5. 

5. Lower part of pleura bare 6. 

Lower part of pleura covered with hair. 7. 

G. Larger ; tegulre clear red ocddeiitcdis, Cress. 

Smaller ; tegulfe darkened helianthi, var. arizonensis, 

7. Anterior femora red; abdominal mark- [Ckll. 

ings white {socom(e, Ckll. 

Anterior femora black ; abdominal 
markings cream - colour ; antennie 
black Cressoni, var. frasercB, Ckll, 

3* 



36 ^Ir. T. 1). A. Coekerell on 

Triepeolus nautlanus, sp. n. 

^ . — Length 9|-11 millim. 

Agreeing with T. lunatus and T. concolor except as 
follows : — Light inaikings of thoracic dorsum, and particu- 
larly of dorsal segments of abdomen, light orange ; sixth 
dorsal segment with the pubescence entirely silvery white, 
in strong contrast with the orange of the other segments ; the 
extreme sides of the second to tifth segments are touched with 
silvery white, which is most conspicuous on the fifth ; the 
bands on the second and third ventral segments are silvery 
white, the erect curved hairs on the fourth and fifth being 
luscous ; the pubescence of the face is entirely silvery (not 
golden at the sides as in T. favofasciatus) ; the lower part of 
the pleura is hairy, with an ill-defined bare central area ; 
mandibles with a dull red spot in middle of outer side; an- 
tennae black, first joint of flagellum red beneath ; tibije and 
tarsi red, spurs ou middle and hind tibiae black; femora 
black, reddened at apex, and the middle femora sometimes 
red beneath ; the tibi^ vary to black, but the tarsi in such 
specimens remain red. 

Hah. Vicinity of San Rafael, Rio Nautla, State of Vera 
Cruz, Mexico [0. H. T. Townsend). The dates are March 13 
and April 7 ; it occurs at flowers of plant no. 1 of Tovvnsend's 
collection, which is a species of Compositse. 

The insect is a tropical representative of T. lunatus, appa- 
rently constant in its bright colours. It is possible that 
T. nautlanus may prove to be the male of the species 
described by Cresson from the female as Epeolus totonacus. 

Triepeolus nevadensis (Cresson). 

Albuquerque, New Mexico, Sept. 15. 

Eecorded erroneously in Bull. Denison Lab. as Epeolua 
remigatus (p. 73) and E. rohustus (p. 61). It is easily known 
from rohustus by the prominence between the antennje, 
E. rohustus was described from New Mexico, but I have not 
met with it. 

Triepeolus pimarum and T. mesillcB^ spp. nn. 

The females of these two species agree in the following 
characters: — Light markings of thorax and abdomen cream- 
colour ; first abdominal segment with only a very small 
median black mark ; second to fourth segments with broad 
even bands, that on second with no anterior lateral processes; 
labrum, greater part of mandibles (at least), and first three 



some Parasitic Bees. 



37 



joints of antenna and base of fourth red ; considerable white 
hair about base of antennse (not so in T. bardus), but clypeus 
and adjacent sides of face liairless ; clypeus and face extremely 
closely but very distinctly punctured ; pleura very strongly 
punctured ; tubercles red ; liind border of prothorax densely 
pubescent ; mesothorax extremely densely punctured, not 
hairy, but having a sort of mealy appearance ; two short 
anterior stripes of pubescence (slender and very weak in 
mesillce) ; scutellum not or hardly at all bilobed, its lateral 
teeth very long and pointed ; only the margins of pleura 
hairy ; tegulse apricot-colour ; legs red, some blackish suffused 
markings on middle and hind femora ; hind tibial spurs dark ; 
hair on inner side of basal joint of hind tarsi orange ; abdo- 
men extremely closely punctured ; fifth segment without a 
band, convex, with fine silvery pubescence, and with a 
quadrate minutely roughened red area ; apical plate red, 
punctured, sharply truncate ; ventral surface of abdomen not 
banded, but pruinose, with minute white pubescence. They 
differ as follovvs : — 



T. pimarum. 

Larger, lengtli about \2\ millim. 
Cljpeus red. 

Mesothorax red, with a broad 
median black band. 

Scutellum and pleura (except an 
oblique black band) red. 

Teeth of scutellum curved at 
ends. 

Apical plate of abdomen not or 
hardly keeled. 

Punctures at sides of second and 
third ventral segments of abdomen 
not conspicuously different. 

Wings quite dark, nervures 
piceous. 

Three submarginal cells. 



T. jnesillce. 

Smaller, length 11 millim. 
Clypeus black, with anterior 
margin red. 

Mesothorax entirely black. 

Scutellum black, the ends of the 
teeth red ; pleura black, with a 
faint reddish spot. 

Teeth of scutellum straight. 

Apical plate of abdomen keeled. 

Punctures at sides of second and 
third ventral segments very diffe- 
rent, those of second being much 
larger and less dense. 

Wings not so dark, nervures 
fuscous. 

Neivure between second and 
third submarginal cells usually in- 
complete. 

T. pimarum was found by myself at Alhambra, Salt River 
Valley, Arizona, in the autumn of 1899, at flowers of Verbe- 
siiia encelioides. Of T. mesillce I collected a number of 
specimens at Mesilla, New Mexico, Sept. 24. For a long 
time I have had the latter species labelled with doubt 
T. bardus, Cresson, but I believe it to be distinct, thouo-h 
closely allied. According to Mr. Briics the scutellar teeth of 
bardus are incurved. 



38 Mr. T. U. A. C'ockorell 07i 

Triepeolus donatus (Smith). 

A female in tlie National Museum, from San Bernardino 
County, California, October {Coqmlleti), is referred here, as 
it agrees in every particular with the descriptions of donatus 
by Smith and Cresson, except that the pubescence of the 
abdomen is identical in colour with that of T. concoJor. It is 
to be remarked that T. superhus (Provancher) has nearly the 
same characters ; but its pubescence is pale yellow and the 
markings of the abdomen appear to be different. 



Triepeolus tsocomce, sp. n. 

The male was taken at Albuquerque, New Mexico, Sept. 16, 
at flowers of Isocoma Wrightii^ and was recorded in Bull. 
Denison Lab. xi. p. 73, as Epeolus occidentah's. It is 
certainly a distinct species, differing from occidenialis as 
follows :• — 



T. isocomce J . 

Smaller, about 9 millim. long ; 
abdomen less tapering-. 

Markings pale cinereous. 

Labrum with a little apical pit 
full of white pubescence, its sides 
projecting and subdentiform. 

Labrum all black. 

Stripes on mesothorax hardly 
separated, i. e, the area between 
them pubescent. 

Scutellum strongly bilobed. 

Lower part of pleura covered 
with hair. 

Wings shorter, hyaline ; venation 
more ferruginous, marginal cell 
more obtuse. 

Hair on inner side of basal joint 
of hind tarsi black. 

Second abdominal segment with 
large pyriform lateral hair-patches, 
pointed antero-mesad. 



T. occidenialis S (from Colorado). 

Larger, about 11 millim. long; 
abdomen more tapering. 

Markings cream-colour. 

Labrum with two minute apical 
projections, but no pit. 

Labrum with a red spot on each 
side. 

Stripes on mesothorax well se- 
parated. 

Scutellum feebly bilobed. 

Lower part of pleura nude,except 
on anterior margin. 

Wings longer, brownish ; vena- 
tion more fuscous, marginal cell 
more acute. 

Hair on inner side of basal joint 
of hind tarsi orange-ferruginous. 

Second abdominal segment with 
rather small lateral patches anterior 
to the band. 



The mandibles of T. isocomce are perfectly simple, red in 
the middle ; the antennae are black, the flagellar joints with 
obscure reddish spots; the hind coxae are mainly red; all the 
trochanters, femora, tibiae, and tarsi are red ; the scutellar 
teeth are short and black ; the hind tibial spurs are black. 
Eyes (at least when dry) light green. 

T. segregatus {Epeolus occidenialis^ var. segregatus) ap[)ears 



some Parasitic Bees. 39 

to be also a distinct species, allied by the punctuation of the 
pleura to T. pectoralis (Rob.). 

Triepeolus heJlanthi (Rob.) . 

I have confused this with T. Cressom, wliich it very closely 
resembles. I have a female from Illinois, sent by Robertson 
years ago as Epeolus mercatus. Another female was collected 
by Mr. C. E. Mead, Sept. 19, 1898, at the Experiment 
Station near Aztec, New Mexico, at flowers of Verhesina en- 
celioides. A specimen from near San Ign icio, N. M., formerly 
recorded as Cressoni, is nearly 13 millini. long, but appears to 
be the same species. 

Triepeolus heUaniJn, var. arizonensis, var. nov. 

cJ. — Small, length about 8 millim. 

Wings clearer, marginal cell considerably shorter and more 
rounded at end ; labrum red; pubescent margin of first abdo- 
minal segment not broken anteriorly or posteriorly ; fringe 
on fourtii and fifth ventral segments fuscous. 

Uab. Phoenix, Arizona, at flowers of Helianthus annuuSj 
October 9 {Cockerell). 

Perhaps a distinct species. The legs are coloured as in 
helianth), the anterior legs being very dark. 

Triepeolus Cressoni (Rob.), vav. fraserce, var. nov. 

(^ . — Variable in size, from about 8 to nearly 11 millim. 

Antennae and labrum entirely black ; mandibles black with 
a red spot ; hind femora red, middle femora with a black mark 
above; tegulffi reddish to piceous ; nervures black except 
towards base of wing, where they become reddish ; hair-stripes 
on mesothorax broad, flame-like, connected with a broad 
hairy anterior border. 

Known from helianthi by the entirely hairy pleura, and 
from occidentalis by the black anterior femora &c. 

Hah. Beulah, New Mexico, about 8000 ft., June 29. at 
flowers of Frasera [W. P. Cockerell), July 12 {W. P. Ck'll), 
July 12 (T. D. A. GJclL) ; Las Vegas, N. M., at flowers of 
Sphceralcea Fendleri lohata, July 24 ( W. Porter). I think the 
insect recorded from Beulah by Mr. Viereck a.& E. occidentalis 
must have belonged to the present form. 

Epeolus crucis, sp. n. 

9 . — Length about 7^ millim. 
This is the species, found at Las Cruccs by Professor C. H . T. 



40 Mr. T. D. A. Cockcrell on 

Townsend, which has passed as E. compactas, Cresson, in New 
Mexico, having been so identified by Mr. Fox. It may have 
been included by Cresson among his specimens oi compact uf^; 
but it surely is not the species described under that name. 
From the description (Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. vii. p. 89) it differs 
thus: — Not especially compact, the abdomen at least twice as 
long as broad ; pleura with the upper part densely white- 
hairy, the lower densely and coarsely rugoso-punctate, nearly 
freefrom pubescence ; pale (hair) markings white, not buff; 
abdomen strongly pruinose all over with tine pubescence, so 
that the nsual black markings, while indicated, are more or 
less obscured, the black surface being nowhere exposed ; the 
apical white bands on the first four segments are broad and 
entire, and are somewhat emphasized by the fact that the 
apical margins of the segments, beneath the pubescence, are 
white ; the transverse dark band (grey because pubescent) 
on the first segment is much produced and quite attenuated 
laterally. Labrum, mandibles, and first three joints of an- 
tennae ferruginous, the flagellum brownish grey with a sort of 
silvery sheen above, ferruginous beneath ; anterior middle of 
mesothorax with a white hair-patch, no separate stripes ; 
scutellum faintly bilobed, black with two reddish spots, lateral 
teeth red, quite sharply pointed, not extending so far as 
scutellum ; tegula? bright orange-ferruginous. Wings rather 
short, faintly dusky, with an apical cloud ; stigma and nervures 
of basal half of wing ferruginous, nervures of apical half dark 
fuscous ; marginal cell rounded at end, appendicuhite. Legs 
ferruginous, the femora strongly infuscated, spurs light ferru- 
ginous ; silvery area on last dorsal segment of abdomen 
inconspicuous. 

Epeolus heulahensis, sp. n. 

$ . — Length 7 millim. 

Black with yellowish-white markings due to pubescence ; 
face, including clypeus, covered with silvery-white appressed 
hair; mandibles and labrum dark ferruginous ; eyes strongly 
converging below ; eyes (dry) grey ; antennae long, brown- 
black ; end of scape and the two following joints ferrugi- 
nous beneath ; tubercles and tegulse ferruginous ; scutellum 
entirely black, faintly bilobed, tlie lateral teeth very short ; 
thorax, including pleura, covered with pubescence, except 
disk and anterior margin (except two broad short stripes) of 
mesothorax, anterior half of scutellum, metathoracic enclosure, 
and a spot on each side of raetathorax, which are bare and 
consequently black; legs clear red, including the spurs; an- 
terior femora except knees, and anterior tibiae except ends, 



so)ne Parasitic Bees. 41 

black ; inidJle femora with a black stripe above. Wings quite 
clear, except the broad apical margin, which is faintly dusky ; 
nervures and stigma piceous; marginal cell obliquely sub- 
truncate, minutely appendiculate ; second submarginal cell 
nearly as broad above as third. Abdomen thick-fusiform, the 
black areas very distinct, that on first segment a broad trans- 
verse band, obliquely truncate laterally ; hair-bands on first 
and second segments narrowly interrupted medially ; second 
with large lateral oval spots touching the band ; light areas 
on fifth segment just meeting on disk ; pygidial plate ferru- 
ginous, broadly triangular, but subtruncate at tip ; second 
ventral segment white with a large black (nude) patch on each 
side; third and fourth with white hair-bands. 

[Jab. Beulah, New Mexico, prox. 8000 ft., July 11 
( Cockerell) . 

Allied to E. aututnnah's, Rob., but differs by the clear wings, 
small spines of scutellum, &c. 

EpeoJus olympiellusj sp. n. 

^ . — Length about 7^ millira. 

Stout, with an oval abdomen, black with the usual yellou'ish- 
white markings ; labrum entirely black, with two prominent 
apical projections ; middle part of mandibles bright ferrugi- 
nous; lower part of face, down to middle of clypeus, covered 
with silvery hair; clypeus densely rugoso-punctate ; scape 
black ; tubercles ferruginous ; tegulfe dark ferruginous, mi- 
nutely and densely punctulate. Wings nearly clear, apical 
margin broadly dusky, nervures and stigma piceous; marginal 
cell obliquely subtruncate, minutely appendiculate; second 
transverso- cubital nervure with its upper half wanting; if it 
were complete, the second submarginal cell would be fully 
twice as broad above as the third. Femora black, the knees 
red ; tibiaj with the greater part black ; tarsi ferruginous ; 
spurs light ferruginous ; lower part of pleura thinly pubescent, 
densely rugoso-punctate ; mesothorax with the usual two 
stripes widely separated, and without erect pubescence ; scu- 
tellum subbilobate, wholly black, the lateral teeth short, but 
very distinct. Abdomen with the black areas well-defined ; 
apical bands on segments 1 to 1 interrupted in the middle, the 
approximating portions of the bands on 2 to 4 club-shaped ; 
black area on first segment a very broad band, obliquely 
truncate laterally, and not produced much more than halfway 
to the lateral margins ; band on second segment broadened at 
the sides, but no oval patch ; apical plate broadly rounded, 
black: ventral surface with two broad white hair-bands. 



42 Mr. G. A. Boulenger on a 

Hah. Olympia, Wasliington State, July 2, 1896 [Trevor 
Kincaid). 

Allied to E. inter ruptus, Rob., but basal joints of antennae 
not red, legs with much more black, postscutellum without a 
tooth, &c. 

Phileremus amei'icanus, Cresson. 

IJab. Beulah, N. M., at flowers of Apocynum androscemi- 
foUum, July 8 [W. P. CockerelT). 

New to New Mexico. Cresson's description is not suffi- 
ciently detailed, but I think my identification is certainly 
correct. This species and P. mesiUce, Ckll., are to all intents 
and ]mrposes Epeolus with two submarginal cells. I am 
convinced that these insects stand nearer toEpeolus as restricted 
by Eoberfson than that genus does to Triepeolus. 

The black band on the first abdominal segment is much 
less produced laterally in P. americanus than in P. mesillce. 
The fringes of erect hairs on the fourth and fifth ventral seg- 
ments of P. mesiihe are white. While P. americanus flies in 
summer in the Canadian zone, P. mesillce is a spring insect 
of the Middle Sonoran ; a male before me was collected at 
Mesilla Paik, N. M., May 7, at flowers of Dithyrea Wislizenii. 
It has the face densely covered with white hair. 

The female of P. mesillce lias not been described ; but I 
have a specimen (Ckll. 2810) collected at flowers of Sophia 
at Mesilla Park. The abdomen is longer than in the 
male, and the hind margins of the first four segments 
are bioadly orange, with a coppery lustre, and practically 
hairless, though perhaps denuded. More than the apical 
half of the fifth segment is orange, and the very distinct 
white lunule is bordered behind by brown. The pygidial 
plate is truncate. The knees, tibise, and tarsi are all ferru- 
ginous. The flagellum is ferruginous, darker above. The 
ditk of the mesothorax is dark brown, and the two light stripes 
are very distinct ; in the male there are two very large light 
patches on the anterior part of the mesothorax. 



]II. — Description of a new Genus of Frogs of the Family 
Dyscophid^, and List of the Oenera and Species of that 
Family. By G. A. BouLENGER, F.R.S. 

[Plate II.] 

COLPOGLOSSUS. 

Pupil vertically elliptic. Tongue large, oval, entire and 
hrt behind, forming a plicate jjouch at the point of its poste- 



. new Genus of Frogs. 43 

rior attachment. Palatine teeth forming a h^ng transverse 
series narrowly interrupted in the middle. Two denticuhite 
transverse dermal folds in front of the pharynx. Tympanum 
hidden. Fingers free, toes webbed at the base, the tips not 
dilated ; outer metatarsal bound together. Coracoids strong ; 
pr^coracoids very weak, ligamentous ; no omosternuin ; 
sternum a large cartilaginous plate. Diapophyses of sacral 
vertebra moderately dilated. 

Colpoglossus Broohsii. (PI. IT.) 

Habit very stout ; head strongly depressed, once and two 
thirds as broad as long; eye small, interorbital width three 
times the width of the upper eyelid. Fingers short, obtusely 
pointed, first shorter than second ; subarticular tubercles 
indistinct ; a large, oval, inner metacarpal tubercle. Toes 
short, blunt, with a very short basal web ; subarticular 
tubercles feebly prominent j a rather large and very promi- 
nent inner metatarsal tubercle. The tarso-metatarsal articu- 
lation reaches the eye. Skin of head and body granulate, of 
belly and limbs smooth. Yellowish above, elegantly marked 
witii dark brown lines, which form a network on tlie sides 
and limbs; a )-( shaped dark brown, light-edged marking 
on the head and nape, each of the longitudinal branches 
bifurcating in front and behind ; two chains of small black 
spots, some with light centre, along the middle of the back ; 
lower parts white, throat with wrinkle-like transverse brown 
lines. 

From snout to vent 50 mm. 

A single specimen from Bidi, Sarawak, discovered by 
Mr. Cecil J. Brooks in a hole whilst prospecting, and pre- 
sented by him to the British Museum. 

The discovery of a member of the family Dyscophidai in 
Borneo is a very important addition to our knowledge, all 
the members of this natural group being inhabitants of Mada- 
gascar, with the exception of the Burmese Calluella yuttulata. 
So many genera and species have been added to this family 
since the publication of the British Museum Catalogue (1882) 
that a complete list, such as is here appended, will be welcome 
to herpetologists and to students of geographical distribution. 

I. Pupil vertical ; palatine teeth in long transvei-se series. 
A. Pra;coracoids ossified ; tips of fingers and toes not dilated. 
a. Sternum large. 
]. Dyscophus, Grand. 1872. —Madagascar. 

1. insularis, Grand. 1872, 

2. Gnweti, Grand. 1875. 

o. Aatonijllii, (irand, 1877. 



44 On a nein Genus of Frogs. 

4. Grandidleri, Blgr. 189G. 

5. Alluaudi, Mocq. 1901. 

h. Sternum small. 

2. Calluella, Stol. 1872.— Burma. 
1. guttulata, Blyth, 1855. 

B. Prsecoracoids not ossified. 

a. Stermim large ; tongue forming a pocket behind j tips of fingers 

and toes not dilated. 

3. Colpoglossus, Blgr. 1904. — Borneo. 
1. Brooksii, Blgr. 1904. 

b. Sternum small ; tips of fingers and toes dilated. 

4. Plethodontohyla, Blgr. 1882.— Madagascar, 

1. 7iotostieta, Gthr. 1877. 

2. iiigumalis, Blgr. 1882, 

3. brevipes, Blgr. 1882. 

II. Pupil horizontal. 

A. Palatine teeth in long transverse series. 

a. Prsecoracoids ossified ; tips of fingers and toes dilated. 
a. Fingers and toes free. 

5. Mantipus, Peters, 188.3. — Madagascar. 
1. Hildebrandti, Peters, 1883. 

/3. Fingers and toes webbed at the base. 

6. riatt/luila, Blgr. 1889.— Madagascar. 

1. (jrandis, Blgr. 1889. 

2. verrucosa, Mocq. 1901. 

b. Prsecoracoids not ossified ; tips of fingers and toes not dilated. 

7. Fhnjnocara, Peters, 1883. — Madagascar, 

1. tuheratum, I'eters, 1883. 

B. Palatine teeth in one or two small groups or absent ; prtecoracoids 

ossified; tips of fingers and toes dilated. 

a. Two small groups of palatine teeth. 

8. Platfipelis, Blgr. 1882.— Madagascar. 

1. Cowanii, Blgr. 1882. 

2. pollicaris, Blgr. 1888. 

b. A single small group of teeth in the middle of the palate. 

9. Cophyla, Bttgr. 1880. — Madagascar, 
1. phyllodactyla, Bttgr. 1880. 

c. No teeth on the palate. 

10. Anodontohyla, F. Miill. 1892. — Madagascar, 
1. Botdenyeri, F. Miill. 1892. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE II, 

Coljmylossus Brooksii, upper view, natural size, a, open mouth ( X 2) ; 
b, lower view of hand (X 2) ; c, sternal apparatus (x 1^). 




The Collections of William John Burchell. 45 



IV. — The Collections of William John Burchell, D.C.L.^ in 
the Hope Department, Oa-ford University Museum. 

I. Introduction. 
Hon. LL. 

J'^rCSluCllt Ul I lie jjJllL'jiinjiv-'giv^tn Kjvyv^ivji, y v/i i_j>jij >avyii j ij.i^|/o 

Professor of Zoology in the University of Oxford, Fellow 
of Jesus College, Oxford. 

[Plate III.] 

When, in June 1893, I was first placed in charge of tlie 
Hope Collections of the University of Oxford ray attention 
was at once arrested by specimens of insects and other arthro- 
pods collected in South Africa about ninety years ago, and 
much larger numbers from Brazil with dates going back 
about three-quarters of a century. I was struck by .the 
precision and detail of the data and by the existence of 
numbers which evidently referred to a diary. Three manu- 
script note-books were eventually found in the Hope Library, 
and these showed that the material had been collected by the 
great naturalist William John Burchell, truly described by 
Swainson as " one of the most learned and accomplished 
travellers of any age or country — whether we regard the 
extent of his acquirements in every branch of physical science 
or the range of the countries he has explored " (' Cabinet 
Cyclopgedia ' of Dionysius Lardner, vol. Taxidermy &c., 
Appendix, p. 383 : London, 1840). 

The first necessity was to ascertain if the data were as 
accurate as they were full and elaborate. A single quotation 
from the Brazilian note-book throws much light upon this 
important question. From Oct. 6th to Nov. 16th, 1825, 
Burchell was upon an expedition into Minas Geraes from 
Kio de Janeiro. The following note refers to the beetles 
collected on four days towards the end of this journey : — 

" All the Coleoptera of 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th have since 
been marked 4. 11. 25, as the different day's collections bein"- 
mixed in one paper could not be distinguished. They were, 
however, all caught in forests or on the edge of forests. 
Some other Coleoptera caught on these same days, but which 
were put up in separate papers and marked, are properly 
distinguished by their labels, but those certainly of the 4tli 
are marked 4. 11. 25, with the 4 underlined, and consist of 
only a few minute insects caught at night by the candle." 
It is obvious that the man who wrote that note was a man 



46 Prof. E. B. VonUon—The Colhctiom 

to be trusted, and the immense numbers of his unpublished 
observations on natural history at once acquire the value of 
records by a trained naturalist with a fanatical love of truth 
for its own sake. Here, then, was the means of carrying 
back the detailed record of the occurrence of many thousands 
of species in two most interesting parts of the world, and to 
construct a trustworthy standard by which to measure the 
rate of future change; for one great justification of the 
immense funds which are expended on museums is that they 
will serve this very purpose for generations yet to come. 
'^I'he critical examination of the Burchell specimens proves 
that with ordinary care and the exclusion of light insects' 
pigments will endure for probably an indefinite period. 
Many of these specimens have not had ordinary care during 
a part of their history, the African collection being especially 
attacked by Anthreni, probably between 1825 and 1830, when 
Burchell was travelling in Brazil. But even upon the most 
fragmentary of tliese the patterns are still quite distinct and 
have undergone hardly any change. 

The collection, combined with the manuscript notes on 
labels and in the note-books, furthermore supplies a great body 
of observations on habits, instincts,' &c. which are still im- 
perfectly known, and often altogether unknown. In many 
cases 1 find the records of interesting observations since made 
and published by others, such as the sound produced by the 
South-American butterfly, Ageronia feronia, described by 
Darwin in the " Voyage of the 'Beagle'" (London, 1876, 
pp. 33, 34), or the habits of the driver-ant {Eciton) and leaf- 
cutting ant {(Ecodonia), described by Darwin, Belt, Bates, &c. 

When I first began to arrange for the publication of an 
account of the Burchell Collections at Oxford it was intended 
to prepare an introductory memoir upon the life of the great 
naturalist himself; but this proved to be too extensive an 
undertaking for these pages, and it is hoped that the " Life " 
will appear as a separate work at no distant date. In the 
meantnne a brief abstract of the chief facts which I have been 
able to bring together is set forth below as an introduction to 
the papers which will follow. 

William John Burchell, the eldest son of a nurseryman at 
Fulham, was born about the year 1782. He received an 
excellent education, as is proved by the admirable style of 
his published works, the facility with which he wrote Latin, 
and the number of sciences with which he was intimately 
acquainted. His manuscript notes on South-African insects 
in the Hope Department are written on the blank sides of 
the pages of his French exercise-book — a history of Greece 



of Willunn John Burclwll. 47- 

translated into French in 1794, when he was about twelve 
years old. Burchell was also an accomplished artist and 
musician. He must have had a remarkable constitution, for 
lie enjoyed uninterrupted good health and vigour throughout 
his long and, with the exception of native attendants, solitary 
journeys. He laboured throughout the whole of the time 
with astonishing energy — collecting, observing, recording, 
sketching, and writing detailed journals. The details of his 
tragic end in his eightieth year also show that he possessed 
extraordinary resolution at that advanced age. 

Burchell's features at about thirty-four years of age are 
preserved in a drawing made by J. S. Cotman in 1816, the 
year after the South- African travels had come to an end. 
The drawing was etched by Mrs. Dawson Turner, the grand- 
mother of Sir Joseph Hooker. The portrait, of which there 
is a copy at Oxford, brings back to us Burchell in the full 
vigour of manhood. The face is highly intellectual and 
indicative of strong purpose and resolution, yet singularly 
attractive, even winning. The appreciation and description 
in his iSouth-African travels of many a quaint incongruity 
shows that he possessed an ample fund of humour. His 
invariable breadth of view and justice are well seen in the 
calm discussion of the methods and results of missionary 
labours and his accounts of the shabby treatment he received 
from some of the Boers, in which he always warns the 
reader against coming to a too hasty conclusion as to the 
character of a whole people. 

In 1805, when he was about twenty-three, Burchell was 
appointed " Schoolmaster and acting Botanist " at St. Helena 
by the East India Company, and he remained in the island for 
five years, until his departure for Cape Town in order to begin 
his South-African travels. He was elected a Fellow of the 
Linnean Society, Feb. 15, 1808. The romance of his life 
happened in St. Helena, and probably exerted a profound 
influence upon his character, explaining much that is difficult 
to understand, and especially the secretive barren period which 
followed his return from Brazil in 1830. His father had 
disapproved of Burchell's engagement to a lady in Fulham, 
and had, perhaps, obtained the appointment in St. Helena, 
hoping that everything might be forgotten. But the two 
still corres[)onded, and Burchell persuaded the lady to come 
out and join him in the island. During the voyage someone 
on the ship — it is said, the captain — fell in love with her and 
married her. Burchell had always been a naturalist and 
collector, but it is probable that the terrible siiock drove him 
into these [uirsuits and away from com[ianionslii[) with his 



48 Prof. E. B. Poultoii— T//e CoUections 

fellow-men, for consolation or, at any rate, oLlivion. Natural 
history pursued in this spirit, especially when habits become 
fixed and deepened with advancing age, is only too likely to 
lead to the non-productive life of the recluse, poring for long 
years over his collections, jealously guarding them from the 
sight of others, and yet giving no account of them to tlie 
world. 

We now enter on the next great period of his life, the five 
years (1810-1815) of splendid work in South Africa. Tlie 
iiirst part of his travels, discoveries, and observations are 
described in the classical ' Southern Africa' (vol. i. London, 
1822, vol. ii. 1824), covering the period between his landing 
at Cape Town on Nov. 26, 1810, and his departure from 
Litakun on Aug. 3, 1812. The work contains a large and 
excellent map, showing the whole of his route. He had 
intended to follow up these volumes by a complete account 
of the whole journey, but this was never accomplished, and 
tlie manuscript of his journal and other materials from which 
it might be written have not yet been found. The fine 
collection of insects which he made in St. Helena and South 
Africa was almost destroyed by neglect, probably during his 
absence in Brazil (1825-o0), but hundreds of species can be 
named from the fragments preserved in the Oxford Museum. 
The botanical collections, now at Kew, did not suffer in the 
same way, and are in excellent condition. 

Burchell remained in England during the ten years which 
intervened between his South-African and Brazilian journeys. 
He sowed in his garden at Fulham hundreds of South- 
African seeds and some from St. Helena, keeping a careful 
record, now preserved at Kew, of the dates at wiiich they 
came up. On Sept. 30th, 1817, he presented forty-three 
skins of South-African quadrupeds to the British Museum, 
and the neglect of these specimens, many of them unique, 
was the cause of his quarrel with that Institution (' Southern 
Africa,' vol. i. p. 383 &c., vol. ii. p. 336 &c.). 

A letter to Sir William Hooker, dated March 31, 1819, 
.shows the care he took to suggest appropriate names for the 
new species which he had discovered : — " I should mention 
that it was my practice when on my travels to give such 
specific names to my plants as the view of them in their native 
place of growth naturally suggested, without attending to 
their being new or not, which i had not always on the spot 
time to ascertain; but my object in thus naming them was 
that on my return to England I should find all the new 
species with more appropriate names than an inspection of 
the dried specimens in the herbarium might probably suggest 



of William John Burchell, 49 

to me." An examination of his Brazilian note-book proves 
that he adopted the same excellent method in his later travels. 

In 1819 Burchell was called to give evidence before a 
Committee of the House of Commons on the question of 
emigration as a relief from pauperism. In his evidence, 
wliich occupied nearly three hours, he advocated the suit- 
ability of the Albany district in tiie easternmost part of Cape 
Colony. In a few days the Committee reported, and a grant 
of £50,000 was voted for tliis purpose. Burchell then ampli- 
fied and published his evidence in a pamphlet, ' Hints on 
Emigration to the Cape of Good Hope ' (London, Aug. 1819). 
This was savagely attacked in the ' Quarterly Review ' for the 
following November, and Burchell replied in a sheet of four 
pages bound into the first volume of his ' Southern Africa.' 
Looking at the controversy from the standpoint of the present 
day^ there can be no doubt that Burchell was entirely right 
and that the loyalty of the Grahamstown district, which has 
shone so conspicuously during recent years, is in large part 
the outcome of his wise advice. 

More than all the work described above, the arrangement 
of his South-African collections and the preparation of the 
two volumes on South Africa occupied BurchelFs time until 
he began to get ready for his next great journey. 

Of the five years in Brazil very little is known, mainly 
because Burchell published nothing after his return. Hooker's 
* Botanical Miscellany' (vol. ii. 1831, PP« 128-133) contains 
some very interesting extracts from his letters to Sir William 
Hooker, and the life of Burchell in the ' Dictionary of 
National Biography' (vol. vii. London, 1886, p. 290) ako 
has an excellent short account of these travels. 

Inasmuch as the Brazilian collections of insects &c. are far 
more extensive than the African, and are, considering their 
age and the vicissitudes through which they have passed, in 
excellent condition, the following papers will be chiefly con- 
cerned with them, and it becomes of the utmost importance to 
show the exact route traversed by Burchell. This is clearly 
shown by the map on the accompanying Plate III., prepared 
from the data obtained by Miss Cora B. Sanders, of Lady 
Margaret Hall, Oxford. The data were gained by a careful 
study of Burchell's manuscript note-books at Oxford, and 
especially the Index to the Localities of the Flints and 
Insects. ]\liss Sanders was able to find many of the names 
which have disappeared from modern atlases by an exami- 
nation of the older maps of Brazil in the possession of the 
Koyal Geographical Society. The numerous smaller villages, 
halting-places, streams, &c. mentioned in the manuscript 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. 4 



60 



Prof. E. B. VonMon— The Collections 



note-books or upon the specimens themselves will always be 
described as between or near places which have been thus 
identitied and are indicated upon the map. As regards Bur- 
chell's two expeditions from Rio de Janeiro into Minas Geraes 
and the Organ Mountains, hardly any of the places mentioned 
could be found ; but it is clear from the time occupied and 
the account of the work done that he did not travel far. 

Following the exact data which Burchell always records, 
we find that he left Fulham at 9.30 A.M. on March 10, 1825, 
and sailed from Portsmouth at 9 A.M. on March 15th. The 
main outlines of the journey are set forth below in a tabular 
form copied from a paper gummed into one of his manuscript 
note-books in the Hope Department, viz. " Index to the Lo- 
calities of the Plants in the Brazilian Herbarium &c., serving 
also for the Localities for the Collection of Insects &c." The 
only modification of Burchell's original table is the insertion 
of the two expeditions from Rio in their proper positions in 
time, instead of placing them at the end, and thus putting the 
three separated periods in Rio itself in juxtaposition. 



Place, 


Dates. 


Time. 


Months. 


Days. 


Voyage 






11 




Ill Poi'tii"al 


) 25. 3. 25 1 
j 25. 5. 25 ( 


2 







Vo^ao'e 






5 




Madeira 


29. 5. 25 




1 




Voyage 






2 




Tenerifte 


1. 6. 25 




2 




Voyage 




1 


16 






Rio de Janeiro 

Minas Geraes 

Rio de Janeiro 

Organ Mountains 

Rio de Janeiro 


(18. 7.25 I 
] 6. 10. 25 \ 
\ 6. 10. 25 1 
|16. 11.25 ■ 
j 16. 11.25 
) 5. 2. 26 \ 
j 6. 2. 26 1 
j 2. 3.26i 
j 2. 3. 26 i 
1 10. 9. 26 j 


1 

[total time )^ -i -i 
spent in Kio] j 


4* 

27 
16 



* This number is given by Burchell. 
spent in travelling from and to Rio. 



lie probably deducted the days 



of William John Burchall. 



51 





■n,.„„o, 


Time. 




Months. 


Days. 


Voyage from Rio 




3 


c , i 1 12. 9. 26 
S^"t°^ i 2. 12.26 [ 


2 


21 


0'"-»" {,?:1:i?[ 


1 


14 


Travellinu" 




3 




s-pauio ! {^:«: \^\ 


6 4 


Travelling" 


j2o. 7.271 
] 2. 11. 27 f 


3 ' 8 




Goyaz 


) 3. 11.27( 


9 18 




(21. 8. 28| 


Travellino" 


i 22. 8. 28 ) 
]1.3. 11.28 f 


22 




Porto Real 


114.11. 28) 
]27. 4. 29( 


o 


13 




Travelling (Tucantins) . 


\ 28. 4. 29 ) 
] 10. 6. 29 ) 


1 


13 


Para 


j 10. 6. 29 1 
|10. 2. 30( 


8 







Vovaere 




1 


15 





Burchell landed at Dover on March 24th, 1830, and 
reached his home in Fulham on the following day. 

The journey originally planned by Burchell was far more 
extensive. Thus he wrote to Sir William Hooker from Rio 
(July 8th, 1826) :— 

" . . . It is at least my loish to visit the city of S. Paulo, 
and thence by land through the provinces of Goyaz, Cuyaba, 
and Matto Grosso into Peru, having the city of Luzco as my 
principal object; and after doing in Peru as much as my 
time (for my family prefer my being in England) and slender 
means will allow me to do, I should wish to proceed by land 
to Arequipa, Potosf, Salta, &c., &c., to Buenos Ayres, and 
thence to my home at Fulham. . ." 

A letter nearly two years later to the same friend explains 
the change. It is dated from Govaz, April 25, 182S : — 

4* 



52 Prof. E. B. Poulton— TAe Collections 

"... I have kept my original plan always in view, and 
had advanced thus far on my way to Peru &c. when letters 
from Fulham overtook me, stating that my dear father's 
health, from the infirmities natural to his age, was gradually 
declining, and that it was his wish and that of the rest of the 
family that I should return directly to England. Whatever 
regret I may feel at thus relinquishing my American travels, 
and whatever disappointment I may experience from a prema- 
ture return, I have no hesitation whatever in preferring filial 
duty to science and the gratification of my own inclinations. 
I have therefore greatly altered my plans, and instead of 
ending this journey at Beunos Ayres, shall, Deo volente, end 
it at Pard, where I shall embark for England." 

Burchell was not destined to see his father again, for 
Matthew Burchell died soon after this letter was written, on 
July 12, 1828. 

An excellent brief account of the Brazilian journey is given 
in a letter to Sir William Hooker, written from Burchell's 
home at Churchfield House, Fulham. Much of it is printed 
in 'Hooker's Botanical Miscellany' (vol. ii. 1831, pp. 128- 
133). The original letter, together with the others which 
have been made use of on the present occasion, are preserved 
in the Herbarium of the Royal Gardens at Kew. The letter 
is dated Nov. 1, 1830 :— 

" I left England in March 1825, passed two months at 
Lisbon and in the vicinity : landed at Rio de Janeiro in July, 
where I continued making collections in botany, entomology, 
and geology, &c., till Sept. 1826, during which period I 
visited a part of Minas Geraes. While at Rio I made some 
drawings of landscape, among which was a panorama taken 
from a hill in the middle of the city ; many astronomical, 
philosophical, and geodetical observations. I finally quitted 
Rio in Sept. 1826, and proceeded by sea to Santos, where I 
remained three months^ and then proceeded and took up my 
station in a solitary hut in the midst of forests at the foot of 
the great range of mountains, for the purpose of exploring 
them at leisure. My next station or headquarters was at the 
city of S. Paulo, nearly under the tropic of Capricorn, where 
I remained about seven months, extending my excursions in 
various directions. Having there purchased a troop of mules 
and engaged the requisite muleteers, I travelled northward, 
and finally took up my station at tlie city of Goyaz, being 
the first and only Englishman who has entered that province. 
There 1 passed the rainy season of 1827 and made large 
collections, being detained there nine months, owing chiefly 
to the difficulty of finding the means of conveyance for my 



of William John Burchell. 53 

baggage. At length, resuming the road and still continuing 
Northward, I reached in November 1828 Porto-Real, on the 
great river Tucantins. Here I remained till the proper 
season for embarking, and, descending the stream, at all times 
rendered dangerous bj numerous rocky falls, rapids, and 
whirlpools, I made considerable collections on ground over 
M'hich no scientific traveller had ever passed. I completed a 
survey of the whole length of this voyage, fixed by numerous 
astronomical observations. Finally, I arrived at the city of 
Para in June 1829, and, while waiting till February for a 
convenient opportunity of embarking for England, added 
largely to my collections both in zoology and botany. Of 
this city I made a panorama, which, with that of Rio, I hope 
perhaps to succeed in getting engraved, together with my 
landscapes &c. Of insects I found from 16 to 20 thousand 
specimens (at a guess). Of birds I shot and preserved 362 
species. In the other classes a proportionally smaller 
number. I am not aware of any part of my collections being 
lost, though I daily lament my inability to unpack them for 
want of room in the house. The space I require is large, and 
I have some hesitation in building on bishop's land, unless it 
were possible to enfranchise it. I fear I shall lose much 
time before I am comfortably settled : nothing is more dis- 
tressing to me than thus to be forced to delay my labours in 
arranging my collections and rendering them useful to science. 
You, who are so great an example of industry, complain also 
of overwhelming collections, and feel the necessity of manual 
help. But I have nowhere beheld an herbarium so large as 
my own ; and, added to this, I cannot bring my mind to 
abandon any branch of natural history for the sake of giving 
more time and attention to any one in particular ; although I 
know this is wrong and can never lead to perfection in any. 
Still the contemplation of the whole system of created 
objects is so fascinating that it is very diffic[ult to] turn 
away from all but a few." 

These latter sentences, together with the considerations 
mentioned on pages 47, 48, help us to understand Burchell's 
unproductive later years. Living secluded in the midst of 
his vast collections, he wandered from one point to another 
without the stimulus to work out any one part thoroughly 
which contact with his brother naturalists would have supplied. 
Furthermore, he belonged to that class of men, much rarer now 
than formerly, who value and gloat over collections as collec- 
tions. His letters, even to his most intimate friends, such as 
Sir William Hooker, as well as many records preserved in his 
note-books, show that he jealously watched over the material 



54 Prof. E. B. Poulton— T^e Collections 

of liis collections, and indicate that he suffered much anxiety 
on this account. His will, which was proved for probate at 
under £4000, also shows that he was right in the contention 
that he could not afford to employ assistance in the skilled 
mechanical work which was required, while his almost too- 
scrupulous care and attention to detail must have consumed 
an immense amount of his time. Sir William Hooker had 
evidently urged him to employ a curator or librarian, for 
Burchell's letter of June 25th, 1835, contains the following 
passage : — " After the consumption of so much of my property 
by my travels and the disinterested pursuit of science all the 
rest of my life, the obtaining of assistance by payment is 
quite out of the question." Similar advice had been given 
and answered in the same sense five years before. 

The degree of D.C.L. Honoris Causa was conferred upon 
Burchell by the University of Oxford on May 8th, 1834. 
Daubeny, the Professor of Botany, had given his inaugural 
address on May 1st, and the first lecture of his first course 
(on Vegetable Physiology) was delivered on May 8th. It 
seems probable that Burchell came to Oxford in order to be 
present, and that the occasion was selected for the conferment 
of the degree. 

There is no doubt that Burchell expected a government 
pension and that he bitterly resented what he regarded as un- 
deserved neglect. Hence, to the other causes which operated 
to prevent productive work, we must add the brooding 
melancholy and the bitterness of a disappointed man, the 
man with a grievance. 

It is probable that he freely communicated his ideas on 
this subject to his friend Swainson, and that the attack on 
the government for neglect of Burchell was a result of tlieir 
intimacy. These severe criticisms may be seen in Swainson's 
article quoted on page 45. The same article is probablj" 
responsible for exaggerated statements, which have been con- 
stantly repeated, as to the condition of his collections and the 
assertion that they were never unpacked. It was probably 
an extreme way of indicating the injury which science was 
receiving because Burchell remained unassisted. But it was 
certainly exaggerated. In the note-books at Oxford there is 
the record of the different dates at which he accomplished 
the setting of the various groups of Brazilian insects. More- 
over, the beautifully written labels which nearly all specimens 
possess are very different from the hasty but distinctly 
legible notes made in the field. Many specimens still retain 
btith labels, but generally the older ones have been discarded. 
To this grievance was added the further sense of failure in 



of William John Burchelh 55 

that others were contiimallj gauiing credit for work which 
he had done but had not pubUshed. Thus he wrote to Sir 
William Hooker on Sept. 3, 1832 : — 

" I am vexed almost to death at all my fine collections 
being thus shut up from me while I am daily losing portions 
of the only reward a traveller has — that of his discoveries. 
.... 1 trust that [in] future my work will make more 
show, at least to the world." 

A few years later the same kind friend seems to have made 
a great and probably a final effort to induce Burchell to 
publish his results. BurclielPs reply is dated June 25th, 
1835 :— 

" From the manner in which you express yourself with 
regard to my botanical collections you appear to be under 
very erroneous impressions, for to say that 1 ' will not publish ' 
is quite the opposite to wiiat has ever been my intention, and 
the almost only pleasure I had in my travels to alleviate the 
excessive toil of forming them was the anticipating of the 
gratification of publishing them at my return to Europe, and 
of obtaining the satisfaction of being useful to science, and of 
securing the honor [spelt thus, according to his custom] due 
to my discoveries ; and if I have been, and still am being, 
robbed of those honors by others, who, having less on their 
hands than I have, can run the publishing race with more 
expedition, I feel most sensibly the injury I sustain. Many 
circumstances have unfortunately concurred hitherto to tie up 
my hands, but I do and shall ever look to Natural History as 
a most delightful and congenial employment for my future 
years." 

Probably owing to the combination of causes set forth 
above and their deepening effect as years went on, Burchell 
became more and more of a recluse, and kept his collections 
more and more from the sight of other naturalists. The 
climax was reached when he refused the request of his old 
friend to allow his son, Sir Joseph Hooker, to see the collec- 
tion of St. Helena plants, in order to help in the production 
of a work upon the flora of that island. 

Towards the end of bis life Burchell must have come to 
realize that his methods could lead to nothing. He committed 
suicide on March 23rd, 1863, in his eightieth year. It is 
stated by C. J. F^ret, in * Fulham Old and New ' (London, 
1900), that he " shot himself under the large cedar tree in 
front of Churchfield House. The wound not proving fatal, 
he terminated his existence by hanging himself in a small 
out-house at the back." 

Burchell's collections were not specially mentioned in his 



56 Mr. R. I. Pocock on a new 

will (aated March 2, 1841). Upon his death in 1863 they 
came into the possession of" his sister, Miss Anna Bnrcliell, 
who offered the whole of them to the University of Oxford 
in the following year npon the condition " that separate rooms 
shall be set apart for them, and that the whole be put out, 
set up, and systematically arranged, and be called ' The 
Burchell Collection ' or presented to the Museum by Wm. J. 
Burchell, Esq., D.C.L." The Delegates of the Museum were 
unable to accept these conditions. A few months later 
Miss Burchell wrote (April 8, 1865) concerning "the collec- 
tions in Zoology and Entomology," " I am still desirous, in 
accordance with what I believe to have been his [Dr. Bur- 
chell's] wish, of presenting the same to the University of 
Oxford." The only condition was "that the Collections 
should be distinguished as those of my late Brother." This 
offer was gratefully accepted, and in a few weeks the collec- 
tions arrived. About the same time the immense Herbarium 
was offered by Miss Burchell to the Linnean Society, which 
was unable to accept it. A little later it was presented to 
the National Collection at Kew. 

In drawing up this brief account of Burchell, as a preface 
to the description of his collections, I desire above all to 
acknowledge the kind help 1 have received from Miss Cora 
B. Sanders in the study of Burchell's manuscript at Kew and 
Oxford, and of his collections in the Hope Department. It has 
been already mentioned that the map forming Plate IH. is en- 
tirely due to Miss Sanders's researches. I have also received the 
kindest assistance and encouragement from Sir Joseph Hooker 
and also the authorities of the Royal Gardens at Kew. The 
Delegates of the Oxford University Museum have kindly 
given me access to their correspondence and minute-books. 

JI. On a neiv Stridulating-organ in Scorpions discovered hy 
W. J. Burchell in Brazil in 1828. By R. I. PococK, 

F.Z.S. 

[Plate IV.] 

Up to the present time stridulating-organs are known with 
certainty to exist in three genera of scorpions, namely, the 
Oriental genus Palamnaus, the tropical African and Arabian 
genus Fandinus^ and the South-African OpisthophthalmuSy 
all belonging to the family Pandinidse. The certainty in 
these cases lies in the fact that in both Palamnceus and 
Opisthophtlialmus the hearing of the sound preceded the 
anatomical investigation which led to the discovery of the 
organ, and that in the species of Pandinus au organ exists 



Stridulating-organ in Scorpions. 57 

exactly similar in structure to that of Palamncetn^, although 
the rasp and the vibiatile bristles occur upon different 
segments of the chelas and legs of the first pair in the two 
genera. What is believed to be a stridulating-organ has also 
been found in certain South-African species of the genus 
Parahuthus, which belongs to a totally different family, 
namely, the Buthidre. Unfortunately in this instance there 
is no proof, based upon human perception of the sound emitted 
by the living animal, that the function of the organ described 
has been correctly interpreted. The tenability of the suppo- 
sition, however, is justified by the structure of the organ and 
by the distinctly audible stridulation it can be made to yield, 
when the appropriate movements, all capable of being per- 
formed by the animal itself, are induced by artificial means 
on a freshly killed or alcohol-preserved specimen. 

In the Pandinida3 the stridulating-organs have been deve- 
loped in connexion with the anterior appendages. In Opisth- 
ophthalmus it consists of large foliaceous bristles on the 
inner (preaxial) surface of the basal segment of the ciieli- 
cera3, and the sound given out by the rubbing of these 
appendages together is in many cases supplemented by the 
sound produced by the catching of certain short, erect, stiff 
bristles on the dorsal side of this segment against the anterior 
edge of the carapace as the appendages are forcibly withdrawn 
beneath it. 

In Pandinns and PaJamnceus it lies between the basal 
segments of the appendages of the third and fourth pairs^ 
commonly called the chelae and first pair of legs, and consists 
of a finely papillate area and an area beset with short erect 
bristles exactly like those that are found upon the upperside 
of the basal segment of the chelicerse in Opisthophthalmus* . 

In Parahuthus what is supposed to be a stridulating-organ 
is totally different both in structure and position. It is a 
finely granular or transversely ridged area upon the dorsal 
side of the first and second segments of the tail, possibly also 
upon that of the last tergal plate of the abdomen, and the 
stridulation above mentioned can be artificially produced by 
scraping the point of the sting over the roughened field in 
question!. A fairly similar but less differentiated system of 
granules, probably subserving the same end, is found u})on 
the first segment of the tail in certain black North-African 
species of Buthus, namelyj the Egyptian P. hicolor and the 
Algerian B. ceneas J. 

* See Pocock, Nat. Science, ix. pp. 17-25 (189G). 
t Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc, March 1902, pp. 222-224. 
X Pocock, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) x. p. 374 (1902). 



58 Mr. E. I. Pocock on a neio 

Apart from the legs, which are almost immovably welded 
hj their basal segments to the sternal surface of the body, 
the chelicera3, chelse, and tail are, with one exception, the 
only organs in a scorpion susceptible of vigorous and rapid 
movement. The one exception is the pectines. It is in 
connexion with these appendages that the stridulating-organ 
now to be described has been discovered *. 

In the course of a recent study of Burchell's manuscript 
' Note-book of Brazilian Insects &c.,' Professor Poulton found 
the following record under the date December 3rd, 1828 : — 

" 1274. Scorpio of a light redish [thus] brown. Legs and 
claws pale. Several of these were cauglit in my house. I 
found one feeding on a large blatta which it held close to its 
mouth with its claws. ' Lacrdia.^ Makes a noise between 
a hiss and a whistle, v. J. ol. 12. 28, with its pectiniform 
appendages." 

The word " Lacrdia " evidently represents the native 
name of the species. Burchell always made a point of ob- 
taining such names whenever possible, and took the greatest 
pains in writing them clearly and inserting accents. The 
reference " v. J. 31. 12. 28 " apparently alludes to a Brazilian 
journal which has unfortunately not been found. It certainly 
did not reach either Oxford or Kew. 

At once appreciating the interest and importance of the 
last sentence of the note. Prof. Poulton arranged for the 
collection to be searched for a scorpion bearing the number 
1274. The specimen was soon found by Mr. W. Holland, 
and Prof. Poulton brought it to the Natural History Museum 
and asked me to determine it and to examine the pectines, to 
discover if possible the nature and situation of the stridulating- 
organ. This I undertook with the greatest pleasure, and with 
the result that the accuracy of Burchell's observation was 
substantiated to the full. 

The specimen is a male and belongs to the Brazilian species 
that I described last year as Rhopalurus Borellii. Although 
dried, it is sufficiently well preserved to preclude all likelihood 
of error on this point ; but without the relaxation or removal 
of the pectines the structure of the stridulating-organ could 
not be investigated. The examination necessary for this 

* Reference may here be made to the suggestion of Laudois (' Tierr- 
stimmen,' pp. 22-23, 1874), that the pectines might be capable of emitting 
sounds by friction. This idea, however, was not supported by facts, and, 
except that the guess has now been verified, it is on a par with Wood- 
Mason's view that the prehensile teeth on the digits of the chelse in 
Buthidse might also be used for this purpose (Proc. Eut. Soc. London, 
1877, p. xix). 



Stridulating-organ in Scorpions. 59 

purpose therefore was carried out upon the three spirit- 
preserved examples tlie Museum possesses, namelj, the type, 
an adult female^, an immature specimen of the same sex, and 
an adult but badly preserved male. 

Although only described seven months ago, this species 
has been known to me for ten years. Briefly told, its history 
and that of its allies is as follows : — In 1893 * 1 pointed out 
that two American species of Buthidse identified with the 
Scorpio junceus of Herbst and Tittjus agamemnon oi C. Koch 
differ from their allies in the structure of the pectines and of 
the first sternal plate of the abdomen. The pectines are 
unusually broad in their proximal half, and the overlying 
area of the sternal plate is depressed, the grooves whicli 
ordinarily pass forwards and inwards from the inner extre- 
mity of the stigma being exceptionally deep and lying nearer 
to the middle line, so that they define a narrow, smooth, tri- 
angular area, standing at a higher level than the depressed 
lateral portion already mentioned. On the strength of these 
structural features the genus Ileteroctenus was established for 
these two species. It was also stated that Heteroctenus 
junceus differs from the form then referred to H. agamemnon 
in having the depressed area smooth instead of closely and 
finely but distinctly granular. Subsequently, as a result of 
the publication of Dr. Kraepelin's monograph f on the scor- 
pions, it was found that these two species can scarcely be 
separated generically from the species described as Rhopalurus 
laticauda by Thorell and R. princeps by Karsch. Further- 
more, the description given by Kraepelin, presumably from 
an examination of the type of Tityus agamemnon, proved my 
previous determination of agamemnon to be erroneous. I 
therefore redescribed tlie species so determined under the new 
name BoreUi{\, and at the same time attempted to show 
tliat the five species under discussion — namely, junceus^ lati- 
cauda, princeps, agamemnon, and Borellii — possess certain 
characters in common of sufficient systematic value to justify 
their separation from the series forming the genus Centru- 
roides, with which Kraepelin associated them, and to demand 
their recognition as a distinct genus for which the name 
RJiopalurus is available §. 

The significance of the depressed sternal areas and of the 
expanded pectines in R. Borellii and R. junceus was always 

* Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv. p. 393. 

t I>as Tierr., Scorpiones et Pedipalpi. pp. 94-95 (1899). 

X Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) x. p. 37o (1902). 

§ Biol. Ceutr.-Amer., Arachu. Scorp. p. 37 (1902). 



60 Mr. H. T. Pocock 0)1 a new 

a puzzle, and would probably have remained unsolved, so far 
at least as I was concerned, had it not been for BurcbeH'a 
until now unpublished discovery of three-quarters of a century 
ago. Probably the absence of the granules on the depressed 
sternal area in B. junceus, suggesting as it did the secondary 
importance of their association with the sternal depressions 
and with the pectinal expansions in R. JJorellit, coupled with 
the flexibility, comparative softness, and known sexual 
physiological significance of the pectines in these and all 
other scorpions, combined to conceal tiie true construction, 
which, thanks to Burchell's observation, is now known to be 
assignable to the features in question. 

How, then, is the sound described by Burchell as " between 
a hiss and a whistle " produced ? Without doubt by sweeping 
the pectines across the granular field on the overlying sternal 
plate (PI. IV. fig. 2). When one of these organs is turned 
over it may be noticed that the teeth opposable to the granular 
area are not parallel-sided, as is normally the case in scorpions; 
the distal edge is sinuous, presenting towards the apex of the 
tooth a very decided bulge, which shows up as a slightly 
thickened area as it catches and reflects the light. When 
examined under a half-inch objective, or even a low^er power, 
practically the entire face of the tooth, and especially the 
bulging area, is seen to be covered with a multitude of fine 
striaa lying parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tooth 
(PI. IV. fig. 3). That the structural modifications of the teeth 
above described are directly connected with the depression and 
granulation of the sternum is shosvn by the absence of such 
modifications in the teeth at the distal end of the series which 
lie beyond the granular area and sweep clear of it with tlie 
movement of the pecten. No doubt the expansion of the 
shaft of the pecten in its proximal half is correlated with an 
increase in the size of its muscles and of the surfaces to 
■which they are attached to add force to the sweep of the 
organ. 

Except for the apparent absence of the granules, the sternal 
depressions in H. Junceus closely resemble those of R. Bo- 
rellii. I originally described these depressions as smooth ; 
this is only true relatively speaking. No granulation is 
visible under a lens of low power, and no roughness is per- 
ceptible with a pin-point ; but when scrutinized with a half- 
inch objective the entire surface of the depression is seen to 
be exceedingly minutely shagreened, so minutely as to suggest 
that the sound emitted must be much finer than that 
which the organ in R. Borellii gives out. Nor is this all the 



Stridulating- organ in Scorpions. 61 

difference between the two species. The pectines in R.janceus 
are expanded exactly as in R. Borellii, and the distal edges 
of the teeth bulge in almost precisely the same way, but the 
differentiation of the strias is carried to a greater extreme. 
Along the edge of each tootli there is a distinct series of small 
tubercular elevations, which are largest where they cross the 
thickened bulging area, becoming smaller both above and 
below it. These elevations are very distinctly striated, and 
the stria3 appear to be practically restricted to them (PI. IV. 
fig. 4). 

In R. laticauda, Thor., the granules on the sternite are 
relatively as coarse as in R. Borellii, but the area is less 
depressed and less sharply differentiated both in front and 
towards the middle line than in that species. Also the poste- 
rior surfaces of the pectinal teeth are less visibly striated and 
the distal edges of those opposable to the granular area are 
straight and without the characteristic bulge so noticeable in 
R. Borellii and R. junceus. In all these features the organ 
in R. laticauda is less specialized than in the two species just 
mentioned. 

The remaining species of Rhopaluru^ are unknown to me. 
Those who have had the opportunity of seeing and describing 
R. princeps have made no mention of any structural peculi- 
arities in the pectines or in the first abdominal sternuui. 
According to Kraepelin, who has seen the typical examples, 
however, this species is nearly related to R. laticauda. 
Hence it is permissible to suppose that it also possesses a 
stridulating-organ similar in its general features to the stridu- 
lator of that species. In the case of R. agayiiemnon the last- 
mentioned author states that the pectines are expanded and 
the sternum grooved and depressed as in R. junceus, but that 
the sternum differs from that of it. /wncews in being distinctly 
granular on the median triangular area. Tliis peculiarity, in 
which R. agamemnon holds a unique position in the genus, 
suggests that the median area in question constitutes an 
integral part of the stridulating-organ. Whether the de- 
pressed areas are granular or shagreened, or neither, is at 
present unknown. 

Two other important facts connected with Burchell's 
observation remain to be mentioned. The first is the discovery 
of stridulating-scorpions in America : those in which sounding- 
organs are known or supposed to exist have hitherto been 
recorded from the Mediterranean, Oriental, and Ethiopian 
regions. The second is the announcement of the exact 
locality of R. Borellii. R. princeps occurs in Hayti, R.janceus 



62 • Mr. E. S. Russell on Depastrum cyatliiforme. 

in Cuba *, R. laticauda in Venezuela and Colombia, wliereag 
the only examples of R. agamemnon and R. Borellii liitherto 
known are labelled " Brazil," without further particulars. 
Thanks, however, to Burchell, we are now aware that 
R. Borellii is found in the Province of Goyaz, in the 
upper valley of the Rio Tocantins or that of at least one of 
its tributaries. Burcliell was at Porto Real (now Porto 
Nacional) when he made his note on specimen no. 1274. 
Burchell's collection also contains another specimen of the 
same species (a female) bearing a label " Body and legs 
redish. Between the boxes at our station at Sape. 
15. 10. 28." Referring to the Index we find that Burchell 
gives " S^ Brigida " as his locality on Oct. 15, 1828. Sapd 
is mentioned on Oct. 14. The position is between Caval- 
canti, his resting-place on Sept. 30th, and Concei^ao, which 
he reached on Oct. 18th, but apparently much nearer to the 
latter. A glance at Plate III. will show the positions of these 
two localities of R. Borellii. 

So far as the function of the organ in these American 
Buthidge is concerned, it need only be said that since it is 
equally well developed in both sexes, and occurs also in 
immature forms, there is no reason to suppose that it has any 
sexual significance. Hence, like the stridulating-organs of 
other scorpions and of the spiders of the family AviculariidaSj 
its significance must be regarded as purely aposematic. 

EXPLANATION OF TLATE IV. 

Fig. 1. RhojHilurus Borellii, Poc, 5? ''^^^- size; drawn from t^^plcal 

example. 
Fig. 2. Ditto. Ventral surface of anterior extremity of abdomen and of 

posterior extremity of cephalothorax, to show the granular 

areas on the first abdominal steruite, the pecten of the left side 

being removed. 
Fig. 3. Ditto. Piece of the pecten seen from its dorsal side, to show the 

finely ridged stridulating area. 
Fig. 4. Mhojialurus junceus (Herbst). Ditto. 



V. — Notes on Depastrum cyathiforme, Gosse. 
Qj E. S. Russell. 

[Plate v.] 

M. Sars, in 1846, was the first to describe and figure this 
interesting little Lucernarian. He discovered it near Bergen 
and described it under the name of Lucernaria cyathiformis 

* There are specimens in the British Museum labelled " Mexico " and 
"Brazil." These localities, however, require confirmation. 



Mr. E. S. Russell on Depastrum cjatLiConne. 63 

as follows : — " Semipollicaris, stipite disco circulari, repando 
sese affigente ; corpore cyatliiformij margine dilatata, repanda 
circulari, Integra (s. non in radios divisa) tentaculifera, ten- 
taculis SEepissime in fasciculis 8 fere continuis, ad marginem 
corporis dispositis ; organis generationis 8, binis approxi- 
matis " (Faun. lit. Norveg. no. 1, p. 26, tab. iii. fig^^s. 8-13). 

Shortly afterwards it was found in great abundance by 
Mr. David Landsborougli, Jun., at Southend, Arran, and 
also by Dr. Landsborough at Corriegils, Arran. The 
specimens were identified by Mr. Josliua Alder as Lucemaria 
cyathiformis^ Sars, and he sent a drawing to Mr. George 
Johnston, who, on the strength of this drawing, incorporated 
the species in his * Hist, of Brit. Zoophytes,^ vol. i. p. 475 
(London, 1847). 

Gosse (Synopsis Brit. Actiniaj, 1858) then founded the 
genus Depastrum for specimens which he found at Weymouth, 
which he regarded as identical with the Lucemaria cyathi- 
forviis of Sars. Next year some small specimens were found 
by Allman (Rep. Brit. Assoc. Aberdeen, 1859) in the Orkney 
IsleSj which seem to have been immature specimens of 
Depastrum cyathiforme, Gosse. It does not appear to have 
been recorded at any other locality until found by Beaumont 
at Port Erin, Isle of Man {' Fauna of Liverpool Bay,' iv. : 
Liverpool, 1895). He mentions also a specimen from 
Plymouth. 

In the month of July 1903 I rediscovered Depastrum on 
the shore at West Berman, Southend, Arran ; and in 
August, while at the Millport Biological Station, near the 
Lion Rock, Millport, and also near the old castle on the east 
side of Little Cumbrae. The animal seems to have a wide 
distribution, and I have no doubt that a careful search 
would reveal its presence in many localities from which it is 
hitherto unrecorded. 

I found Depastrum in large numbers under stones at 
about half-tide, and also farther out. It adheres very firmly 
to the underside or occasionally round the edges of fairly 
large stones, so firmly that it has to be scraped off with a 
knife. It is very local in its distribution, but generally 
abundant where it does occur, though at one locality in 
Little Cumbrae I found only a few scattered individuals. It 
is difficult to account for its local distribution, but in my 
experience it is never found in muddy localities nor in spots 
where there is much decaying seaweed. It occurs well up 
the beach, and appears to be quite a hardy form. In Arran 
my largest specimens were got near low-water mark, but at 
Cumbrae large specimens occurred more plentifully halfway 



64 Mr. E. S. Russell on Depastrum cyathiforme. 

up the beach. In its natural conditions it is almost always 
pendent, being incapable of supporting itself with stalk 
extended and erect, on the upperside of a stone. When 
watched carefully in confinement it is seen to turn the widely 
expanded bell-like umbrella in different directions, as if 
searching for food. It appears to be quite incapable of 
refixing itself after having been dislodged from its resting- 
place. 

The stalk is very contractile, as is also the rim of the 
umbrella. Four muscles, which extend up the tsenioles 
(PI. v., tm.), are the agents for contracting the stalk, while 
the margin is contracted by a circular muscle {cm.) which 
passes round outside the insertion of the tentacles, and in 
contracting pulls the margin well over the tentacles, leaving 
only a hole in the centre, through which the tips of some of 
the tentacles appear. I may here remark that it is only in 
partly contracted individuals that several rows of tentacles are 
seen ; in fully expanded adult individuals there do not appear 
to be more than two rows. Haeckel, in his diagnosis of this 
species (' System der Medusen '), describes it as having the 
tentacles in several rows. Furthermore, none of my specimens 
reach the dimensions noted by Haeckel (8-10 mm. for 
length of stalk, length of umbrella, and breadth of umbrella), 
the largest I have seen having a stalk only 7 mm. long, 
while the usual size of good-sized specimens is 4 mm. for 
length of stalk, 6 mm. for height of bell, and 5-6 mm. for 
breadth of same. These specimens seemed mature, having 
well-developed gonads. 

There appear to be two forms of the species among my 
specimens — one as figured, the other with a much sharper 
distinction between stalk and umbrella, and with the breadth 
of the umbrella as great as, or even greater than, the height 
of the umbrella. This latter seems to be the typical form, 
for Haeckel describes the umbrella as being almost as high as 
broad. The measurements of a medium-sized individual of 
this latter form are: — Length of stalk 3 mm.; height of 
umbrella 4 mm ; breadth of umbrella 4*8 mm. The smallest 
specimen I possess measures respectively 1 mm., 1*1 mm., 
and 1*4 mm. 

The sexes are distinct, but, so far as I can make out, indis- 
tinguishable in external appearance. The gonads are typically 
in four double rows, but I have a specimen with only three 
gonads and three lobes to the manubrium. Indeed, the 
animal is very variable, especially as regards the number of 
fascicles of secondary tentacles. Tlie ova and spermatozoa 
are very minute and very numerous. 1 attempted five times 



On a neio Spider from Bounly Island. (35 

in August to fertilize artificially, bat failed each time, chieflj, 
I believe, on account of the iuimaturity of the spermatozoa. 

In the stomach of Depastrum 1 have noted the remains of 
a small crustacean (probably a Copepod). When kept in 
confinement unattached to a stone they sometimes void a 
floccular mass, along with one or two phacellse, which looks 
like a portion of the stomach epithelium. The tentacles also 
are apt to slough off. It is very difficult to kill them well 
expanded, but I have obtained good results by carefully 
narcotizing with 30 % alcohol. 



VI. — On a new Genus of Spiders from Bounty Island, loith 
Remarks on a Species from New Zealand. By H. R. 
Hogg, M.A., F.Z.S. 

Professor Charles Chilton, of Canterbury College, 
Ciiristcliurch, New Zealand, kindly sent me recently some 
spiders obtained by Mr. L. Cockayne from the islands lying 
to the east and south-east of the New Zealand coast. Among 
these were some specimens found on the guano deposits of 
Bounty Island, situated about 9 degrees east of Danedin 
(170° 30' East longitude), between the better-known Anti- 
podes and Chatham Islands. 

The spiders belong to the family Agalenidje, and the well- 
developed colulus, front spinnerets close together, inner 
margin of the falx-sheath toothed and sloping, with fringe 
of incurved bristles on the outer, the upright maxillge, and 
square lip show them to belong to M. Simon's group Cybteeae. 
Allied to the genus Emmenomma, 8im.*, this species differs 
too materially to be included therein, so that 1 have formed a 
new genus to receive it. 

Pacificana, gen. no v. 

Differs from Emmenomma in having the cephalic part of 
the ceplialothorax convex and wide in front instead of not 
convex and slightly attenuate. The thoracic fovea quite 
short and shallow instead of long and deep. Rear row of 
eyes so recurved as to form an area as long as broad instead 
of about one half as long as broad. Two teeth on inferior 

* The single species for which M. Simon formed his genus Emyne- 
nom7na was found on the islands adjacent to Cape Horn (about 67° W. 
long ). The two localities are therefore sepcarated by over 120 degrees of 
longitude. 

Ann. d: Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. 5 



QQ Mr. H. R. Hogg on a 

margin of falx-sheatli instead of three; tliree on superior 
margin. About five pectinations on superior tarsal claws 
instead of about nine. 

The trochanters of all four pairs of legs are slightly but 
clearly hollowed on the underside. This, with the mandibular 
fiinge and shape of lip and maxilla, breaks down the last 
quotable distinction between the Agalenidse, Pisauridse, and 
Lycosidse. 

Pacijicana Cockayni, sp. n. 

The colour of the cephalothorax is dark brown, the cephalic 
part being bounded by a pale yellow marginal stripe. A 
similar pale yellow area extends round the thoracic part 
almost to the margin, where there is again a narrow streak 
of brown. The mandibles are dark brown. Lip and maxillae 
paler brown, yellow on the outer edges of the latter. Sternum 
pale brown on each side, with a longitudinal central yellow 
streak. The legs and palpi are yellow, with brown rings, 
one near the anterior end of the femur, one on the patella, two 
on the tibia, two on the metatarsus, one at the anterior end of 
the tarsus. In the front pair the whole of the tarsus and 
metatarsus is brown. The abdomen on the upperside has a 
series of transverse scolloped stripes yellow and black alter- 
nately. The underside is greyish yellow. 

•The shape of the cephalotJiorax is a long oval, truncate at 
the slightly narrowed anterior end. The cephalic part is 
considerably raised above the thoracic; a short, shallow, 
longitudinal fovea extends from behind the cephalic part to, 
but not down, the rear slope. 

The pattern of thee^es is quite unique. The front laterals 
are large, one and a half diameters apart, and one third of 
their diameter from the margin of the clypeus. Four small 
intermediate eyes one fourth of the diameter of the above are 
situated between them at the corners of a trapezium, the rear 
pair, their diameter apart, slightly above the line joining the 
upper edges of the laterals; the lower pair, rather farth--'r 
apart, are below the line touching the lower part of the laterals. 
The lateral eyes of the rear row, rather more than their 
diameter apart, are about three fifths the diameter of the front 
laterals and the diameter of the latter away from their own 
median. The small front median eyes are their diameter from 
the margin of the clypeus. 

The mandibles are nearly twice as long as the front 
patellar, much kneed at the base, and taper to the anterior 
end, the fangs being rather long, slightly curved, smooth for 
the iirst half and striated longitudinally the second. Tue 



new Spide)' from Bounty Island. 



67 



falx-sheatli is sloping and has two teeth on tlie inner marorin 
near the upper end. There are three teeth below the fringe 
of bristles on the outer margiuj the middle one being the 



largest 



&^ — ■ 

The maxillce are upright, convex, rounded in front, and 

broadest near the anterior end. The lip longer than broad, 

on a narrowed base, is rounded at the sides and broadly 

truncate in front. 



Fig. 1. 



o'b 



v^02ov_y 





Pacificann Cochayni. 
a, eyes, X 10 ; ^, spicier, uat. size j c, epigyne, X 10. 

The sternum is nearly twice as long as broad, truncate in 
front, and running to a point posteriorly. 

The abdomen is oval, sparsely covered with short fine hairs. 

The spinnerets two-jointed, tapering, the second joint quite 
short. The inferior pair close together, the colulus broad and 
long. 

The legs are moderately stout, the metatarsal and tarsal 
joints tapering to a rather fine point. The superior tarsal 
claws have about five pectinations at the basal end only, the 

5* 



68 Mr. II. B. Hoes; on a 



too 



8 


/ 


= 


25 


6^ 


6 


= 


2U 


H 


''a 


= 


m 


8 


7 


= 


24i 


3i 


3 


= 


12 



inferior claw being smooth. At the anterior end of the meta- 
tarsi is a ring of short incurved spines and four pairs of 
spines on the underside of the front two pairs. The tarsi are 
without spines. 

There is a longitudinal seam along the front side of the 
coxae, and the chitinous margin of the trochanters is slightly 
hollowed on the underside, the species in this respect, as in the 
mandibular fringe, approaching the Lycosidse. 

The measurements (?) in millimetres are as follows : — 

Long. Broad. 
Cephalothorax 9^ 3| iu front. 

Abdomen 12 65 

Mandibles 4 

Tr. & Pat. & Metat. 

Coxae, feni. tib. & tars. 

Legs 1. 3 7 

2. 2i 6i 

3. 2 6| 

4. 2i 7 
Palpi 2| 3i 

There are one male (unfortunately wanting a moult) and 
four females. 



From Wanganui, North Island of New Zealand, Mr. W. 
Gray was so good as to send me two small pieces of moss- 
covered bark, each a few inches square. On ray first examina- 
tion I could see no reason of adequate interest to account for 
their having been sent so long a journey by post. It was 
only after careful search that I found the lids of no less than 
five nests of a little Migas spider, apparently that first 
described by L. Koch, M. paradoxus. 

The doors of the nests fitted so closely, and, although com- 
posed of woven felt, so exactly resembled the adjoining bark 
and lichen as to be quite invisible on a casual inspection. 
The occupant of one nest had come out and was unhappily 
crushed, but the other four nests contained live females, one 
in each. The nests are little silken sacs wedged between 
interstices of the bark, about f inch in depth and f inch across 
the opening. 

In the collection made by the 'Challenger' expedition, 
recently returned to the British Museum (Natural History) 
after a prolonged absence, is another specimen from Wellington, 
evidently the same. 



spider from Ifeiu Zealand. 69 

The legs in all tlie specimens are rather longer in propor- 
tion to the cephalothorax than the measurements given by 
L. Kocli, but tliey agree closely otherwise with his description 
of his type specimen from Auckland, and I have no reason 
to doubt their being the same, more especially as the legs are 
normally carried closely bent up and are not easy to measure. 

As in all this group, the tarsi and metatarsi of the front 
two pairs of legs are flattened and abnormally short. The 
metatarsi are furnished with a double row of stout curved 
spines on the underside (in my paper, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 
1901, ii. p. 229, by a misprint this character is ascribed to 
metatarsus iv.). 

The superior tarsal claws have one long pectination, with a 
few uneven rugations on either side. 

The front row of eyes is straight, the rear row is slightly 
recurved. 

Fig. 2. 




Migas paradoxus, L. Koch. 
a, eyes, X 10 ; b, profile, nat. size. 

The cephalothorax and mandibles are yellow- brown ; 
sternum, lip, and maxillse yellow ; abdomen black and rather 
rugose above, dark yellowish grey below. The space in 
front of the genital aperture and spinnerets yellow. 

The strongly recurved cephalic fovea and rather profuse 
bespining of lip and maxillae (in female) are marked features. 

I append measurements (in mm.) of one of Mr. Gray's 
specimens, apparently adult, and of the still larger ' Challenger ' 
specimen : — 

Specimen from nest {W. Gray). 

Long, Broad. 
Cephalothorax . . . . 3| 21 in front. 

^. > 
^? 

Abdomen 4 -\ 

Mandibles I hor^. 2 verf. 



70 Mr. H. Schwann on new Forms of 

Tr. &- Pat. & Metat. 

Coxse. fern. tib. & tars. 

Legs 1. H H H 2i 

^ 2. H 3^ 3i 2i 

3, 1 2i 2i 2i 

4. \\ 3i 3i 2^ 
Palpi M 21 If 1 

* Challenger ' Expedition specimen. 

Long. Broad. 
Cephalothorax 5 S^ in front. 

Atdonien 6 4| 

Mandibles | bor^. 3^ verty. 

Tr. & Pat. & Metat. 

Coxae, fern. tib. & tara. 

Legs L 2 5 4i 3 

2. If 4| 4 21 

3. n 31 31 3 

4. 2 41 41 31 
Palpi If 3 21 11 



lOf 
10 

8i 
11 

61 



141 
12f 

IH 

8^ 



Migas distinctus, Cambr., from the South Island, described 
as having a pattern of yellow spots on the back and having 
more widely separated eyes, will no doubt be distinct from 
the above ; but Mr. Goyen's Migas Sandageri, from Moko- 
hinou Islands, near Auckland, now that we know he means 
recurved by bent forward, would seem from his description to 
agree exactly with J/, paradoxus of L. Koch. Mr. Goyen 
found the nests of M. distinctus in clay-banks; those of 
M. paradoxus and M. Sandageri are on the trunks of trees. 
It is interesting to note that M. Simon has found the nests of 
the allied South- African Moggridgea to be built both in the 
g-round and on bark. 



VII. — On neio Forms of Anomalurus and Sciurus//-ow 
Tropical Africa. By Haeold Schwann. 

An examination of some of the more recent African accessions 
to the British Museum collection which I liave been enabled 
to make with Mr. Thomas's permission shows that the 
following forms require description. 

Anomalurus Beecrofti argenteus, subsp. n. 

General colour above silvery grey, more or less suffused 
with yellowish towards the middle line; basal portion of the 



Anomaliirus anc/ Sciurusy/'ow Tropical Africa. 71 

hairs on the flanks darker than those on tlie body, producing 
an indistinct dark patch on the e.(\^^Q of the membrane ; general 
colour of under surface dirty g^^J ; throat strongly suffused 
with " orange-rufous," passing into pinkish buff on the 
stomach and hind limbs; head silvery grey, cheeks and lower 
jaw silvery white, a white patch on the crown between the 
ears and a white band running along the shoulders ; under- 
part of forearms and sides of stomacli dirty white ; outer edge 
of membrane on upper surface behind forearms covered with 
stiff black hairs extending backwards for about 1^ inches ; 
tail dirty grey. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in skin) : — 

Head and body about 385 ram.; tail 189; hind foot , 
(s. u.) 41. 

Skull: greatest breadth 36; length of upper tooth- 
series 12*5, 

Hub. Abutschi, River Niger, about 150 miles from the coast. 

Type. B.M. no. 2. 11. 10. 7. Collected Feb. 1902 by 
A. J. Braham, Esq. 

This subspecies differs very considerably from the type of 
Anomalurus Beecrofti from Fernando Po described by Fraser 
both in general colour and skull- measurements. The latter, 
liowever, in this group are so variable, even among members 
of the same species, as to be of little value. As an example 
two adult specimens, both undoubtedly Anomalurus Beecrofti, 
differed by as much as 1"5 mm. in the length of the upper 
tooth-series. In colour A. B. argenteus differs from Anoma- 
lurus Beecrofti in being of a light silvery grey on its upper 
surface instead of "yellowish grey." It is also much less 
suffused with rufous on its under surface. 

Sciurus rufohrachiatus ruwenzorii, subsp. n. 

Allied to S. kenice, Neum.*, but with a certain amount of 
fulvous on its muzzle and feet and a pure white streak on the 
under surface. 

General colour above " olivaceous/' the hairs brown, 
speckled with " ochraceous," without the marked rufous 
suffusion found in S. nyansce. Base of the hairs " slate- 
grey." Length of the underfur about 15 mm. and of the 
long hairs 25 mm. Under surface " creamy buff," not 
sharply detined, gradually passing into the "olivaceous" of 
the sides. Middle line of under surface with a sharply defined 
white streak about ^ inch broad extending from the inter- 
ramia to the inguinal region, its hairs white to their bases. 

* SB. Ges. nat. Fr. Berlin, 1902, p. 176. 



72 On new Forms <;/' Auomaliu-us and Sciurus. 

Top of muzzle dull fulvous, passing into "olivaceous" on 
the crown. Cheeks and upper surfaces of the feet and fore- 
arms grizzled yellowish. Hairs of tail annulated with black 
and buffy yellow. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the skin) : — 

Hind foot (s. u.) 51 mm. 

Skull: greatest length 52; basilar length 40-5; greatest 
breadth 29*5 ; length of upper tooth-series 9. 

Hab. Wimi Valley, Ruwenzori. Alt. 2400 m. 

T^pe. Adult male. B.M. no. 95. 3. 5. 2. Collected 
6th July, 1894, by G. F. Scott Elliot, Esq. 

In colour this subspecies is intermediate between S. r. ny- 
anne and S. henice, having less fulvous on the muzzle and 
limbs than the former and more than the latter. 

Sciurus rufohrachiatus pashuy subsp. n. 

Fur hardly so thick or so long as that of 8. r. nyansce ; 
Ifngth of long hairs on back about 21 mm. and of underfur 11. 
General colour above dark brownish, rather warmer than 
Ridgway's " bistre " ; base of the hairs slaty black. Flanks 
distinctly lighter than back ; base of hairs " slate-grey." 
Under surface very thinly covered with creamy-white hairs, 
interspersed with a few black ones. Difference in colour 
between flanks and belly unusually conspicuous, with the 
line of demarcation well defined. An indistinct white patch 
on throat and chest, hardly constituting a streak. Top of 
muzzle and round orbits dull orange-buff. Fore and hind 
feet and outer side of forearms rich " ochraceous rufous." 
Underside of thighs and lower limbs sparsely covered with 
whitish-buffy hairs. Tail like back for its basal two inches, 
the remainder annulated with black and dirty white. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the skin) : — 

Head and body 249 mm. ; tail 234 ; hind foot (s. u.) 49. 

Skull : greatest length (c.) 50 ; basilar length 39 ; greatest 
breadth 31*5 ; length of upper tooth-series 10. 

Hah. Bellima, Monbuttu. 

Ti/pe. Adult male. B.M. no. 87. 12. ]. 31. Collected 
13th July, 1883, and presented by Dr. Emin Pasha. 

This subspecies, allied to S. r. nyansce, is more strongly 
suffused with rufous on the back and base of tail, while it is 
of a much lighter colour on the feet and belly. S. kaffensis, 
O. Neumann *, from the other side of the Nile, differs by 
" die schoue rostfarbene " annulation of the caudal hairs. It 
may be mentioned that an allied form from Southern Nigeria 

*■ 0}K cit. p. 57. 



On neio hycseniddd from Sierra Leone. 73 

is also remarkable for the almost naked condition of its under 
surface, but is distinguishable by the absence of any rufous 
colour on the limbs. 

The four members of the 8. rufohrachialus group found in 
Central and Central East Africa may be distinguished as 
follows : — 

A. Fulvous or reddisli on muzzle and feet. 

a. A marked white streak along under surface .... S. r. rmoenzorii. 

b. No white streak along under surface. 

a'. Underside of forearms and thighs deep rufous 

colour ; belly well haired, didl buffy S. r. nyansce. 

b' . Underside of thighs with no rufous suffusion ; 

belly thinly covered with whitish-grey hairs . S. r. jias/ia. 

B. No fulvous colourino: on feet or muzzle S. kenice. 



VIII. — On new Species 0/ Lycaenida? /rom Sierra Leone. 
By D. Cator. 

I FEEL pretty sure that the Pseuderesice here described are 
not the only new ones that I have lately discovered, but I 
await further material, which I hope to find before very long. 
They need a deal of hunting, as their haunts are in shady 
places and they are most difficult to capture on the wing — 
firstly, because of their sombre colouring on the underside and 
the small amount of colour above, so that they can be seen 
only at intervals whilst flying; and, secondly, iDecause if not 
taken at the first attempt they will not probably give another 
opportunity, as they easily take fright. If, however, they 
can be seen at rest they can easily be caught if they are not 
too high up, but they need much looking for ; they rest on 
twigs and creepers bare of leaves, but, excepting one or two 
species, seem to be distinctly uncommon. 

Pseuderesia Baheriana, sp. n. 

^ . — TJjjperside. Fore wings black, outer margin faintly 
scalloped, inner margin up to beyond vein 1 orange from near 
the base to beyond the middle : hind wings orange, with very 
broad black posterior borders decreasing rapidly towards 
costa. Underside. Both wings greyish black, hmd wings 
rather the paler of the two : fore wings with red irrorations 
on the costa, a squarish red patch on the costa beyond the 
cell, which is confluent with the red irroration up to the 



74 Mr. D. Cator on neio 

posterior margin and which broadly occupies the whole of that 
margin ; in this marginal red irroration is a short black 
macular stripe, lower part of cell and below vein 4 to inner 
margin spotless and paler : hind wings with three interrupted 
irregular transverse reddish stripes, bordering the third a 
broad blackish band, edged exteriorly by a baud of fine 
reddish irrorations, beyond which is another dark band^ 
followed again by fine reddish irrorations to the margin ; 
fringes white_, intersected with blackish. 

? . Upperside. Both wings orange : fore wings distinctly 
more rounded than in male ; costal edge^ base, cell and 
rather beyond irregularly black, apex very broadly, outer 
nuirgiii broadly black : hind wings like the male. Underside. 
Fore wings (with outline of pattern as above) orange, fading 
into yellowish on the inner margin ; costa blackish, three 
dark spots in the cell and one larger beyond it ; apex very 
broadly finely irrorated with reddish on a blackish ground ; 
outer margin similarly irrorated, but less broadly : hind 
wings like the male, but paler and without reddish. 

Exp. wings, c? 31-33, ? 30-32 mm. 

I have much pleasure in naming this after my friend 
Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker, who has assisted me so much in 
working out my captures. Found so far in March, April, 
May, and October, but probably flies from October to May, 
whicli covers the dry season in Sierra Leone. 

Pseuderesia nigra, sp. n. 

^. — Upperside. Both wings entirely black, with white 
fri)iges tessellated with black. Underside. Fore wings black, 
shading into dark greyish on the inner margin ; traces of 
three black spots in the cell, with a red one between the 
second and third ; apex darkly spotted, in front of which is 
an oblique row of four red spots, two being below the apex 
and two on the posterior margin : hind wings grey, of a 
peculiar texture, the wing having the appearance of having 
been denuded of scales, witli various black and red spots; 
the base of the wing is suffused with red, with a small black 
spot palely encircled below the costal vein near the base ; in 
the cell are two black spots, palely edged, the small one at 
the base and the other large, directly below which is another 
large black one ; on the costa is a large black patch reaching 
to the upper angle of the cell, beyond and touching which is 
a red irregular spot ; transverse stripe from apex to inner 
margin very decided, composed of a black-spotted stripe edged 
externally by an equally decided red-spotted stripe, the two 



ljyciGn'\(l'ee from Sierra Leone. 75 

central spots in each being confluent and very large^ margin 
spotted with a black lunular stripe ; the ground has a suffusion 
of red beyond and below the cell ; all the red spots are very 
bright, approaching vermilion. 

$. — Upperside. Both wings bright ochreous : fore wings 
with costa broadly dark brown, very broadly dark brown 
from the end of the cell and tapering down the posterior 
margin to the anal angle; cell with three spots in it and 
several below; ground-colour suffused with brown below the 
cell almost to the inner margin ; fringes brown, intersected 
with white : hind wings with costa broadly brown, posterior 
margin very broadly dark brown, increasing in width from 
the apex to the inner margin, base suffused with brown ; 
fringes intersected with white. Underside. Fore wings pale 
orange, base suffused with blackish ; costa blackish, cell with 
three spots, increasing in size, and one below the cell touching 
the second and third cell-spots ; apex as in the male, but the 
oblique orange spots are preceded by a very broad blackish 
band : hind wings ochreous grey, with pattern as in the male, 
only the red spots are replaced by orange ones. 

Exp. wings, ^ 34, ? 30 mm. 

This species may prove to be a subspecies of P. variegata, 
S. & K., but it is a beautiful and striking form. Besides the 
types described above, I have one male with a small orange 
patch on the upperside of the fore wing. Caught in February 
and April. 

Pseuderesia fusca, sp. n. 

(J. — Upperside. Fore wings black, with white fringes 
intersected with black : hind wings black, with an orange- 
coloured costa increasing in width from the base to below the 
apex on the outer margin ; fringes whitish, intersected finely 
with black. Underside. Fore wings dark grey, with a small 
black dash closing the cell and a small black spot at the origin 
of vein 2 ; beyond the cell a curved transverse row of small 
blackish spots, followed by a similar more obscure submarginal 
row : hind wings ochreous brown, with a small dark spot near 
the base below the costal vein, followed by three small oblique 
dark spots — one below the costa, one closing the cell, and 
one below the cell ; beyond the cell is a transverse, fine, inter- 
rupted, blackish macular stripe from the costa to the internal 
vein, beyond which is the rather obscure posterior marginal 
row of blackish dots ; margin finely dark. 

$ . — Upperside. Both wings black : fore wings with a 
broad orange-yellow patch a third from the base on the inner 
margin to near the outer angle, extending obliquely across 



76 Bibliograjjhical Notices. 

tlie wing to above vein 4, where it suddenly narrows and is 
inversely oblique to the costa : hind wings like those of the 
male, but not so dark. Underside. Ochreous grey, inner 
marginal area of fore wings yellowish ; pattern as in the male, 
but rather more distinct, owing to the lighter ground-colour. 
Exp. wings, S 27-29, ? 26-28 mm. 

Liptena albicans, sp. n. 

Upperside. Both wings white : fore wings with the costal 
half slightly tinged with cream-colour ; costa finely blackish 
(rather wider near the base), apical area rather broadly dark 
grey to black at extreme apex : hind wings with fringe cream- 
coloured. Underside. Both wings whitish, slightly cream- 
coloured : fore wings have costa to costal vein pale orange- 
yellow, continued finely to the apex ; on the costa close to 
the apex are three dark dots or lines, which, however, are not 
always present ; outer margin orange-yellow, edged internally 
finely with black, intersected at the veins as far as vein 3, the 
fringe of this part also being black, inner marginal area pure 
white : hind wings with the posterior margin very finely 
cream-coloured, edged internally by a fine black line ; fringes 
whitish. 

Exp. wings 29-31 mm. 

This species is near L. decipiens, Kirby, but the underside 
of the wings has no trace of any marginal band at all. It 
veiy often flies high among the trees, settling occasionally, 
and not, as a rule, moving far away. Found in March, April, 
and June. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Catalogue of tJie Collection of Birds' Eggs in the British Museum 
{Natural History). Vol, 111. By Eugene W. Oates and Capt. 
Savile G. Ebid. London : Printed by Order of the Trustees of 
the British Museum. 1903. 

The present volume contains brief descriptions of the eggs of 907 
species, ranging from the Parrots to the Bulbuls (Pycnonotidse). 

Though the greater part of the book had been written by 
Mr. Oatcs, he was, owing to protracted ill-health, obliged to reHn- 
quish the work, a fact which we must all deplore. The Museum, 
however, is fortunate in having secured the services of Capt. Savile 
Beid for the completion of the remaining volumes. 



Bibliographical Notices. 77 

No change has been made in the method of treatment, which, as 
we hare already remarked, seems to us wanting in fulness and to 
miss a great opportunity for suggestive generalizations. Perchance 
Capt. Reid may be induced to give us a general summary on the 
study of oology in the last volume. Nowhere is the need for such 
a summary so well exemplified as in the case of the treatment of 
the eggs of the Common Cuckoo. 

This volume is illustrated by ten coloured plates, remarkable for 
their extreme beauty. The selection of the figures has obviously 
been most carefully made. 



The Geological Structure of Monzoni and Fassa. By Marie M. 
Ogilvie Gordon, D.Sc, Ph.D. 1902-03 [1903]. 8vo. 180 pages, 
with 14 photographs, 33 figures, 4 geological sections (black and 
white), 8 geological sections (coloured), 1 table of stratigraphical 
succession, 1 coloured geological map, and 1 reference contour 
and fault map. Edinburgh : Turnbull and Speers. London : 
Simpkin, Marshall, & Co. 

This memoir is a " Special Part " of Vol. viii. of the ' Transactions 
of the Edinburgh Geological Society,' published iu 1903. The 
date of " 1902 " on the titlepage refers to the year when it was read 
before the Royal Society, as stated iu the Prefatory Note. According 
to the generally aecepted bibliographical and nomenclatorial rules 
only the date of puhlication can be taken for the chronological 
status of a book. An abstract having been printed elsewhere, the 
Royal Society, by its rules, could not itself print the paper. 

The Alpine Range, as a whole, is well known as a region that 
has been subjected to repeated movements ; and, indeed, it cannot be 
positively said that the cracks in the rocks and their displacements 
are even now in a state of absolute equilibrium. In the South 
Tyrol the elevated areas of Triassic strata, rugged and precipitous, 
are characterized by more or less isolated, rudely columnar or 
sharply peaked mountains, which have long been objects of wonder 
to the tourist and of study to the Geologist. To the former ic has 
attractions in its picturesque aspects ; but, if his reflections reach 
farther and deeper than the common notions of mystery and romance 
among the bizarre clifis, peaks, and gorges, he may well desire to 
know the " why and wherefore " of their real historj' and outcome. 
This country has for a long time bten carefully examined by many 
Continental Geologists, to whose published observations and de- 
scriptions Miss Ogilvie (afterwards Mrs. Ogilvie Gordon) has referred 
in several papers. Attention had, however, been especially drawn 
to the fossils of Saint Cassian &c. Difficulties, however, were found 
in determining the relationships of the strata and the fossils. Of 
late years the lady-student above mentioned directed her energies 
to the elucidation of the doubts and difficulties which seemed 
hitherto to be beyond solution. Aided and guided especially by the 
advice of Baron von Richthofen among her Continental and of 



78 Bibliographical Notices. 

Professor Lapworth among her British friends, Mrs. Ogilvie Gordon, 
D.Sc, Ph.D., entered more fully into her projected work in the Tyrol. 
After hard field-work, making important contributions to our know- 
ledge of Alpine Geology, both as to the arrangement of strata and the 
occurrence of fossils, she completed in 1901 the excellent geological 
map which accompanies the paper before us. This brilliant and 
solid geological work has been steadily continued and improved by 
the same lady, as shown by her contributions to scientific periodicals*, 
with elaborate and trustworthy descriptions of the region in explana- 
tion of its complex structure. 

In these researches Dr. Ogilvie Gordon has always kept in touch 
with the Continental Geologists working at the same problems. 

The Triassic masses in this region consist largely of Dolomites ; 
and these are said by the Author to be isolated by faults. Folded 
by many successive creeping movements of the Earth's crust, inter- 
sected by slip-faults and thrust-faults, they have also suffered much 
by local subsidences, and by repeated cross-faultings, with shear- 
planes and their crush-breccias. 

The outlines of the mountains in some places have been likened 
to tliat of upraised coral-reefs ; and, if really such, the dolomite 
condition would not be strange, for it is known that corals become 
dolomitized. Careful scrutiny, however, detects fossiliferous .strati- 
fication in some of the dolomite masses, but whether due to shells 
or to beds (not reefs) of Coral on bases of calciferous Algals is not 
settled. •• 

Both volcanic and deep-seated igneous rock-matter \Aa.y important 
parts in the make-up and physical character of the country. The 
igneous magma has come up to the fissures of weakness in the various 
rocks, either to spread out on the top or to lose itself in the cross- 
cracks or in the side-planes and cleavage- lines. They take the 
Geologist far afield in his science in finding and explaining the 
origin, material, age, and mode of passage of the different veins, 
dykes, and sills. Some of the intrusions appear to have been of an 
age previous to the Triassic, some to have been contemporaneous 
with it, and some decidedly to be of later (Tertiary) date. 

The following is given in a Table opposite page 19, in this " Special 
Part " of vol. viii. Trans. Geol. Soc. Edinburgh [1903], as the succes- 
sion of the Triassic formations in the South Tyrol : — 



Uppee Trias. "] 
About 370 metres, I Dachstein Limestone or Dolomite. 320 metres, 
in the vicinity of j Eaibl Marls, &c. 50 metres. 
Fassa. I 



* Especially the 'Geological Magazine,' 1892, pp. 14-5, 147, and 381, 
382 ; Quart, journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xlix. 1893, pp. 1-77 ; Geol. Mag. 1894, 
pp.1-10 and 60-60; Q.J. G.S. vol.lv. 1899, pp. 503-634; Geol. Mag. 1902, 
pp. 309-317 ; and, lastly, Trans. Ediuh. Geol. Soc. 1903, vol. viii. *' Special 
Part," pp. 1-179, 



Bihliograpldcal Notices. 79 

/"Schlerii Dolomite or Doloiuitic Limestone (including at 
I the base the Clpit Limestone). 35U metres. 

MiDDr,F, TiuAs. j Cassian Marls. | ^q ^^j-j-gg 

About 510 metres. | Wengen Shales, Tuffs, &c. J 

I Buchenstein Limestones. 20-40 metres. 
l^Mendola Limestone or Dolomite. 40-60 metres. 

Passage-beds. Crinoid Limestone, Oolites, and Eauoh- 

wackes. 60-90 metres. 
Upper Werfen Marls and marly Limestone. Naticdla 
costata zone. 100-160 metres. 
Lower Trias. Blue shales and marls. 35 metres. 
About 500 metres, i, Micaceous layers or Rauchwackes. 25 metres. 

(maximum). Lower Werfen. Red and grey marls and shales. Paeiido- 

mo7ioiis Clarai zone. loO metres. 
Lingula fenuissima zone. 20 metres. 
Poikilitic marls and limestone. Natica gregaria zone. 
40 metres. 

r BcUerophon Limestone, gypsum, &c. * 

.. ll'J'^^;. \ Grciden Sandstones, Quartzites, or Breccias. 

About /O metres. | Q^^^^tz-porphyry. 

It is indicated also in this Table : — That the Schlern, Cassiau, and 
Wengen beds are equivalent to Salomon's " Marmolite Limestone." 
That the Mendola limestone and the Passage-beds are equivalent to 
Salomon's "Alpiner Muschelkalk."' That "the Passage-beds are the 
age-equivalent of the uppermost horizons of the ' Myophoria beds ' or 
' Ileichenhall Limestone ' in the North Tyrol and Bavaria-Roth 
horizon with salt, gypsum, &c." The Upper Werfen is equivalent 
to llichthofen's " Campil Strata '' and the Lower Werfen to his 
" Seisser Strata." 

The numerous fossils collected by the Author in the field, except 
the Wengen-Cassian fossils of Sella Pass (pages 26-28) were almost 
all from the AVerfen series, and were identified for her by Dr. Broili, 
of Munich. 

The igneous rocks received great attention from the Author in 
the field and have been carefully described, from her preparations, 
by Mr. Gibb, of Aberdeen ; and to indicate the important part 
played by them in nature and described in this Memoir, we may 
with advantage quote the following from pages 29-30 : — 

" This paper therefore confirms the conclusion I previously formed when I 
investigated Euneberg and Buchenstein, viz., that the copious flows of augile- 
porphyrite, regarded as extrusiye were in reality intrusive, and had been 
intruded pre-eminently into fault-planes and lines or horizons of weakness and 
crust-deformation. The previous investigators of Fassa Valley failed to 
recognise the presence of the innumerable crusli-planes with extremely low 
hade, and the branch-connection of many of them with leading cross-faults, and 
consequently overlooked the correlation of the igneous invasions with pre- 
existent deformational structures. 

" As the presence of igneous rock undergoing consolidation amidst the Triassic 
succession only served to still farther accentuate and concentrate the differential 
strains at special horizons of the crust, during the Tertiary movements the same 
crush-zones were again and again the seat of crush-movements, and were 
invaded afresh by molten material. In the unmediate vicinity of the larger 
igneous masses, the sedimentary deposits tended to subside; thus the lucal 



80 Miscellaneous. 

hoi-izoutal cnist-strains increased in intensity. Dui-ing protracted periods of 
crush and deformation, the earlier intrusions suffered, together witii the 
original thrust-masses and dowiislip-slices. They were cleaved and faulted, 
locally altered, sheared or fragmented just as their sedimentary roof and floor. 
Later dykes and veins ramified in them and in the environing sediments, and 
the direction of these later dykes often gives valuable evidence of the local 
horizontal crust-strains associated with continued local subsidences." 

And at pages 13-14 of the Introduction it is conclusively stated 
that 

" In the Fassa and Monzoni district there are the same evidences as in the 
Sella country of cross-folding and cross-thrusting. But now I furnish a mass 
of new evidence to show how greatly extended in time these movements were, 
how extremely complex their deformational effects, and how essentially the 
history of intermittent intercalations of igneous material was knit up with a 
long history of local subsidences taking place within the Periadriatic region of 
the Alps and producing effects which inevitably interfered with the movements 
of Aljjine distribution." 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

A Correction to " Notes on some MeduscB from Japan.^' 
By E.. KiRKPATRicK, r.Z.S. 

In a short paper entitled " Notes on some Medusoe from Japan," 
published in the ' Annals' for December 1903, I gave an account 
(p. 616) of a Medusa which I thought belonged to an undescribed 
genus and species, and to which I applied the names " Oono- 
meandrus chrysostephanus.'''' This Medusa, however, was described 
and figured by Tilesius in 1818 (Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, 
1818, torn. vi. p. 554:, pi. xviii.) under the name Medusa scdtatriv 
(from Nagasaki). 

Haeckel (' System der Medusen,' Zweiter Nachtrag, p. 636) places 
Tilesius's species under Poh/orchts, though he had, in manuscript, 
referred it to a new genus, Spirocodon. 

In 1886 Goette (Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1886, xxxix. 
p. 832) refers this species to the genus Sjnrocodon, Haeckel, and 
places the latter in a new subfamily, Spirocodontidce^ between the 
subfamilies Folyorchidce and Berenicidce of the family Cannotidce. 

I am much indebted to Mr. E. T. Browne for suggesting that the 
specimen described by me was the Medusa saltatrix of Tilesius and 
for calling my attention to the above-mentioned references to the 
literature on the subject. 

As there has been no figure of Spirocodon scdtatri.v since the 
" leidliche Abbildung" published by Tilesius in 1818, I trust that 
the carefully drawn figures of Mr. Highley, published in connexion 
with my notes, will prove of interest. 



THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 

[SEVENTH SERIES.] 
No. 74. FEBRUARY 1904. 



IX. — Notes on MantidEe in the Collection of the British 
Museum [Natural History), South Kensington, with Descrip- 
tions of new Species. By W. F. KiRBY, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

The undescribed species of Mantidae in the National Collec- 
tion are not very numerous ; but I here describe a series of 
interesting forms in advance of my ' Catalogue of Orthoptera.' 
It is proposed to include the Gressorial Orthoptera (Forticu- 
lidfe, Hemimeridse, Blattidse, Mantidse, and Phasmidge) in the 
first volume, leaving the Saltatorial groups (Gryllidffi, Phasgo- 
nuridee, and Locustida) to be included in the second volume. 

Mantidae. 

Eeemiaphilustje. 

Genus Theopompa, Stal. 

Theopompa Westwoodi, sp. n. 

Exp. al. 75-102 mm. 

Female. — Head pink, mouth-parts paler ; eyes and ocelli 
very prominent ; a strong transverse ridge on the face just 
below the antennae. 

Prothorax dark reddish brown above, sides and under 

surface paler ; an angular projection on each side in front, 

though the prothorax attains its greatest width further back, 

at about one third of its length, after which it narrows 

Ann, & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. 6 



82 Mr. W. F. Kirby on Mantida3 vi the 

gradually towards the extremity. Sides of mesotliorax above 
and upper surface of metathorax and abdomen mostly black, 
or interalary spaces and base of abdomen pruinose blue; 
the under surface, the extreme tip of the abdomen, and the 
appendages pale. 

Front legs bone-colour or pale flesh-colour, with most of 
the spines tipped with black ; coxse conspicuously pale and 
marked with two small black spots above ; femora with the 
outer side longitudinally excavated and strongly granulated 
on the basal half, and edged below towards the tip with three 
strong spines ; the inner surface edged with numerous spines ; 
ridged in the middle and longitudinally excavated above ; 
below the ridge a long black basal blotch runs nearly to the 
middle; beyond this the ridge is marked with an interrupted 
black line, and there is another rounded black blotch below it 
before the extremity. Middle and hind legs flesh-colour, 
spotted with darker. 

Tegmina hyaline, with pink nervures on the costal and 
internal areas and on the disk ; otherwise pink, varied with 
darker at the base, below the anterior radial, and along the 
other principal nervures ; there are about six oblong spots on 
the basal third of the anterior radial, which is branched at its 
extremity ; the upper branch of the posterior radial forms a 
short wide fork at the extremity, most distinct on the right 
side. 

Wings brownish hyaline, darker towards the costa at the 
base, and the costal and apical areas varied with lighter and 
darker spaces ; the branches of the anterior ulnar vein long. 

The male is much smaller than the female and less pink, 
with the basal half of the wings brownish. 

Hah. Ashanti; Tamsoo, Gold Coast. 

Allied to T. heterochroa, Gerst., but larger, the wings 
lighter, more uniform in colour, and differently veined. 

Genus HUMBEKTIELLA, Sauss. 
HHmhertiella ocularis. 
2 . Humbertiella ocularis, Sauss. Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxiii. p. 16 (1872). 

Exp. al. 46 mm. 

Male. — Body and legs reddish above, testaceous beneath. 
Head and prothorax more or less varied with black above ; 
legs spotted and streaked with black above, the black and 
testaceous markings forming long alternate streaks on the 
middle and hind tibi^ and tarsi. 

Tegmina of a slightly yellowish hyaline ; a row of oblong 
black spots along the mediastinal nervure, the rest (except 



Collection of the British Museum. 83 

the costal and internal areas) marked all over witli round 
brown spots along the nervures. Wings brownish hyaline, 
with obsolete brown spots towards the tips. 

Hah, Borneo. 

Resembles H. indica, Sauss., cJ, but in that species the 
spots are much smaller, linear, and do not extend to the 
wings, and the abdomen is much darker above. It must 
also much resemble the male of //. ceylonicaj Sauss. 

Humbertiella (?) Brunneri, sp. n. 
Entella Brunneri, Fruhstorfer, MS. 

(J. — Long. Corp. 21, exp. al. 25 ram. 

$ . — Long. Corp. 25, exp. al. 28 ram. 

Clay-colour, more or less mottled with light brown ; head 
and pronotum without conspicuous elevations ; pronotum with 
the shoulders rounded off, but otherwise with the outline 
nearly as in H. indica. 

Tegraina reddish, with yellowish nervures, frequently 
expanded, especially in the female, into indistinct spots ; the 
subcostal nervure with a black line more or less broken into 
long spots. A large somewhat ill-denned pale stigma, 
bordered before and behind with blackish ; the anal area and 
nearly the half of the lower and outer border almost trans- 
parent. Wings dark orange towards the base in the male, 
more reddish towards the costa ; a broad smoky-brown border, 
intersected by white transverse nervures ; above the fold the 
border is narrower, darker, and slightly edged with hyaline 
at the extreme apex of the wing. The female differs in the 
basal part of the wing being bright yellow, with no reddish 
shade. 

Hah. Lombok. 

This curious species seems to me to be more nearly related 
to Hwnhertiella than to Entella or to Hapalomantis, to which 
Westwood refers a Bornean species {H, semirufala), the 
female of which (Rev. Mant. pi. i. fig. 1) appears to be nearly 
related to our Humhertiella Brunneri^ except that the extre- 
mity of the pronotum is distinctly narrowed in the figure. 

Genus Pyrgomantis, Gerst. 
Pyrgomantis Jonesi^ sp. n. 

Long. Corp. 45, exp. al. 55 mm. 

Male. — Yellowish brown or light brown (perhaps green 
during life) ; tegmina and wings with the costal area 
yellowish ; smoky brown towards the base, with the transverse 



6 



* 



84 Mr. W. F. Kirby on Mantidge m the 

nervures mostly wliite below the middle ; outer part of wings 
and tegmina smoky hyaline. 

Hab. South Nigeria [Dr. 8. A. Jones). 

Resembles P. singularis, Gerst. (which I cannot distinguish 
from P. nasuta, Thunb. & Sauss.), but easily recognizabla 
by the coloured wings and by the protuberance on the head, 
■which is broader and more obtuse. 

CsCEMABODINM. 

Genus Chceradodis, Gerv. 

Choeradodis squilla. 

Chceradodis squilla, Sauss. Mittli. schweiz. ent. Ges. iii. p. 72 (1871) ; 
M^in. Soc. Geneve, xxi, p. 13, pi. iv. figs. 3, 3 a (1871). 

Hah. Ceylon. 

The insects figured by Westwood as C. squilla agree with 
C. ca7iceUata, Fabr., as identified by Wood- Mason, and not 
with the former species. 

Mantix^js. 
Genus HapalopezA, Stal. 

Ilapalopeza maculata, sp. n. 

Long. corp. cum tegm. 20 mm. 

Yellowish green (probably green during life) ; face with 
two round black spots below the ocelli, and two larger ones on 
the vertex ; behind these, two, wider apart, being just within 
the eyes, and between these are two other small reddish spots, 
and low down on the occiput are two more black spots. 
Antennae black, with the first and third joints pale. Pro- 
notum greenish in the middle and reddish on the sides, with 
four large black spots, two on the widest part and two before 
these. Legs greenish, the knees, tips of spines, and tips of 
tibise and tarsi darker ; front femora with two small reddish 
or brownish marks on the basal half. 

Tegmina subhyaline, strongly iridescent, with the subcostal 
nervuie reddish ; the other nervures mostly brown. 

Bab. Ceylon {E. E. Green). 

Allied to H. tigrina, Westw., which is possibly not distinct 
from H. miens, Sauss. Some specimens of //. maculata are 
more reddish and uniform in colour than that described, with 
the spots on the head much smaller and less distinct; but 
the four large spots on the pronotum and the two small spots 
on the front femora seem to be always constant. 



Collection of the British Museum, 85 

Genus Carvilia, Stal. 
Carvilia cosfalis, sp. n. 

Mantis cincta, T.nr. a, Gerst. Deckeu's Reisen in Ost-Afrika, iii, (2) 
pp. 14, 15 (1873). 

Long. Corp. 52, exp. al. 50 mm. 

Female. — Tawny brown; head with the base of the labrum 
black, and a black oval transverse depression, on the lower 
edge of which the two upper ocelli stand ; head transverse^ 
twice as broad as the front of the prothorax. 

Prothorax half as long again as the meso- and metathorax 
taken together ; suddenly expanded above the anterior coxa3, 
the frontal lobe carinated and granulated above, and the whole 
length of the prothorax set with rather small teeth on the 
sides. 

Abdomen expanded, colour darker than the rest of the 
body. 

Front legs testaceous ; coxa3 granulated and denticulated 
behind, and edged in front with a row of about 15 small teeth, 
of which 4 or 5 are larger than the others, and are black 
beneath, except at the tips. Cox£e marked with three blackisli 
bands above, and below with a spot at the base, and a large 
dusky space before the extremity. Femora with 3 strong 
teeth on the upper edge and about 12 on the lower, the latter 
black beneath. Tibire with about 14 spines, those towards 
the extremity black at the tips, and the terminal spine wholly 
black ; on the upper and outer surface the femora are marked 
with three blackish bands. 

All the tarsi blackish ; middle and hind legs otherwise dull 
reddish, with no distinct markings. 

Tegmina blue-black, with traces of a pale transverse band 
across the centre ; costal area yellowish, and the apex and 
hind margin tawny brown; hind wings blue-black, the 
margins paler, and the costa narrowly reddish. 

Hah. Abyssinia. 

Gerstaecker may be right in treating this insect as a variety 
of his M. cincta^ but it is very different in appearance from 
the typical form of that species. 

Genus Spuendale, Stal. 

Sphendale xanthoptera. 

Mantis xanthoptera, Oliv. Enc. Meth. vii. p. 637. n. 61 (1702). 
Mantis ochroptera, Licht. Trans. Linn. kSoc. Lond. vi. p. 29. n. 29 

(1802). 
Mantis nympha, Stoll, Spectres, Mantes, p. 19, pi. i. fig. 22 (1813). 

The locality of Stoll's specimen is given as Negapatam. 



86 Mr. W. F. Kirby on Mantidse in the 

A female from Nepal, fairly agreeing with his figure, was 
ticketed Afantis obscura, Fabr., by Bates; but the type of the 
latter species is a male, and came from " Equatorial Africa " 
(probably Sierra Leone). 

Sphendale rohusta, sp. n. 
Thespis robusta, Bates, MS. 

Long. Corp. 63, prothov. 17, exp. al. 39 mm. 

Female. — Brown, front legs slightly marbled with black ; 
tegmina unicolorous, except the internal area, which is blue- 
black, except at the base ; wings with the costal area 
yellowish, with a black spot in the middle ; otherwise light 
violet-brown, with white cross-nervures. 

Hah. Nepal. 

Closely allied to 8. xanthoptera^ Oliv., but the front coxse 
and the sides of the prothorax are much more finely denticu- 
lated, the prothorax is slightly and the abdomen considerably 
broader, and the tegmina and wings are much more uniform 
in colour. 

Genus Photina, Burm. 

Photina gracilipes, n. n. 

Carclioj)tera reticulata, Sauss. M^ni. Mex., Mant. p. 196 (1871), nee 
Burm. 

Hah. Para (?). 

Saussure has enumerated two species under the name of 
Cardioptera reticulata, and Westwood has renamed Bur- 
meister's species Mantis Burmeisteri (Rev. Mant. p. 15). But 
in such a case it is the second species, not the first, which 
requires another name. 

Genus Leptocola, Gerst. 

Leptocola gracilUma. 

Leptocola gracilUma, Gerst. Mitth. Ver. Neii-Vorpommern, xiv. p 92 

(1883). ^ 

Eucliomena Stanleyana, Westw, Rev. Mant. p. 33 (1889). 

This curious species occurs in various parts of Western 
Africa, from the Cameroons to the Congo. 



Collection of the British Museum. 87 



Vatinje. 

Genus Heteeoch^ta, Westw. 
(Arc. Ent. i. p. 161, pi. xli., 1845.) 

Heterochceta orientalisj sp. n. 

Long. Corp. 115, long, pronot. 50, exp. al. 120 mm. 
General colour reddish grey ; head deeply concave in front, 
semicircular, the vertex forming a narrow transverse carina, 
at least in the female, and the eyes curving outwards and 
forwards, very large, and ending in a large conical spine. 
Pronotum narrowed in front and strongly granulated, carinated, 
laterally serrated before the enlargement above the coxse, 
which is moderate, and bordered by a narrow rounded ridge. 
Hind part of prothorax with a middle carina and distinctly 
raised at the extremity. Front coxse minutely serrated above 
and very strongly and irregularly dentated below, but more 
strongly in the female than in the male. Two teeth near the 
base and one before the extremity are the largest. Middle 
and hind femora with small dentated lobes at the extremity 
beneath. 

Tegmina varied with reddish, and subhyaline grey, the 
reddish colour increasing and becoming more uniform towards 
the extremity ; inner margin hyaline. Wings on the costal 
area almost hyaline, with transverse dark spots ; apex yellow, 
preceded by a large steel-blue blotch. The rest of the wing 
is clear subhyaline yellow, divided by narrow undulating 
steel-blue bands in the male, which are broader and anasto- 
mose in the female. 

Hah. Luitpoldhette, East Africa {<$) ] German East 
Africa ( ? ) ; British East Africa (immature ^). 

It is probably this species to which Gerstaecker alludes 
(Mitth. Ver. Neu-Vorpomm. xiv. p. 94, 1883) as a variety of 
the very distinct West-African H. tenuipes, Westw. 

Genus PSEUDOCH^TA, nov. 

Allied to Heterochceta, Westw. ; eyes shorter, obtusely 
conical, and ending in a blunt point instead of a long spine ; 
ocelli very prominent; middle and hind femora with rounded 
denticulated lateral lobes ; cerci jointed and laminated. 



88 On Mantidse in the British Museum. 



Pseudochceta Strachani, sp. n. 

Long, Corp. 114, prothor. 36, cercorum 8, exp. al. 103 mm. 
Female. — Body and legs shining fawn-colour, the latter 
indistinctly mottled with darker; prothorax with the dorsal 
carina well marked; laterally denticulated throughout and 
slightly expanded above the front coxse ; front coxse slightly 
curved, attenuated beyond the middle, and slightly expanded 
again before the extremity ; dorsal and lateral carinse finely 
denticulated, the front lateral carina with about 6 mode- 
rately large teeth ; front femora half as long again, attenuated 
and distinctly curved beyond the middle, with long pale spines 
tipped with black, and the lower carina denticulated to the 
base ; front tibi^ slender, not more than half as long as the 
femora, with only 6 spines on the outer carina, including the 
terminal one, but with a great number of curving spines on 
the inner carina, gradually increasing in length, and termi- 
nating in an immense curving hook about two fifths as long as 
the tibiee. First joint of the tarsi slender, curved, about half as 
long as the tibite and two fifths longer than the remaining joints 
of the tarsi. Middle femora and tibiee rather short (especially 
the femora) and attenuated in the middle ; all the carinse very 
finely denticulated ; femora with an inner and tibise with an 
outer terminal spine. Hind femora and tibiae long, rather 
slender, of nearly equal length, and all the carinaj very finely 
denticulated ; femora with an inner terminal spine, tibise 
with an inner and outer one. 

Tegmina subhyaline, clouded with fawn-colour on the 
costal half; wings subhyaline, clouded with pink along the 
costa, below which are several rows of light brown and sub- 
hyaline blotches, and towards the centre the wing is orna- 
mented with large irregular spots and bands of lighter yellow 
and steel-blue. 

Abdominal laminse slightly narrowed at the base, otherwise 
unitbrmly broad, and obtuse at the ends. 
Hah. Lagos {Dr. Strachan). 

This very interesting species has a strong superficial 
resemblance to Heterochceta orientalis from East Africa, 
described above. 



On Malacodermata from South Africa and Brazil. 89 



X. — The Collections of William John Burchell, D.C.L.^ in 
the Hope Department^ Oxford University Museum. 

III. Rhipidocdrides et Malacodermes recueillis par W. J. 
Burchell dans ses voyages en Afrique aiistrale (1810- 
1815) et au Bresil (1825-1830)/ avec la description de 
quatre esp^ces nouvelles. Par J. BOURGEOIS. 

I HAVE added toMons. Bourgeois' memoir all the observations 
and data I can find recorded in Burchell's manuscript notes. 
Such additions are placed between square brackets. The 
numbers by which the specimens are brought into relation 
with the present series o£ papers are printed in heavy type, 
to distinguish them from Burchell's reference numbers. — 
E. B. POULTON, Dec. 9, 1903, Oxford. 

KHIPIDOCERID^. 
Ehipidocera, Latr. 

1. marginata, Kirby, 1 <$ . — Bresil. 

[No. 215. Sept. 15, 1825, Rio. Burchell went for an excur- 
sion on this day " along the Aqueduct (from Sta. Theresa to 
the ridge above the valley of Laranjeiros)," but the words in 
his " Notes of Brazilian insects " probably indicate that he 
captured the insect in the house at Rio. " Lampyris. Non 
lucet. Caught in my room j perhaps brought in with the 
plants."] 

MALACODERMATA. 

Lycidae. 

Lycus, Fabr. 

Lycus in sp. 

2. ampliatus, Fahr., 1 c? . — Afrique australe. 

[The specimen is numbered 82. The corresponding number 
in Burchell's manuscript " Catalogus systematicus Insectorum 
in Itinere per Africam australem extratropicam " proves that 
the insect was captured on March 12, 1814, " in plantis " at 
Wagenbooms River, north of Plettenberg Bay. Burchell was 
in much uncertainty as to the determination of the species. 
He gives the names ^' rostratus ^, Fab.," with an inverted query. 



90 Mons. J. Bourgeois on Malacodermata 

" L. palUatus ex verb. Liclitens[tein]." He also added 
the word " new " in pencil^ and suggested the specific name 
" sciitatus, B.," underlining it according to his custom. The 
specimen was also examined by Dr. W. E. Leach, of the 
British Museum, as is proved by a paper in his handwriting, 
dated by Burchell Nov. 28, 1818. This manuscript, which 
is bound into the " Catalogus," is a letter and list of the 
numbers upon over one hundred forms of Burchell's South- 
African insects, with determinations or such statements as 
*' new," " unknown," " not described," " to be examined," &c. 
The letter speaks of other lists to follow " next week," but 
no more have yet been found. A postscript says " Do send 
me on Monday by post your names for the new species " [see 
above, pp. 48, 49]. In nearly fifty cases such suggested names 
were written by Burchell in Leach's list. No. 82 is stated 
to be '^ new or not described," and the name " scutatus''^ is 
written opposite to the number here as in the " Catalogus." 

" 1 Duplicate L." indicates that one specimen was given to 
Leach for the British Museum. The letters " ? S. L." in the 
'' Catalogus " indicate that Burchell thought, but was not 
sure, that the species 82 also occurred at Sierra Leone, to 
use his own words, " according to a small collection sent to 
the Horticultural Society, and which I saw at the Linnean 
Society, 2. 8. 22." 

There are three other references to no. 82 in Burchell's 
handwriting : — 

(1) A series of notes headed " The following notes are the 
result of a collation of the whole of my African collection of 
insects, with the Banksian Cabinet (now belonging to the 
Linnean Society), the greatest part of which is named in the 
handwriting of Fabricius. 1823 to 1824 " ; and then, appa- 
rently added later, " but I fear some labels had been 
misplaced." Li this list we find "82. Lycus rostratas ^. 
Specimina Banksiana sunt paulo minora." 

(2) Another undated collation headed " The following 
Notes are the result of a collation of all my African insects 
with the figures in Olivier's ' Entomologie.' " Here we find 
" 82. Lycus latissimus.'^ 

(3) The third reference is on a single sheet in Burchell's 
handwriting, headed " Remarks on my African Insects by 
Mr. Wm. McLeay, 1 April, 1824." McLeay's opinion, as 
recorded by Burchell, was " all the Lyciave distinct species."] 

3. palliatus, F., yav. pallulatuSf Dalm., 1 (^ . — Afriqueaustr. 
[No. 81. Nov. 18, 1813, Uitenhage, Cape Colony.] 



from South Africa and Brazil. 91 

Chlamydolycus^ Bourg. 

4-9. Burckelli, sp. n., 3 c?, 3 ? . — Afrique australe. 

[All captured at Uitenhage, Cape Colony, Nov. 18, 1813.] 

(5 . Breviter ovatus, fere opacus, supra ochraceus, thoracis disco 
(limbo antico excepto), elytrorum regions scutellari, macula 
magna laterali ad expansionem elytrorum, sutura trienteque 
apicali nigris ; subtus niger, nitidiusculus, abdominis lateribus 
ochraceis ; rostro breviore quam in L. elevato ; prothorace trans- 
verso, subtrapeziformi, basi longitudine fere duplo latiore, apicem 
versus parum attenuato, antice subrotundato, lateribus medio 
paululum coarctatis, medio longitudinaliter sat profunde sulcato, 
angulis posticis extus vix productis, apice retusis ; elytris in 
dimidio anteriori singulatim in expansionem magnam, supra con- 
cavatam et valde reflexam, infra autem convexam et declivem 
rotundato-dilatatis, dein ad apicem singulatim rotundatis, fortiter 
reticulatis, intervallis reticuli grosse rugoso-piinctatis, costis 2 
parum elevatis iustructis ; abdominis segmento penultimo postice 
in medio paululum triangulariter inciso, ultimo (8°) elongato- 
triangulari, bivalvato, omnino nigro ; pedibus nigris, trochanteri- 
bus femorumque basi (tertii paris prsecipue) plus minusve rufes- 
centibus. 

Long. 10-13 mill. ; lat. max. thorac. 2|-4 mill. ; lat. max. elytr. 

8-11 mill. 
$ . A mare difFert elytris subparallelis, expansione elytrorum ad 
laminam elongatam, angustissimam, immaculatam redacta ; abdo- 
minis segmento ultimo (7") semilunato, integro. 

Long. 10-14 mill. ; lat. 6-8 mill. 

Tr^s voisin de L. Poidtoni, Bourg. (Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 
1902, p. 739) ; en differe surtout par la taille raoindre, le rostre 
un peu plus court, le milieu de I'abdomen noir dans les deux 
sexes (cliez PouJtoni ^ I'abdomen est entierement ocrace) et 
par I'expansion humdrale de la ? a, peine marquee, reduite a 
une lame tr^s peu saillante et allongee, d'oii resultent, dans ce 
sexe, des elytres presque paralleles. 

[The females are numbered 78 [7], 79 [8], and 80 [9]. 
The numbers in brackets are those of the specimens in the 
present paper. No. 78 was submitted to Leach and marked 
" not described," the name ohlongus, B., being suggested by 
Burchell both here and in the " Catalogus," where " new " is 
written in pencil. In the Banksian Collation Burchell wrote 
opposite 78-80 " Z. jt>roJo6C«We«s ? [Fab.] qui figuram habet 
elytrorum apice majus angirstatam." In the Olivier Collation 
the same name is given to no. 80. The "Catalogus" men- 
tions " 5 duplicates " and a single " L.," indicating that one 
specimen was given to the British Museum. 



92 Mons. J. Bourgeois on Alalacodermala 

The males are numbered 86 [4] and 87 [5], and one bears 
the date 18. 11. 13 [6] without a number. No information 
is to be found concerning these three specimens, except the 
locality and date and the fact that there were " 4 duplic. L."] 

Merolycus, Bourg. 

10, 11. rostratus, L., 2 ^ • — -^fi^- austr. [Uitenhage, Cape 
Colony, Jan. 16, 1814.] 

12. — — , wdii'. pyriformis, Murray, 1 (^. — A£r. austr. 

[Burchell's no. 85 captured at the same date and locality as 
10 and 11. *' Mares gaudent elytris latioribus. — Foem. an- 
gustiorib, Vix volantem vidi. Hab. in floribus " (Catalogus). 
In the Banksian Collation Burchell wrote " 85. Lycus. 
Similis colore forma Lyco rostrato qui tamen abunde difFert 
rostro, et elytris paulo majoribus."] 

Calopteeon, Gudr.-Mdn. 

13. tropicum, L. {fasciatum, F.), var. humeris immaculatis, 

1 ?. — Bresil. [Porto Real (now Porto Nacional), 
March 3, 1829.] 

Le type de I'espece a les elytres tachees de jaune aux 
^paules et parait plus spdcialement rdpandu en Guyane; j'en 
ai vu cependant plusieurs exemplaires du Brdsil. 

14-17. hrasiHense, Cast. {simiaticoUe, Luc). Color, typic. : 
elytris fusco-nigris, macula humerali mogna fasciaque 
lata transversa pone medium flavis ; abdominis segraentis 
primis medio llavo-maculatis (Bourg. Comptes Rend. 
Soc. ent. Belg. 1879, p. xv). 1 S,o ? . 

[The male [14] bears the number 808, indicating capture, 
Oct. 22, 1825, on the excursion from Rio into Minas Geraes. 
The detailed locality is given as " In a Ro^a (about 4 miles 
S.S.W. of the house of Discoberto) on the road towards 
'Nepomucena." The single specimen captured is named 
" Z?/CMS." The dates and localities of the other specimens 
are respectively : — [15] Feb. 9, 1826, by the River Pacaque, 
Organ Mountains; [16] Feb. 21, 1826, Organ Mountains; 
and [17] Jan. 15, 1827, Cubatao, " given by Thomas Smith."] 

18, 19. , var. a : elytris flavis, fascia dorsali interrupta 

apiceque late nigrescentibus (Bourg. he. supr, cit. p. xvi). 

2 ? . — Bresil, Cubatao. 

[18. Dec. 8, 1826. " Cubatao, at the Rio das Pedras at 



from South Africa and Brazil, 93 

the Citio (where I resided) at the foot of the ascent up the 
great range of mountains." 

19. Jan. 15, 1827. " At Rio das Pedras and Cubatao."] 

20. hrasiUense, var. y : elytris fusco-nigris, fascia transversa 

obsoleta, sa?pius interrupta pone medium flava, humeris 
vix flavescentibus ; abdomine omnino nigro (Bourg. lac. 
supr. cit. p. xvi). 1 ? . — Brdsil. 

[Nov. 2, 1825. Excursion into Minas Geraes, " at Fran- 
cisco Manoel's."] 

21. serratum, L., 1 ? . — Bresil. 

[The specimen bears the date " 2?. 6. 29." On June 2, 
1829, Burchell was at " Sitio das Pedras," on the Eio 
Tocantins, a little above Pard.] 

22. limhatum, F., var. offine, Luc. (nee Taschenb.), 1 ? . — 

Bresil, Cubatao. 

[Dec. 8, 1826. See no. 18.] 

23. sexvittatum, Taschenb., Giebel's Zeits. 1871, p. 96. 1 ^^ . 
— Bresil, Organ Mountains. 

[Feb. 15, 1826. "Along the road 1^ mile S. of the 
house." Evidently near the River Pacaque in the Organ 
Mountains.] 

Celetes, Newra. 

24. BurchelU, sp. n., 1 ^ . — Bresil, Cubatao. 

cJ . Elongatus, subparallelus, sat dense tenuiter pubescens, vix 
nitidus ; capite brunneo, maudibulis palpisque testaceis, oculis 
maximis, valde prominentibus, nigris ; fronte concavata ; antenuis 
brunueis, articulo secundo minimo, transverso, testaceo, sequenti- 
bus, a tertio inde, flabellum compressum, articuliim ipsum longi- 
tudine multo superantem, a basi emittentibus, ultimo compresso, 
elongato-elliptico, prcecedente duplo longiori ; prothorace trapezi- 
formi, parum transverso, antice attenuato, medio longitudinaliter 
carinato, ochraceo-flavo, disco fuscescente, margine autico medio 
angulato-lobato et utrinque sinuato, lateribus sat coarctatis, angulis 
anticis bene distinctis, posticis estrorsum valde productis, apice 
subacutis ; scutello subquadrato ; elytris basi latitudine thoracis, 
apicem versus paululum dilatatis, subparalleJis, brunneis, humeris 
fasciaque transversa mediana ad marginem dilatata ochraceo-flavis, 
4-costatis, costis 2 et 4 multo elevatioribus, intervallis costarum a 



94 Mons. J. Bourgeois on Malacodermata 

clathris transversis quadrato-areolatis ; corpore subtus brunneo, 
trochauteribus femorumquesummabasi genubusque flavescentibus. 
Long. 6 mill. ; lat. 2 mill. 

[Captured at 10 P.M. on Dec. 18, 1826, between the 
" Middle Part of the ascent up the " Sierra da Cubatao and 
the " Upper Part " of the same ascent.] 

Plateros, Bourg. 

25. apicah's, Germ., 1 ex. — Bresil, Minas Geraes, near Nepo- 

raucena. 

[Nov. 3-6, 1825. See above, page 45. On 3rd and 4th at 
Francisco Manoel's, 5th at Joao Alfonso's, 6th at Capitflo 
Leite's. " On the 3rd took a stroll up the hill to a Ro^a and 
got many insects." " 4tli .... ascended tiie hill into the 
forest northward of our E-ancho and took insects, till wet 
through in a thunder shower. In the evening caught some 
insects by the candle."] 

26. variicostatus, sp. n., 1 ? . — Bresil, Minas Geraes. 

Subparallelus, supra fere planatus, subopacus, tenuissimepubescens, 
nigro-fuscus, prothorace antice et lateraliter sat late flavo-mar- 
ginato, trapeziformi, basi longitudine paullo latiore, antice sub- 
rotundato, basi utrinque sinuato, lateribus fere rectis, angulis 
anlicis sat bene distinctis, posticis extrorsum versus pauluni pro- 
longatis, subacutis, disco postice longitudinaliter canaliculate, 
antice carinulato ; elytris 9-costatis, costis insequalibus, alternis 
(prsesertim 4, 6 et 8) magis elevatis, sexta a medio inde attenuata, 
intervallis costarum a clathris transversis punctato-areolatis ; 
corpore subtus nitidiusculo, tenuiter pubescente, fusco, trochau- 
teribus femorumque summa basi rufescentibus ; abdominis seg- 
mento ultimo ogivali ( $ ). 

Long. 7 mill. ; lat. 2| mill. 

Espece voisine de P. tnivqiialis, Bourg. (Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 
1899, p. 99), mais de coloration diffdrente. 

[Oct. 23, 1825. ^^ Lampyris:' At Discoberto, Minas 
Geraes.] 

Lampyrididse. 
Hyas, Cast. 

27. Sp.?, 1 ? .—Bresil, Minas Geraes. 

[Oct. 21, 1825. ^^ Lamjyyrisy "In a rossa at Disco- 
berto and along a channel (on the margin of the forest) which 
conducts water to the house."] 



from South Africa and Brazil. 95 

Cladodes, Solier. 

28. lamellicornis, Mots., 1 c? • — Bresil, flio. 

[Jan. 1, 1826. " Catete and Praia de Flamingo.] 

^THRA, Cast. 

29. maledicta, Ern. Oliv., Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 1888, p. 79 

{lateralis, Cast., nee Guer.-Menev.) . 1 c? • — Bresil, 
Cubatao. 

[Dec. 9, 1826. " At Rio das Pedras ; in the Forest."] 

LuciDOTA, Oast. 

30. Sp. ?, 1 ex. — Bresil, Minas Geraes. 

[" Lampjjris'' Oct. 25, 1825. " At Discoberto, near 
Joao Pedro's house."] 

31. Sp. ?, 1 ex. — Brdsil, Minas Geraes. 

\^^ Lampyrisy Oct. 16, 1825. On the previous day 
Burchell was " at the Discoberto do Antonio Velho."] 

PhotinuSj Cast. 

32. Sp. ?, 1 ex. — Brdsil, Minas Geraes. 

[" Lampyris:' Oct. 16, 1825. See no. 31.] 

33. Sp. ?, 1 ex. — Bresil, Organ Mountains. 
[Feb. 12, 1826. "By the River Pacaqud."] 

34. Sp.?, 1 ex.— Biesil, S. Paulo. 

[June 19, 1827.] 

35. 36. Sp.?, 2 ex. — Bresil, Minas Geraes. 

\^' Lampyris:' Oct. 13, 1825. On Oct. 12 Burchell was 
at Paraliiua.] 

Cratomoephus, Mots. 
37-40. gigardeus^ Drury, 4 ex. — Bresil, Cubatao. 

[1826 [37], Dec. 6, " at Mr. Eric Smith's sitio at Rio das 
Pedras " ; [38] 7 P.M. Dec. 7th, probably the same locality ; 
[39, 40] Dec. 10, '' Rio das P<^dras," 2 examples.] 



96 Mons. J. Bourgeois 07i Malacodermata 

41. '^ concolor^ Perty, 1 ex. — Bresil, Par^. 
[Jan. 25, 1830.] 

ASPIDOSOMA, Cast. 

42-52. lineatum, Scbonh.j 11 ex., dont I'un avec la mention 
manuscrite : ''^luce intermittente." — Bresil. 

[The dates and localities o£ the specimens are as follows : — 
42,43. Dec. 29, 1825 (2 examples). From Rio de 
Janeiro to Catombi, Barra Verraeliia, and Rio Comprido, 

44. Jan. 26, 1826. Rio de J. " A botanical and entomo- 
logical excursion to the Bd,rra Vermelha, Morro de Ladeira, 
and Catombl." 

45. April 19, 1829. Porto Real (now Porto Nacional). 

46. June 18, „ Para. 

47. Aug. 21, „ Para, S. Jos(^. 

48. Sept. 1, J, „ „ [arsenal). 

49. Sept. 2, ,, ,, ,, (between S. Jose and 

50. Sept. 19, ,, „ „ 

51. Nov. 14, „ „ „ 

52. Jan. 11, 1830. Para. " Luce intermittente."] 

53. ? cassideii7n, Mots., 1 ex. — Bresil. 
[Pard, Jan. 21, 1830, 9 p.m.] 

54. ? impressipenne, Mots., 1 ex. — Brdsil. 

[Feb. 11, 1826. Organ Mountains, " in a walk to the Ip<5 
trees."] 

55. Sp.?— Bresil. 

[Santos, Sept. 28, 1826, 7 p.m.] 

56-61. 7'oseiceps, Bourg., Revue d'Entom. 1884, p. 286 (decrit 
par erreur de Nouvelle-Cal(5donie). — Bresil, 6 ex. 

[56. Jan. 1, 1826. Rio. Catete and Prdia de Flamengo. 

57. Sept. 20, 1826. Sdntos. In the Forest above the 
Monastery o£ S. Bento. " Lampyris : the common sort 
flying in the evenings : and its larva, also giving fits of 
light." One of these larvEe [57 a] captured by Burchell on 
the same day, Sept. 20, is also in the collection. 

58, 59, 60. Sept. 28, 1826, 7 p.m. (3 examples). Sdntos. 
61. Nov. 26, 1826. Santos. 



from South Africa and Brazil. 97 

67 a. Cette laive rappelle, par sa forme generale, celle de 
V Aspidosoma candelarium, Reiche, decrite et figur^e par 
Goureau dans les 'Annalesde la Societe entomologique de 
France/ 1845, pi. 7. ii. figs. 1-6 ; mais elle en diff^re 
(autant, du raoins, qu'il est permis d'en juger sur un exera- 
plaire piqiid et deja vieux) par le premier arceau thoracique 
un peu plus allonge et plus attdnu^ en avant, ainsi que par 
les 2^ et 3® plus grands, sensiblement plus longs que les 
suivants. Les tubercules stigraatiftres des cot^s des segments 
abdominaux ne sont pas saillants comme dans la figure citee 
ci-dessus, mais cela tient sans doute k I'etat de dessication de 
cette larve. Quant aux pattes, elles sont conformdas de 
ni^me, frangees de quelques soies a leur bord interne et 
terminees par un double crochet. — Long. 9 mill.; larg. max. 
21 mill.] 

62. Sp.?— Br^sil. 

[RiO; aqueduct. March 12, 1826.] 

63. Sp. ? — Bresilj Minas Geraes. 

[Oct. 25, 1825. At Discoberto, near Joao Pedro's house. 
" Lampyris^ "] 

Lampyris, L. 

64-66. Sp. ?, 3 cJ . — Afrique australe. L. conspicuce, G:y\^., 

vicinus, sed scutello abdomineque flavis. 

[No. 88 [66], " 13 Diiplic. L L," was captured at 7.30 P.M. 
on Oct. 6, 1814, at Nowsakamma River, Mossel Bay. 
" Abdominis pars alba lucem reddit. v. J." (Catalogus). 
The reference is evidently to an undiscovered Journal of 
South-African travel. Leach considered the species new, and 
Burchell suggested the name uliginaria, B., for it, but in 
his Banksian Collation doubtfully sets it down as " Lampyris 
marginata ji." 

No. 92 [64], "6. Dupl. L L," was captured at 8 p.m. on 
Oct. 3, 1814, at Sylvan Station, north of Georgetown. 
Leach considered it as possibly the same form as that figured 
by Olivier (''pi. i. f. 5 J?"), and Burchell suggested the 
name " sylvatica, B." In his Olivier Collation Burchell noted 
the same resemblance as follows: — ''92. Lampyris mauri- 
tanica quoad figuram (Genus 28, Tab. i. fig. 5 b) sed fig. 5 a 
est valde diversa." 

The third specimen [65] bears only the date 3. 10. 14 
(when Burchell was at " Sylvan Station"), with the figure 7 
and an imperfect letter, which probaljy indicates p.[m.].] 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7. VoJ. xiii. 7 



98 Mons. J. Bourgeois on 'Malaoodermaia 

Amythetes, Illig. 
67-71. apicalis, G-erm., 5 $ . — Bresil, Rio de J. 

[Sept. 15, 1825. Along the Aqueduct (from Sta. Theresa 
to the ridge above the valley of Laranjeiros). Five specimens 
are mentioned in the '' notes," with the following remarks : — 
" Lampyris {Lycus) . Antennae uno latere latissime pectinataj 
nigrse. Elytr. rufescentia, apicibus nigris. Ex sylvaticis 
herbosis. Noctu valde lucens."] 

72. Sp. ?, 1 c?.— Bre'sll, Par^L 
[Dec. 15, 1829, 12 p.m.] 

Megalophthalmus, Gray. 
73-78. ptiliniformis, sp. n., 6 S . — Bresil, Para. 

c^" . Oblongus, pallida fusco-griseus, flavido pubescens ; capita fusco, 
mandibulis palpisque testaceis ; oculis nigris ; antennis articulo 
primo flavo, sequentibus iufuscatis, ramulis pallidis, immaculatis ; 
prothorace rugoso-punetato, transverso, trapezoidali, margine 
antico leviter rotundato, lataribus fare rectis, subparallelis, basi 
sat profunda bisinuata, augulis posticis leviter productis, disco 
infuseato, levissime cariniilato, pone medium tubarculis 2 safc 
elevatis, glabris, nitidiusculis notato ; elytris basi panic dilutiori- 
bus, rugoso-puuctatis, singulatim 3-costatis, costa prima pone 
medium avanescente ; pectore flavo, abdomine nigro, sagmentis 
vantralibus 5 ct 6 albido-cereis ; pedibus pallida fuscis. 

Long. 5 mill. 

Voisin de M. ohscurus, Ern. Ollv. (Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 
1895, p. 146), dont il differe surtout par la premiere cote 
elytrale abr^gee posterieurement. 

Je lui conserve le nom inedit sous lequel I'avait ddsigne 
West wood. 

[73. Dec. 28, 1829. Paia. This specimen bears a label 
in the handwriting of Professor Westwood^ " ptih'nifortm's, 
Westw., sp. nov." 

74, 75, 76. Jan. 11, 1830, 8 p.m. Pard (3 examples) ; two 
of these bear the number " 1454," a reference number of 
which the meaning was contained in an " S^** (long) red-coloured 
volume " which did not reach Oxford. " This red vol. has 
not been found, J. 0. W." is appended in pencil by Prof. 
Westwood to Burchell's allusion to it. The last entry in the 
" Brazilian notes " deals with the number 1345, for March 
18th, 1829; so that the missing volume contains Burchell's 
recorded observations between this date and Feb. lOfch, 1830, 



from South Africa and Brazil. 99 

the day he sailed from Pard. The localities are fortunately 
preserved in the " Index," 

77. Jan. 13, 1830, 8 p.m. " 1451." Par^. 

78. Jan. 24, 1830. " 1451." Para.] 

LuciOLA, Cast. 

79-82. Sp. ?, 4 cJ . — Afrique australe. L. caffrce, Bohem., 
similis, sed major, pronoto dense reticuiato-punctato, 
medio longltudinaliter late nigro-fasciato. 

[Three specimens bear Barchell's nos. 89 [80], 90 [81], 
91 [82], and were considei-ed by Burchell to be the same as 
no. 88, viz. no. 66 of the present paper. They were captured 
with no. 88 at 7.30 p.m. on Oct. 6, 1814, at Nowsakamma 
River. The possibility of the accidental transposition of 
labels must, however, be borne in mind. The fourth specimen 
bears the no. 93 [79], and was captured at 8 P.M. Sept. 2 and 
26, 1814, at Sylvan Station. " Vespere ad lucernam volabat. 
Elytra antennae oculi et pedes nigra. Reliquae partes 
pallide flavae. 1 Duplic." Catalogus. The Banksiau 
Collation contains the note "93. Lamp. aff. Lamp, flahellico 
in statura et forma, cui thorax fusco-niger."] 

Photuris, Le Conte. 

83. mcestO) Germ., 1 ? . — Bresil, Minas Geraes. 

[Oct. 28, 1825. In the Forest on the West and on the 
East side of S. Joao de Nepomucena.] 

84, 85. fruticola, Mots., 2 ex. — Bresil, Rio de J. 

[84. March 16, 1826. In the upper part of the valley of 
Catombi, and along the road thence to Rio Comprido and 
Matto Porcos. 

85. April 9, 1826. '' Lampyris. About the middle of 
twilight, these begin to fly in great numbers about meadows 
and bushy places; they are not seen for more tlian about an 
hour."] 

86, 87. lineola, Blanch., 2 ex. — Bresil. 

[86. Dec. 9, 1826, 8 p.m. At Rio das Pedras ; in tiie 
Forest, Cubatao. 

87. March 2, 1829. Porto Real (Nacional). The speci- 
mens are numbered 1334. The following notes refer to 
thom : — 

" 1334. Lampyris. Probably the same species as 13;50 

7" 



100 Mons. J. Bourgeois on Ulalacodermata 

[see below]. It is common here, in certain nights or states 
of the weather, and perhaps at least foretels fair weather for 
that night. Its light is at intervals, and only (as in all the 
genus) when tljing. When taken it emits and withdraws its 
light much more rapidly ; as [it] seems as if the effect of 
breathing, whereas in flying the light and dark intervals are 
both much longer (abt 5 seconds more or less). 2. 3. [29]." 

Burchell had captured what he took to be the larva of 
P. lineola on March 1, 1829, in his garden at Porto Real. 
The following note refers to it. Tiie specimen itself has not 
been found. 

"1330. Larva of {Lamp^n's?). Caught in the garden 
crawling on the ground at night, and detected by means of a 
small spot of light at the head ; but on being touched it 
instantly emitted a much stronger light from every part or 
joint of the abdomen which previously was quite dark. The 
light proceeded only from the underpart : the back was dark 
at all times. 1. 3. [29]." 

The sudden increase of light which follows disturbance 
strongly supports A. R. Wallace's interpretation of the 
luminosity of glow-worms as aposematic] 

88. Sp. ?, 1 ex. — Bresil, Minas Geraes. Sat magna, elon- 
gato-elliptica, prothorace flavo, elytris fusco-nigris, an- 
guste (quadrante apicali excepto) albido-limbatis. 

[Oct. 26, 1825. At Discoberto ; near Joao Pedro's house. 

Cantharididse. 
Chauliognathus, Hentz. 
89-91. fallax, Germ., var., 3 ex. — Bresil, Minas Geraes. 

[89. Oct. 22, 1825. " In a Ro9a (about 4 miles S.S.W. of 
the house of Discoberto) on the road towards Nepomucena. 
Lamp^ris." 

90. Oct. 30, 1825. (In the forest) on the N.E. side of the 
arraial of Sao Joao de Nepomucena. 

91. Nov. 3-6, 1825. See no. 25, p. 91.] 

92. Sp.?, 1 c?.— Bresil, S. Paulo. [Feb. 2, 1827.] 

93. Sp.?, 1 ? .—Bresil, Porto Real (Nacional). 

[Jan. 11, 1829. " Staphylinus. Caught on the ground 



from South Africa and Brazil. 101 

at the back door, probably where it was attracted by animal 
substances." This label may have been accidentally trans- 
posed.] 

94. Sp.?, lex.— Bresil, Porto Real. [Feb. 8, 1829. Boracao.] 

95. Sp.?, 1 ex.— Bresil, Minas Geraes. [Nov. 3-6, 1825. 

See no. 25, p. 94.] 

96. Sp.?, 1 ex.— Bresil, Organ Mountains. [Feb. 18, 1826, 

9 P.M ] 

Cantharis, L. 

97. 98. viridescensj F., 2 ex. — Afr. australe. 

Le Catalogue de Munich indique par erreur viridescenSy 
F., comme synonyme de smaragdulay F., espece bresilienne 
qui a avec la premiere une certaine analogic de coloration, 
mais en est neanmoins bien distincte. 

[Both these specimens bear a V, of which the meaning is 
as follows, in Burchell's words : — " Sent to me by Villet as 
Cape Insects, and were received at Fulham during my absence 
in Brazil " (Catalogus).] 

99. hivittata, F., Syst. Eleuth. i. 1801, p. 302, 1 ex.— Afr. 
australe. (Orais au Catalogue de Miinich.) 

[No. 95. Captured Dec. 27, 1813, between Bethelsdorp 
and Uitenhage, Cape Colony, " in mimosa vtt [?] ." Burchell 
puts only Telephorus in the Catalogus. In the Olivier Collation 
we find " 95. Telephorus?? similis Lampyro vittatcs.^'] 

100. Sp.?, 1 ex.— Bresil, Minas Geraes. [Oct. 28, 1825. 
See no. 83, p. 99.] 

101. 102. Sp. ?, 2 ex.— Bresil. 

[101. Feb. 12, 1826. Organ Mountains. By the River 
Pacaque. 

102. Nov. 8, 1828, 10 p.m. Corrego Raiz. Between 
Chapada and Porto Real (Nacional).] 

DiSCODON, Gorh. 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Coleop. iii. 2, p. 78. 

103, 104. cinctus, Cast., 2 ex. — Bresil, Minas Geraes. 

[103. Oct. 23, 1825. Discoberto. " Lampijrisr 
104. Nov. 1, 1825. Near Nepomucena.] 



102 Oil Malacodermata from South Africa and Brazil, 

105. Sp.?— Br^sil, Cubatao. [Foot of Sierra, Dec. 14, 
1826, 9 P.M.] 

106. Sp. ?— Bresil, Organ Mountains. [Feb. 12, 1826. By 
the River Pacaqu^.] 

107. Sp.?— Bresil [Minas Geraes. Oct. 16, 1825. At 
Discoberto on 15th.] 

108. 109. Sp. ?, 2 ex.— Bresil [Organ Mountains. Feb. 12, 
1826. Eiver Pacaqu^.] 

Daiphron, Gorh. 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Coleop. iii. 2, p. 66. 

110. Sp. ?— Bresil [Minas Geraes. Oct. 14, 1825. ^ At 
Parahfba on 12th. Discoberto on loth. '' Lampi/ris.^^] 



Melyrididse. 
IIedybius, Er. 

111. ? oculatus, Thunb., 1 ? . — Afr. austr. 

[No. 96. " MalacMusy The origin of the specimen is 
given in the only other word in the Catalogus, viz. " Bouch." 
This indicates " From Mr. Bouchenroeder's collection at 
Cape Town (115 insects), of which perhaps some may not be 
African at all : and it would therefore not be safe to admit 
them without careful examination into my Gape Fauna."] 



[The collection also contains two Lampyrid larvai in 
addition to 67 4. : — 

112. July 11, 1827. S. Paulo. The specimen bears the 
number 1211, referring to the following note, which is 
accompanied by a slight sketch: — ''^1211. Lampyris. 
Two luminous spots on the same ring at the hinder part 
of the abdomen. It crawls with its feet, but assists with 
the tail by bending it under in the manner of some 
caterpillars, and resting the point on the ground as a 
fulcrum pushes on the body forwards. 11. 7. [27]." 

113. July 26. Para. The larva is numbered 1402, referring 
to a record in the lost note- book.] 



On the CapsidiB in the British Museum, 103 

XL — lihynchotal Notes.— XK. By W. L. Distant. 

HETEROPTERA. 

Fam. Cap&idae. (Part I.) 

This paper represents the first results of a revision of tlie 
Capsidge contained in tlie British Museum, and the exami- 
nation of Walker's types. The arrangement is largely that 
of the earlier propositions of Renter, with some qualifications 
which express my own views as to the classification of this 
very difficult famil}'' ; and these will be more fully explained 
in my second volume dealing with the Rhynchota of British 
India, which is now passing through the press. 

Division Herdoniaeia. 

Allied to the Myrmecoraria, Reut. C uncus always dis- 
cernible ; head prominent, sometimes very large, always with 
a distinct longitudinal impression between the eyes ; anterior 
constricted area of the pronotum somewhat broad and long, 
but never broader, and generally narrower, than the poste- 
rior area ; second joint of the antennce either very strongly 
or slightly apically incrassated j scutellum sometimes spined. 

The genus Herdonius^ Stal, I take as typical of the Her- 
doniaria, and also include the genera Zacinthus, Dist., 
Zosippus, Dist., Xenetus, Dist., and MinytuSj Dist. Saturnio- 
miris, Kirk., Syntellotiotus, Allodajnis, and probably some 
other described genera may also ultimately be included. 

FuLGENTius, gen. nov. 

Bodysubelongate. Head moderately large, distinctly longi- 
tudinally centrally incised ; first joint of antennse very little 
longer than head, second joint longest, somewhat thickened 
towards apex, third shorter than second but longer than 
fourth ; rostrum imperfectly seen in carded specimen ; pro- 
notum moderately tumid, the lateral margins oblique, the 
anterior margin distinctly carinate, and transversely im- 
pressed before middle, anterior margin less than half the 
width of posterior margin, the last a little sinuate before 
scutellum, which is tumid ; corium, including cuneus, about 
as long as abdomen ; cuneus about as broad at base as long ; 
membrane with a long basal cell ; legs moderately long and 
slender ; tibiae somewhat longly setose. 



104 Mr. W. L. Distant on the Capsidte 

Fulgentius mandarinus, sp. n. 

Black; aiitennEe, eyes, legs, and membrane piceous ; 
anterior margin of pronotum, first joint of antennge (excluding 
apex and base of third joint) and apices of femora ochraceous; 
corium with a transverse fascia before middle and between 
clavus and lateral margin, and about basal half of cuneus, 
greyish white ; body beneath black, imperfectly seen in 
carded specimen, but apparently with a greyish spot near 
posterior coxse ; body above very finely and obscurely pilose. 

Long. 8 mm. 

Ilab. China ; Namoa Islands [J. J. Walker, Brit. Mus.). 

NiCHOMACHUS^ gen. nov. 

Moderately elongate. Head broad, including eyes much 
wider than anterior margin of pronotum, narrowed and 
moderately deflexed in front of the prominent and exserted 
eyes, lateral margin sinuate, disk strongly longitudinally 
sulcate ; antennte with the first joint short, shorter than ante- 
ocular portion of head, second and third joints longest and 
subequal in length, fourth shorter but longer than first; 
rostium reaching the posterior coxae ; pronotum strongly 
constricted at about one third from anterior margin, forming 
a distinct narrow anterior lobe, posterior lobe tumid, about 
twice as long and much broader than the anterior lobe ; 
scufellum very strongly conically gibbous and longly though 
sparingly pilose; corium (excluding cuneus) a little shorter 
than the abdomen, its lateral margins sinuate, broadest at 
the area of the interior angle, cuneus longer than broad; 
membrane thickly and finely reticulate, with a single, narrow, 
short, lateral cell. 

Allied to SijStellonotus, from which it differs by the broader 
head, larger and exserted eyes, conically raised scutellum, &e. 
But for the longitudinally impressed head might be located 
in the Pilophoraria. 

Ntchomachus Sloggetti\ sp. n. 

Cinnamon-brown ; eyes, scutellum, base and apical margin 
of corium, cuneus, disks of meso- and metasterna, and abdo- 
men beneath black ; an oblique transverse fascia in basal 
black area of corium, a transverse fascia to clavus beyond 
middle, and a basal fascia to cuneus white ; antennae (ex- 
cluding basal joint), posterior lobe of pronotum, and apices of 
femora infuscated ; membrane shining brownish ochraceous ; 
two transverse subbasal fascise to abdomen beneath pale 



in the British Museum. 105 

luteous ; head and pionotum finely granulate ; scutellum 
smooth, shining, sparingly longly pilose; clavus, corium, 
and cuneus finely and thickly punctate, shortly, obscurely, 
rigidly pilose. 

Long. 5 1 mm. 

Ilab, Cape Colony; Deelfontein [Col, Shggett,V>\:\i.M.\.\?,.). 

Division M i r A R i A. 

Genus EiONEUS. 
Eioneus, Dist. Biol. Centr.-Amer., Rhynch. i. p. 416 (1893). 

Eioneus Uneatus. 

Miris Imeata, Butl. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 89. 
Hab, Galapagos Islands. 

Genus MiRis. 
Miris ruficeps, sp. n. 

Very pale ochraceous ; first joint of antennae and posterior 
femora and tibiffi thickly speckled with sanguineous; lateral 
margins of pronotum and a central line traversing pronotum 
and scutellum pale greyish ; first and second joints of 
antcnna3 strongly pilose, first joint moderately incrassate, 
almost as long as head and pronotum together, second joint 
about twice as long as first j tibite thickly and rather longly 
pilose. 

Long. 9 mm. 

Hab. Cape Colony : Graharastown (Brit. Mus.) ; British 
East Africa {Gregory^ Brit. Mus.). 

Genus Ceeontiades.1 

Creontiades, Dist. Biol. Centr.-Amer., Rhynch. ii p. 237 (1883), 
Kungra, Kirk. Tr. Ent. Soc. 1902, p. 257. 

Creontiades stramineus. 

Capsus stramineus. Walk. Cat. Hat, vi. p. 120 (1873). 
Kangra Dudgeoni, Kirk. Tr. Ent. Soc. 1902, p. 257. 

Creontiades sinicus. 
Capstis sinicus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 120 (1873). 

Creontiades angulifer, 
Capsus angulifer, AValk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 126 (1873). 



106 Mr. W. L. Distant on the Capsid^e 

Creontiades filicornis. 

Capsusjilicornis, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 96. u. 161 (1873). 
Megaccelum filicornis, Uhler, Check-list N.-Am. Hem. p. 18. 

Head centrally longitudinally sulcated. 

Creontiades incertus. 

Capsus incertus, Walk. Oat. Het. vi. p. 111. n. 2oO (1873). 
Resthenia incertus, Atkins. Cat. Capsidce, p. 58 (1890). 



Genus Pantiltus. 

Pantilius australis. 
Lopus australis. Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 57 (1873). 

Head ochraceous, eyes fuscous ; first joint of antennae 
testaceous, second ochraceous, with its apical third black ; 
pronotum pale greenish, its anterior area ochraceous, lateral 
margins and posterior angles purplish red ; scutellum pale 
greenish, its basal margin and a central line ochraceous ; 
clavus and corium mostly pale purplish red, apical area of 
claviis and lateral margins of corium pale greenish ; cuneus 
ochraceous, its margins purplish red ; membrane brownish 
ochraceous, the veins purplish red ; body beneath and legs 
ochraceous; tibise pale greenish ; apices of posterior femora, 
bases and apices of posterior tibiaj and the tarsi purplish red, 
apices of tarsi piceous ; scutellum finely transversely striate, 
excepting on the basal margin and central linear fascia ; 
corium a little widened from base and attenuated posteriorly ; 
bases of apical margin of corium carinate. 

Long. 10 mm. 

Hah. New South Wales: Tasmania ; Hobart (J. /. Walker, 
Brit. Mus.). 

Genus Zanessa. 
Zanessa pictuh'fer. 

Capsiispictulifer,W&lk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 126 (1873). 

Genus Kosmiomiris. 

Kosmiomiris lucidus. 

Capsus lucidus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 124 (1873). 
Kosmiomiris rubrooriiatus, Kirk. Tr. Ent. Soc. 1902, p. 258. 



m the British Museum. 107 

Note. — In tliis division Mlraria and near the genus Pan- 
tih'us 1 place Pceas Renter i, Dist. (Biol. Centr.-Am., Rhyn. 
i. p. 428, tab. xxxvii. fig. 5), — head distinctly sulcated ; and 
for the same reason Jacchinus tabascoensisy Dist. {loc. cit. 
p. 430, tab. xxxvii. fig. 10). 

Division Cylaparia. 

Valdasaria, Dist. Biol. Centr.-Amer., Rhynch. i. p. 242 (1883). 
Monahnionaria, Rent. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. Ixi. p. y98 (1892). 
Eucerocoraria, Kirk. J. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. 1902, p. 294. 
Cylaparia, Kirk. Wieu. ent. Zeit. xxii. p. 13 (1903). 

The name of this division was originally founded on that 
of the neotropical genus Valdasus, Stal ; this having since 
been proved to be but a synonym of Cylapus, Say, it is 
necessary to alter the divisional name as above. 

Aegenis, gen. nov. 

Head broad, not horizontally produced in front of eyes, 
which touch but exceed the width of the anterior margin of 
the pronotum, distinctly longitudinally centrally impressed, 
or very finely sulcate ; antennae with the first joint longer 
than head, but shorter than pronotum, second joint almost 
twice as long as first, third joint about one third shorter than 
second ; eyes large, globose ; pronotum coarsely punctate, 
transversely constricted before middle, posterior lobe tumid, 
centrally very obscurely carinate, posterior angles subpro- 
minent and a little tuberculous ; scutellum triangular, the 
apex somewhat acute ; corium long, cuneus passing apex 
of abdomen; membrane somewhat small; body beneath 
obscurely seen, owing to typical specimen being carded. 

Argenis incisuratus. 

Capsns incisuratus, Walk. Cat. Ilet. vi. p. 121. n. 282 (1873). 

Ilab. Ceylon, 

"Walker's very inadequate description of this species con- 
tains the erroneous statement : — " Prothorax v^ith no trans- 
verse furrow.'^ 

Genus Sysinas. 
Sysinas tibialis. 

Capstis tibialis, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 109. n. 245 (1873). 
Ri'sthcnia tibialis, Atkins. Cat. Capsida?, p. 61 (1890). 



108 Mr. W. L. Distant on the Capsidge 

Genus Helopeltis. 

Helopeltis davifer. 

DuUchius ? davifer, Walk. Cat. Het. iv. p. 170. n. 2 (1871). 
Helopeltis braconiformis, Walk, he, cit. vi. p. 165 (1873) ; Waterh. Tr. 
Ent. Soc. 1886, p. 459, pi. xi. fig. 4. 

Division ? 



Genus Disphinctus. 

JJisphinctxis fasciatas. 

Capsus fasciatus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 122. n. 284 (1873), 
Disphinctus anadyoynene, Kirk. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1902, p. 264. 

Disphinctus ^olitus. 

Monalonion jwlitum, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 163. n. 7 (1873). 
Disphinctus formosus, Kirk. Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. xiv. p. 295, 
pi. A. fig. 10 (1902). 

Genus Hyalopeplus. 

Hyalopeplus vitripennis. 

Capsus vit)-ipen7iis, Stal, Freg. Eug. Resa, Ins. p. 255 (1859). 
JTi/alopeplus vitripennis, Stal, (Efv. Vet.-Ak. Forh. 1870, p. 670, 
Capsus lineifer, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 122. n. 285 (1873). 
Hyalopeplus lineifer, Kirk. Tr. Ent. Soc. 1902, p. 18. 

Division LOPAEIA. 
Genus Kesthenia. 
Rcsthenia incisus. 

Capsus incisus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 92. n. 151 (1873).' 

Restheniajamaicensis. 

Capsus jantaicensis, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 101. n. 189 (1873). 
Heterocoi-is jamaicensis, Atkins. Cat. Capsidfe, p. 42 (1890). 

Genus Lopidea. 

Lopidea Jloridana. 

Capsus Jloridanus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 97. n. 163 (1873). 
Lopidea marginata, Uhler, Proc. Calif. Ac. iv. p. 249 (1894). 

Walker's description is faulty. The first joint of tlie 
antennae is not " red," as described, but inclining to fuscous 
brown ; the ochraceous lateral margin to the corium is also 
omitted in the diagnosis. 



in tlie British Museum. 109 

Genus Lomatopleuea. 

Lomatopleura coccineus. 

Capsus coccineus, Wallc. Cat. Het. vi. p. 93. n. 152 (1873). 
Lonintopleura hesperus, Kirk. Trans. Eut. Soc. 1902, p. 252, pi. v. fig. 1. 
? Lomatopleu7-a ccesar, Eeut. CEfv. Vet.-Ak. Forh. 1875, no. 9, p. 67. 

Division Phytocoraria. 
Capellanus, gen. nov. 

Elongate ; head subtriangulav, moderatel}^ produced ; an- 
tennae with the basal joint short, about as long as head, 
second joint three times as long as first, third shorter than 
second ; pronotum slioit, truncate at base ; scutellum sub- 
triangular ; corium long and with cuneus about reaching apex 
of abdomen ; posterior femora incrassated ; cuneus longer than 
broad. 

Allied to Phytocoris. 

Capellanus sparsus. 

Lygns sparsus, Dist. Biol. Ceutr.-Amer., Rlijai. i. p. 434, tab. xxxvii. 
tig. 19 (1893). 

Bab. Guatemala (type, Brit. Mus.). 

Genus ParacalocoRIS. 

Paracalocoris sohrius. 

Capsus sohrius, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 115. n. 264 (1873). 

Very pale ochraceous ; two large obconical spots at the 
base of pronotum and the corium purplish brown; lateral 
margins of pronotum and corium, two small central spots on 
anterior disk of pronotum, and a rounded spot on corium near 
inner base of cuneus black; membrane pale fuliginous, 
cellular marginal veins purplish red ; first joint of antennge 
purplish brown, second and third joints black, base of third 
luteous. 

Paracalocoris leprosus. 

Capsus leprosus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 111. n. 253 (1873). 

Paracalocoris sericeus. 

Capsus sericeus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 117. n. 272 (1873). 

Pronotum anteriorly thickly cinereously tomentose, con- 
taining two central piceous spots. 



110 Mr. W. L. Distant on the Capsldge 

Paracalocoris capensis, sp. n. 

Somewhat pale ocliraceous ; corlum pale castaneous, its 
lateral margin ocliraceous ; cuneus ocliraceous, its apex and 
basal and inner margins castaneous ; membrane subhyaline, 
slightly tinged with pale fuliginous ; body beneath, rostrum, 
and legs pale ochraceous ; eyes, lateral margins of pronotal 
collar, two small rounded discal spots to pronotum, a lateral 
spot to mesosternum, and the apex of rostrum black ; basal 
joint of antennae purplish red, second joint ochraceous,^ its 
base black and its apical area purplish red (remaining joints 
mutilated) ; body above strongly greyishly pilose ; basal joint 
of antennae finely thickly pilose. 

Long. 7 mm. 

Hah. Cape of Good Hope (Brit. Mus.). 

Genus Neurocolpus. 
Neurocolpus nubilus. 

Capsiis nuUlus, Say, Hem. New Harm. Ind. p. 22. n. 10 (1831). 
Capsus hirsutulus,' Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 95. n. 158- (1873). 
Neurocoljms nubilus, Kirk, (part.) Tr. Ent. Soc. 1902, p. 252, nee 
mexicanus, Dist. 

Genus Calocoris. 
Calocoris norvegicus. 

Cimex norwgiciis, Gmel. Syst. Nat. iv. p. 2176 (1788). 
Capsus contiguics, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 95. n. 159 (1873). 
Capstis stramineus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 96. n. 160 (1873). 

Calocoris laticinctus. 

Capsus latmnctus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 127. n. 308 (1873). 
Capstis ustulatus, Walk. loc. cit, p. 128. n. 309. 

In the Phytocoraria I now place the Neotropical genus 
Calocorisca. 

Division C A PS ARIA. 

Genus Lygus. 

Lygus australis, nora. n. 

Capsus innotatus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 116. n. 269 (1873), nom. 
proeocc. Renter (1871). 

Lygus suffasus. 

Capsus suffusus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 117. u. 270 (1873). 



in the British Museum. Ill 

Lygus cethiops^ nom. n. 

Capsus limhatus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 117. n. 271 (1873% nom. 
praeocc. Fallen (1829). 

Lygus pallidulus. 

Capsus pallidulus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 116. n. 207 (1873\ 

A single specimeu in very bad condition constitutes tlic 
type of this species. 

Lygus illepidus. 
Capsiis illepidus, Walk. Cat. Het. V\. p. 115. n. 2G-5 (1873). 

Lygus'^. conspersus. 

Capsus conspersus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 116. n. 268 (1873). 
The type is in bad condition and without antennas. 

Lygus maoricus. 

Leptomerocoris maoricus. Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 146. n. 110 (1873). 

Anterior area of pronotum pale ochraceous, sometimes with 
two dark spots. 

Genus PCECILOSCYTUS. 

Pceciloscytus solitus. 

Capsus solitus. Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 116. ]]. 26G (1873). 
Type in very bad condition. 

Genus Camptobkociiis. 

Campiohrochis strigulatus. 
Capsus striffulafus, Walk. Cat. flet. vi. p. 94. n. 155 (1873). 

Genus PCECILOCAPSUS. 

Poecilocapsus marginatus, 

Capsus maraiiiatus, Walk, Cat. Het. vi. p. 96. n. 102 (1873), 

Poecilocapsus Umbatellus. 

Cajmis Umbatellus, Walk. Cat. Ilet. vi. p. 93. n. 153 (1873). 
Foecilocapstis {Metriorrhynchus) offinis, Reut. (Efv, Vet.-Ak. Fiirh, 
1875, no. 9, p. 74. 



112 Mr. W. L. Distant on the CapsidEe 

Genus Der^ocoeis. 

T)erceocoris patulus. 

Capsus patulus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 120. n. 279 (1878). 

Genus LiocORis. 
Liocoris partitus. 

Capsus partitus, Walk. Oat. Het. vi. p. 119. n. 276 (1873). 

Genus BOTHRIOMIRIS. 

Bothrio m iris s ivi uJans. 

Capsus simulans, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 125. n. 295 (1873). 
Bothriomiris marmoratus, Kirk. Tr. Ent. Soc. 1902, p. 271, pi. v. fig. 9, 
pi. vi. fig. 16. 

Division Bryocoraria. 
Genus Physetonotus. 

In tlie ' Biologia Centrali-Americana ' (Rliynchota, vol. i. 
p. 285) I followed Stal in placing his Eccritotarsus pallidt- 
rostris in the genus he had himself founded. I, however, 
placed it in a distinct section of the genus — " b. Body ovate. 
Pronotum jjrominently gihbous.^^ Subsequently Dr. Renter 
(Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. Ixi. p. 394, 1892) has proposed the genus 
Physetonotus for the reception of these species, making 
P. atratus, Dist. [Eccritotarsus), the type. The following 
species must also be included : — 

Eccritotarsus paUidirostris, Stal ; E. incurvus, Dist. ; 
E. gibius, Dist. ; E. porrectus, Dist. ; E. impavidus, Dist. ; 
E. perobscurus, Dist. ; E. tenebrosus, Dist. ; E. nocturnuSy 
Dist. ; E, marginatusj Dist. ; and E. procurvens, Dist. 

Araspus, gen. nov. 

Ovate, posteriorly widened. Head deflected from in front of 
eyes, which are large, projecting beyond bat not touching 
anterior margin of pronotum. Antennse wuth the first joint 
slightly longer than head, a little thickened towards apex ; 
second joint considerably longer than first, very prominently 
incrassate and pilose on its apical half; third joint slender; 
remainder mutilated. Bostrum apparently reaching the inter- 
mediate coxge (the type a carded specimen) ; pronotum with 
the basal margin rather more than twice the width of anterior 
margin, basal margin truncate, becoming oblique towards 
posterior angles ; scutellum tumid, basally foveate ; corium 



in the British Museum. 113 

convexly rounded posteriorlj ; cuiieus a little longev than 
broad ; legs of moderate leno-th, posterior femora thickened. 

Arasjjus partUus. 
Lopus partilus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 56. u. 27 (1873). 
Hab. New Guinea (Brit. Mus.). 

Mertila, gen. no v. 

Elongately oval. Head ratlier long and depressed in front 
of insertion of antennas, of which the first joint is shorter than 
head and attenuated at base ; second joint much longer than 
first, it and the remaining joints pilose. Rostrum not quite 
reaching the intermediate coxai. Pronotuni with an anterior 
collar, which has its anterior and posterior margins carinate; 
subirapressed or distinctly constricted before middle, the 
depression including two transverse callosities; posterior 
area a little tumid ; posterior margin about twice the breadth 
of anterior margin, sometimes as long as broad. Scutellum 
small, subtriangular, callous, foveate at base ; hemelytra 
much longer than abdomen ; membrane with a single trian- 
gular cell ; legs moderately short and slender. 

Mertila malayensis, sp. n. 

Orange-red ; apex of first and the whole of the second joint 
of antennge, eyes, apex of rostrum, corium (excluding basal 
area), cuneus, membrane, extreme apices of femora, tibia*, 
tarsi, and sometimes abdomen beneath, indigo-black ; head 
with a distinct central ridge and a broad foveation on inner 
side of eyes ; pronotum a little hollowed between the anterior 
callosities; upper surface very finely and obscurely pilose; 
tibias finely setose. 

Long. 5-6 mm. 

Hah. Singapore (//. N. Ridley^ Brit. Mus.). 

Mertila ternatensis, sp. n. 

In colour resembling C. malayensis^ but with the first and 
second joints of the antennas entirely indigo-black and the 
legs entirely orange-red ; body much more elongate ; pro- 
notum nearly as long as broad, very distinctly constricted 
before middle, the lateral margins of the anterior lobe con- 
vexly produced ; corium distinctly coarsely punctate, the 
suture behind claval apex divided and forming an oblong 

Ann. (& Mag. N. Hist. Ser, 7. Vol. xiii. 8 



114 Prof. N. Yakovleff on the Character i»k'c of 

foveation ; apical half of membi-ane bronzy brown ; abdomen 
beneath orange-red. 

Long. 6 mm. 

Hab. Ternate {J. J. Walker, Brit. Mus.). 

Division ? 



Sabellicus, gen. nov. 

Resembling Derceocoris, from which it differs principally by 
the structure o£ the antenna?. Head clongately depressed in 
front of insertion of anteniife, of which the first joint is as 
long or a little longer than the head, prominently incrassated, 
and sometimes compressed from immediately beyond base, 
somewhat longly marginally pilose, with a distinct spur on 
outer side of apex ; second joint much longer than first, slender 
at base and regularly and moderately incrassated towards 
apex; remaining joints mutilated in type. Eyes large, almost 
touching anterior margin of pronotum. Pronotum with the 
basal margin about twice as broad as anterior margin, with a 
distinct pronotal collar, and with the posterior angles sub- 
tuberculous ; rostrum reaching the intermediate coxse ; cuneus 
slightly longer than broad, the fracture profound ; anterior 
legs robust, the tibite moderately incrassate ; intermediate 
and posterior legs mutilated in type. 

SaheUicus apicifer. 

Capsus apicifer, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 124. n. 293 (1873). 

Hah. Celebes: Maldan (Brit. Mus.). 
Type in bad condition. 

SaheUicus sordidus. 

Lopus sordidus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 57. n. 29 (1873). 
Leptoinerocoris antennatus, Walk. loc. cit. p. 145. n. 109. 



XII. — A Contribution to the Characteristic of Corals of the 
Orovj) Rugosa. By Prof. N. Yakovleff. 

While engaged in investigating the Upper Palaeozoic coral 
Lophoijhyllum prohferum'^, regarding which there have lately 

* N. Yakovleff, "Fauna of the upper Portion of the PalaBozoic 
Deposits of the Donetz Basing' Transactions of the Geological Committee, 
new series, no. 12 (1903). 



Corals of the Group liugosa. 115 

been published the interesting researches of Duerden *, I had, 
in the first place, the opportunity of verifying the results of 
Duerden's labours, which are of certain importance in estab- 
lishing the general characteristics of the Rugosa, and, 
secondly, of adding a few data to these characteristics. 

As is known, the distinguishing feature of the Rugosa is 
considered to be the fact that they possess four primary septa, 
of which two — the main septum and the counter septum — are 
in the plane of symmetry of the coral, and the other two — 
the alar septa — on either side of the plane. Besides, in 
the quadrants between the primary septa the secondary septa 
are arranged pinnately as regards the main septum in the 
quadrants which adjoin it, and parallel with regard to the 
counter septum in the counter quadrants. 

The septa belong to two cycles, of which one consists of 
large and the other of small septa. It is interesting to 
observe the way in which the septa are developed in the coral. 
As proved by Duerden, the septa of one cycle — the small 
ones — appear comparatively late, simultaneously, and at a 
certain height. As to the septa of the other cycle — the prin- 
cipal ones — their mode of development has led Duerden to 
approximate the Rugosa to the group of now living Actinia — 
Zoanthege, — their development precluding the possibility of 
approximating them, as is generally done, to the Hexacoralla, 
which form a skeleton, and of regarding the former as the 
progenitors of the latter. 

The section (fig. A, p. 116) nearest to the pointed end of 
the coral is 2'1 ram. in diameter, and represents twelve septa, 
of which (according to Duerden) are to he regarded as primary 
not four J as usually accepted for the Rugosa, but six septa, 
which are marked in the figure by the cipher I, Four of them 
are : the main septum I (H), the counter septum I (G), and 
the alar septa I (S) — the two remaining septa I being situated 
next to the counter septum, and forming with it interseptal 
chambers in which (and exclusively in them) no new septa 
of the same cycle are developed. 

Comparing figures A and B, we notice that the difference 
between them is but slight, consisting chiefly in this, that the 
main septum in the Russian specimen is situated on the convex 
side of the coral, and in the American on the concave side. The 
same coral in both specimens is bent in an opposite direction. 
The observed relationship between the degree of development 
of the main septum and the counter septum in a radial direction 

* J. E. Duerden, " On the Relationships of the Rugosa to the livinfi- 
Zoanthe.T," Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., May 1902, p. 381. " 

8* 



116 



On Corals of the Group Bncjosa. 



is in all probability owing to the direction of the bend ; the 
primary septum on the concave side (in the Russian specimens 
tlie counter septum and in the American specimens the main 
septum) is short and the primary septum on the convex side is 
long (figs. A and B). It seems to me that, with regard both to 




16) 




A and B, the corresponding sections of tlie Russian and American 
specimens (the latter after Duerden, modified as regards the main 
septum and the counter septum, see below, at end) of Loplio- 
phyllum proliferum ; the portions of the sections turned upwards 
lie on the convex side of the coral. The primary interseptal 
chambers in which no new septa are formed are striated. I, 
I (H), I (G), I (S), the primary septa; 1, 2, the later principal 
septa. 

the main septum and the counter septum^ the fact may be 
easily explained by supyjosing that the bend of the coral on the 
concave side causes a contraction, affording less space for the 
development of the septa than on the convex side ; the former 
is characterized by contraction, the latter by distention. 

This assumption is strengthened by another peculiarity of 
the coral, viz. that of the four primary interseptal chambers, 
in which the successive principal septa are generally deve- 
lopedj the two situated nearest to the convex side develop the 
septa more rapidly (in greater number). These chambers 
are not the same in the Russian and American specimens : in 
the former (fig. A) they are contiguous with the main septum, 
in the latter (hey are separated from it as well as from the 
counter septum by other primary chambers. 

In examining the two specimens (tigs. A and B) we must 
also notice that in two of the four primary chambers no 7ien^ 
septa are formed — invariably in those primary chamhers which 



Oil the Distrihation of Marine Animals. 117 

adjoin the counter septum, — either on the convex or concave 
side, and whether it be long or short. 

We thus arrive at a more complete definition of the primanj 
counter septum', it is that (I) in relation to lohich the con- 
tiguous septa are arranged in a parallel direction, and (2) lohich 
has adjoining primary interseptal chambers, containing no 
secondary principal septa. 

Duerden is not correct in stating that the main septum and 
the counter septum lie respectively on the convex and on the 
concave side of the coral independently of the arrangement 
of the contiguous septa. This very arrangement has been 
regarded by palaeontologists as characteristic of the primary 
septa, and, as will be seen from the above, it is more 
permanent than has hitherto been known. 



XIII. — On the Distribution of Marine Animals'^. 
By Prof. M'iNTOSH, M.D., LL.D., F.K.S., &c. 

The distribution of land-animals is a subject which has 
always been fraught with deep interest to naturalists — more 
especially as certain regions are characterized by the forms 
inhabiting them. Thus it would be anomalous to find, for 
instance, a marsupial in Africa, an armadillo or a sloth 
{Bradypus) in Asia, or a stag in Australia. The chief 
barriers, moreover, to the general distribution of such forms 
have been mountain-chains, deep tracts of the sea, barren 
regions such as the great deserts, and the vicissitudes of 
temperature. Yet certain aerial forms, such as the bats, are 
more or less cosmopolitan, and the shrews, the pigs, and the 
mice are almost so. In weighing the statementj however, 
tiiat the distribution of certain of these forms, such as the 
pigs, has been extended by their swimming powers across 
arms of tlie sea, it has to be borne in mind that even marine 
animals do not always avail themselves of the lines of migra- 
tion at their disposal. 

As three fourths of the surface of the globe are composed of 
water — for the most part continuous throughout — a vast field 
txists for the distribution, under natural conditions, of its 
inhabitants, from mammals to Protozoa. Pelagic types may 
thus range from pole to pole and from the eastern shore of 
the Isthmus of Panama round the world to the western. 

* Not^s of an Introductory Lecture, 16tb October, 1903. 



118 Prof. M'lutosli on </ie 

Attempts have been made to divide this vast area into 
regions characterized by special features. For instance, 
Prof. Forchhammer, of the Chair of Mineralogy in the 
University of Copenhagen, in 1862 described no less than 
eleven regions distinguished by the mean quantity of solid 
matter in the water, the tropical regions containing the 
greatest amount. 

For facility in describing the collections made by the 
' Challenger,' seven regions of the ocean were made, viz. the 
North Atlantic, the South Atlantic, the South Indian or 
Kerguelen, the Australian, the Philippine or Japanese, the 
North Pacific, and the South Pacific. Taking the seals, 
sirenians, and whales as a basis. Dr. Sclater has compara- 
tively recently (1899) made six regions, viz. North Atlantic, 
mid- Atlantic, Indian, North Pacific, mid-Pacific, and Antarctic, 
This classification is useful in emphasizing, amongst other 
things, the fact that even with the continuous medium, which 
permits migration in various directions, certain forms cling- 
to special areas. It lacks, however, corroboration from the 
other divisions of marine animals, and embraces so wide a 
.subject that further consideration of all the facts is desirable. 

In passing therefore the distribution of the chief groups of 
marine forms under review, tiie first amongst the marine 
mammals are the sea-otters [Enhydris), which often swim 
10 to ] 5 miles from land, and are confined to the area of the 
Nortli Pacific, They do not appear to be spreading, but, as 
Beddard says, persecution by man has made them more 
purely oceanic. 

The eared seals are chiefly confined to the south Polar 
ocean. Tin-ee species are found all over the North Pacific 
area, whilst two frequent the west coast of South America 
(Sclater). Tiie walruses are Arctic, the san;e species probably 
occurring in the North Atlantic and the Nortli Pacific, though 
the latter by some is considered distinct. The seals (Phocidaj) 
are most numerous in the Arctic and Antarctic seas and in 
certain intermediate areas. In the North Pacific three out 
of four seals ave identical with those in the North Atlantic. 
The true seals of the Antarctic Ocean are all distinct from 
those of the Arctic seas (Sclater) . Thus the seals, as a whole, 
do not support the theory of the bipolarity of marine forms. 

The peculiar range of the living Sirenians and their struc- 
tural features would seem to point to an inaptitude for 
migration, especially in the case of the manatees, yet the 
dugong and Steller's sea-cow might have passed from islet to 
coast-line and spread over a greater area, unless temperature 
or other circumstance {e.g. food) had proved inimical. 



Distrihutioa of Marine Animals. 1L9 

It might be supposed, again, tliat species so active and so 
powerful as the wlu\les would range over the whole ocean, 
from the Arctic to the Antarctic seas. Yet in viewing their 
distribution it appears that, with the whole stretch of the 
ocean at their command, they, with the exception of the 
dolphins, frequent special areas. Thus the right- or whalebone- 
whales are confined to the temperate and cold regions of both 
hemispheres. The Arctic right-whale haunts the neighbour- 
hood of ice, under which it frequently takes refuge. Tempe- 
rature may thus have an important bearing on its distribution ; 
but, granting this, it has also to be remembered that nowhere 
but in such waters could it find a pelagic fauna so rich in 
large Cliones and other Pteropods and of large Copepods 
intermingled with Medusae, on which it delights to feed. 
Moreover, nowhere could it, one of the most timorous 
mammals, find sucli vast solitudes, where it can roam without 
molestation. The same causes probably affect the distribution 
of the southern right-whale, and it is at least known that its 
active pursuit led to its rarity in European waters, for it is 
less rigidly confined to the Antarctic seas than the northern 
species to the Arctic. Another species of small size {Neo- 
balcena) is confined to the seas of Australia and New Zealand. 
Food, environment, and temperature may have an important 
bearing on limitation in this case. 

Of the toothed whales the sperm-whales and the Ziphioids 
have an extensive range, being, as Beddard says, " equally 
at home in the calm seas of the tropics and in the stormy 
waters of the Antarctic ocean," as well as in the North 
Atlantic. The former, as a rule, is an inhabitant of the 
deeper waters far from land, probably because the cuttlefishes, 
which form a favourite article of diet, are most plentiful there, 
yet it also feeds on fishes, even, like the porbeagle shark, 
stripping the fishermen's lines, and occasionally swallowing a 
shark or a seal. This varied dietary is consistent with its 
wide range in the ocean. 

In the family of the DolphinSj Beluga is for the most part 
Arctic, only rarely being seen on European shores; but it 
ascends rivers, e. g. the St. Lawrence, as Prof. Prince, the 
Dominion Commissioner of Fisheries, tells me, for 150 miles, 
apparently after sahnon. Tiie narwhal frequents the same 
oceanic region. The common porpoise is Northern Atlantic 
and Pacific; another occurs off South America and in the 
Pacific ; whilst Neomeris is found in the seas of India, the 
Cape, and Japan. The dolphins frequent all the oceans, seas, 
and great rivers of the world, and they are capable of adapting 



1-20 Prof. M'Intosh on the 

tbemselves to every vicissitude of climate. Nor do their 
layers of fat seem to present notable ditferences in the several 
regions. As they are piscivorous, their food is obtained 
without difficulty in every ocean and river. The killer ( (9rca) 
is likewise cosmopolitan, its chief food consisting of seals and 
porpoises. Glohicephalus mdas has also a wide range — from 
the northern seas to the Cape and New Zealand — and Tursiops 
is nearly as extensively distributed. 

On the other hand, most of the species of Sotalia are 
fluviatile, occurring in China and with Inia and Pontoporia 
in the Amazons and other rivers of South America, whilst 
one species (a vegetable feeder) frequents the Cameroon 
River. 

"With a distribution so complex, in an element which oflfers 
no obstacle (except ten)]ierature, safe surroundings, and food) 
to a cosmopolitan range for every species of marine cetacean, 
the question as to the explanation of these diversities presents 
itself. Why does Beluga not frequent European seas, or 
Btrordius of New Zealand stretch far northwards into the 
Pacific? Beyond the answer that each finds in its special 
area suitable environment and the food best fitted for it, no 
answer is at present available. Hereditary tendencies, pecu- 
liarities of stiucture, and habit are, perhaps, responsible for 
ihe pertinacity with which the anomalous dolphins, like 
Phianista, cling to fresh water, though it is true one genus 
(Sotalia) is found equally in the Amazon and the sea. Nor 
does the distribution of the whales throw much light on their 
origin. So far as facts warrant, it would appear that the 
toothed whales are the primary forms from which those with 
whalebone have been evolved, but whether from a marine or 
a freshwaltr form cannot yet be answered with certainty, 
though the number of oceanic species shows that the sea at 
least proved a congenial area. The enormous lapse of time 
necessary for the development of the various groups further 
indicates that the ocean-basins are of great antiquity, though 
they may not always have had the same conformation. 

The distribution of certain birds (which pass most of their 
time at sea), such as penguins, auks, grebes, divers, and 
guillemots — all, with the exception of the first, possessing the 
power of flight, — is limited to the colder areas ; yet there is 
no serious impediment to their ranging over a much larger 
field except the difficulty of a secure breeding-place and the 
question of temperature. Food is everywhere abundant. In 
all probability it is the safety and convenience of their 
" rookeries" which keep the penguins to the southern seas. 



Dlstrihution of Marine Animals. 121 

A few Batrachians, Mr. Boulenger tells me, live in 
brackish or salt water^ such as Rana limnocharis, Bafo halo- 
pkila, and to a certain extent the European Bufo viridis and 
Bufo calamita ; but as their eggs only develop in fresh water, 
their o))portunities for oceanic distribution are limited and 
need not at present be further dealt witli. 

In addition to the semimarine Iguanids — Amblyrhynchus , 
^vhich enters the sea (by diving) to feed on seaweeds, Tropi- 
durus, and the various turtles, — marine reptiles are only found 
amongst the snakes, if the estuarine crocodiles and Trionychoids, 
which occasionally wander some miles seawards, are passed 
by. As Mr. Boulenger * observes, " no better instance of 
gradual modification from terrestrial into marine forms could 
be found than in the snakes living at the present day, amongst 
which are also to be found the only recent reptilian types 
that, being viviparous, never leave the water." Tliese arc 
the llydrophids or sea-snakes, the largest of which is about 
]2 fe^i long. They are, as described by the author just 
mentioned, found in the Indian and western South Pacific 
Oceans, ranging from the Persian Gulf to North Australia, 
one species [Hydrus bicolor) stretching throughout the Indian 
and tropical Pacific Oceans, the extreme points being tlie 
Cape of Good Hope and Guayaquil. 

As snakes are most abundant in tropical and subtropical 
regions, it would appear that certain land-snakes in these 
parts had gradually adapted themselves, probably in con- 
nexion with food, to marine life — so much so that some are 
never known to leave the water. Yet their distribution has 
been limited, perhaps partly by temperature, though they 
probably have extended considerably from their original 
centre. It may be also that they are kept in check by the 
large predatory forms, such as Elasmobranchs and Cetaceans. 

The marine fishes are, perhaps, more actively and charac- 
teristically pelagic than any other group. As already shown, 
the obstacles which oppose the distribution of land-animals 
are absent — food and temperature chiefly requiring con- 
sideration, though the abundance of the former in every sea 
almost removes it from such a category. Another factor, 
it is true, is the pelagic or demersal condition of the eggs, 
since the latter habit might be supposed to have the effect of 
making the proximity of the shores, or at least of the bottom, 
a necessity at certain seasons. Yet one of the best known 
and most widely distributed amongst pelagic fishes, the 
herring, has demersal eggs. 

* iS'at. Science, vol. i. p. 4o (1892). 



122 Prof. Mcintosh on the 

Mr. Wallace thinks that temperature and the depth of the 
water are of primary importance in the distribution of the 
marine fishes, for many species are adapted for shores and 
shallows. Yet it is difficult to see how either acts ; for 
example, some shore-fishes, like the five-bearded rockling, 
have pelagic eggs and still more actively pelagic young, so 
that the question is complex. It must be admitted, however, 
that many peculiar fishes frequent the great abysses (tlic 
temperature of which does not vary much). 

Is temperature sufficient to explain the varied distribution 
of the vast variety of fishes? Does it make impassable 
barriers, for instance, between the temperate and the tropical 
and subtropical regions ? Such can hardly be the rule in 
every case, since, as Mr. Boulenger has pointed out '^, the 
grey mullet {Ahcgil capito) ranges from Scandinavia to the 
Cape, and is as much at home at the mouth of the Congo as 
off the shores of Northern Europe. Yet some, such as the 
cod, prefer the colder northern waters, and range from the 
shores of Norway to those of North America; whilst others, 
like Cheetodon and the Sphyrajnidre, choose the warmer 
waters of tropical and subtropical regions. The variations 
in temperature which a fish is capable of enduring are not, 
perhaps, sufficiently known, but the northern plaice survives 
in the warmer waters of Australia after a protracted journey 
of thousands of miles. Prof. Prince f, moreover, in an inter- 
esting article on "Adaptation in Fishes," mentions that 
Prof. Jordan found in the volcanic geyser area of the Yellow- 
stone Park suckers and chubs in water of 85°-88° F., and 
young trout in a temperature about 75° F. It is long since 
the eggs of the flounder were heated in a test-tube at St. An- 
drews, and yet they survived and healthy larvae were hatched 
from them. 

Moreover, in roughly grouping the fishes under Dr. Sclater's 
six oceanic regions the families seem to be inextricably inter- 
woven throughout, some occurring in every area or ranging 
from the North Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, and thence to 
the Pacific. A few features given by Mr. Wallace from 
Dr. Giinther's work are noteworthy. Thus six families out 
of about eighty are confined to the northern seas, and 
amongst them are the suckers and the sturgeons. One family 
(one genus and one species) is restricted to New Zealand 
waters. Four inhabiting the depths of the ocean are only 
found in the Atlantic, whilst thirteen families occur only in 

* Poiss Ben. Congo, p. 355. 

t ' The Ottawa Naturalist,' vol, xiv. no, 11, p. l'16. 



Distrihution of Marine Animals. 123 

the Pacific. Two families (Lycodidse and Gadida^) inhabit 
the Arctic and Antarctic seas only, though one species of the 
latter (Gadida^) exists in the Indian Ocean. One extensive 
genus {Diagrninma, family Pristipomatidfe) is confined to 
the Pacific, with the exception of a single species in the 
Mediterranean. One family (Notacanthi) has representatives 
in Greenland, the Mediterranean, and West Australia. 
Lastly, the single representative of the family Lophotidse is 
found only in Japan and the Mediterranean. Similar results 
follow in considering the classification of Prof. Palacky, of 
Prao- *. Further and more minute investigation of the 
several areas may reduce the number of these anomalies ; but 
it is difficult to unravel the tangled web of the distribution of 
fishes. 

In glancing at the families most widely distributed it is 
found that a considerable proportion of them have pelagic 
eggs, but others, such as the blennies, gobies, and pipe-fishes, 
have demersal eggs, and the fishes themselves are not noted 
for switt progression or nomad habits. From the fact that 
some cosmopolitan forms, such as the Clupeoids, have both 
pelagic and demersal eggs within the limits of the family, 
this condition would not seem to be the chief factor asso- 
ciated with their distribution. Some families have represen- 
tatives on the shores of Britain, Chili, and Kamschatka, 
whilst others frequent the open sea in all parts of the world. 
Fishes, like the wrasses, which occur on the European and 
American shores and extend to Japan and New Zealand, 
increase the complexity of the problem. The facts of distri- 
bution, indeed, may be associated with the origin of the fishes 
from pre-existing forms, for the families could scarcely have 
arisen as the result of variation since the land and water 
had their present conformation. Again, the occurrence of 
isolated species or genera at points widely distant from other 
members of the family indicates, amongst other things, that 
the production of species by variation is in some cases very 
slow. 

The comparatively recent origin of the Teleosteans has 
made no noteworthy limitation in the distribution of the 
families, in contrast with the much older group — Mollusca — 
some of which are found in tiie Lower Silurian, though the 
latter comprises forms less actively pelagic. Mr. Wallace 
thinks fishes less cosmopolitan than mollusks, a feature he 
attributes to the antiquity of the shell-fishes ; but it may be 
due to other causes, such as food and temperature, which keep 

* ' Die Verbrcitung der Fischc ' (Prag-, 189-3). 



124 Prof. M'Intosb on the 

fishes to certain areas, for tlieir powers of progression in a 
continuous element are great. 

The pelagic Tunicates, such as Salpa, Dolioluvi^ Pyrosoma^ 
and the Appendicularians, are practically cosmopolitan, 
ranging from the northern seas to tiie Antarctic. Thus 
Prof. Herdman found Salpa runcinata fusiformis in water at 
a temperature of 80° in the Gulf of Manaar, and the same 
species occurs in the Antarctic seas. He has noticed that 
some fixed forms, like Styela lylicata, are also cosmopolitan or 
range from the seas of Europe to those of Australia. He has 
also drawn special attention to the large size and tlie abund- 
ance of the Tunicates in the Antarctic regions. Simple 
Ascidians, again, are perhaps more common in shallow than 
in deep water, and few extend to the abyssal zone. Compound 
forms appear to attain their greatest development in the south 
temperate zone. Botrjllida3 are partial (if not confined) to 
the northern hemisphere. Distomidce are found in the 
northern and southern hemispheres, whilst Polyclinidte are 
southern (Herdman, ' Ciuxllenger '). 

In the present state of our knowledge it can scarcely be 
said that the sea can be majjped into regions by the distri- 
bution of the Ascidians, or that there is any clue to their 
origin from pre-existing forms by their occurrence in modern 
seas. Temperature has little inHuence on the distribution of 
the simple forms, for they range from nearly freezing-point 
upwards (Herdman), though, as pointed out in a former 
Introductory Lecture, they are more conspicuous on the 
seaweeds of the west than the east coast of Scotland. 

Out of fifiy-eiglit families of marine mollusks forty-eight 
are cosmopolitan, but the limitation of a whole family to an 
area occurs very seldom. For example, while most of the 
cones are tropical, AVallace points out that Pleurotoma is 
cosmopolitan. In the same way the volutes are tropical, but 
Mitra occurs in Greenland. The cowries are also charac- 
teristic of warm regions, yet one species is found in Britain 
and one in Greenland. Of the cuttlefishes some, like the 
argonaut and pearly nautilus, are characteristic of warm 
seas, whilst the majority are cosmopolitan, their enormous 
numbers in the great oceans being only occasionally in 
evidence by their destruction of fishes on the lines, by the 
occurrence of their beaks in the stomachs of numerous fishes 
(from the cod and Lampris to sharks), and by their fanning 
the chief article of diet for the sperm-whales. 

That the mollusks have had ample time to spread them- 



Distribution of Marine Animals. \25 

selves over the great oceans is proved by their antiquity, 
many, like both groups of truly pelagic forms (the Heteropods 
and Pfceropods), ranging back to the Silurian period. 

Their complex distribution is not easily explained. Was 
the Pleurotoma of Greenland evolved from the same stock as 
the cones of the tropics, or did each arise from pre-existing 
forms in the special areas ? Why are the pearl-oysters 
(Aviculidee) tropical or subtropical, like the giant-clam 
[Tridacna) ? Why should the conditions accompanying the 
formation of pearls in the former be limited to special regions, 
even though the presence of certain fishes be necessary ? 

The marine Insecta are comparatively few, and it will 
suffice to take the two genera described by Dr. Buchanan 
White* from the collection of the ' Challenger.' Thus five 
species of Ilalohates occur in the Atlantic, but only one is 
restricted to it. Six species are found in the Indian Ocean 
west of long. 100° E., whilst (chiefly) in the West Pacific 
eight species are met with, of wiiich four are restricted to 
that region. The metropolis of the genus appears to ba the 
Indian Ocean and West Pacific, for nine out of the eleven 
known species occur there, and White thinks even originated 
there, and that currents have carried them eastward. Tiie 
other genus {Ilalohatodes) is represented only in the Indian 
Ocean and the (Ihiiia Sea. The Halobatidne are therefore 
chiefly inhabitants of the warmer seas, and though they have 
not spread over the whole ocean, they are widely distributed. 

In the class Crustacea the distribution of marine forms is 
remarkably wide, just as the number of some of the smaller 
forms like the Copepods swarm in every sea, from pole to 
pole. Thus a species of the Amphipod Podocerus extends, 
Mr. Stebbing informs me, from the waters of New Zealand to 
7?° 7' N., and another from Tahiti to the Faroes. The 
higher Crustacea are sensitive to temperature, as is evident 
from the behaviour of such forms as the shore-crab in summer 
and winter, and, as Mr. Stebbing observes, by the paucity of 
species in Arctic, Antarctic, and very deep waters. Yet, as 
tliis experienced author states, there are Amphipods and 
Isopods which abound most and attain their greatest size in 
Arctic waters. The comparison of the Copepods {Calani &(i.) 
from the feeding-grounds of the right-whale with those in 
European waters is equally pronounced, the siza of the Arctic 
forms being much greater. Mr. Stebbing mentions that 
every fiesli expedition tends to show the intimate relationsliip 

* * Challenger/ vol. vii. pp. 77 k 78. 



126 Prof. M'lntosli on the 

of the marine Crustaceans from north to south and east to 
west. " Land-crabs and river-crabs are chieflj confined to 
warm climates. Again, very few crabs occur at either end of 
the globe, but that does not prevent the discovery of _ many 
crabs living in deep and therefore very cold water in the 
intermediate zones. There is, besides, a sort of zonal facies^ 
which an expert in each group would probably recognize. 
There are circumpolar Amphipods, Isopods, and Sympods 
(Cumacea), which one would regard with great suspicion if 
it was said they had been collected at the tropics. But, never- 
theless, the deep-water communication accounts for the closest 
family connection between members of the Lithodidc« found 
far north and far south." {Stehhing.) The same author is of 
opinion that in some cases there may be isolation and 
restricted distribution, these seldom going beyond specific 
distinction. Yet as regards the Crustacea it is difficult to 
make regional areas of demarcation in the ocean. It would 
also be difficult to say that any family of marine crustaceans 
is exclusively tropical and another as exclusively Arctic, and 
though certain forms are found in deep water {e.g. the Japanese 
Thauniatocheles), yet representatives of the same family may 
occur in shallow water. 

In dealing with the families of the marine Polychseta it 
is also impracticable to map out the ocean in regions to 
suit their distribution, for almost every family has repre- 
sentatives in diverse regions ; and although of some it may 
be said that they are more prominent in tropical or sub- 
tropical waters, yet other representatives range to the poles. 

As examjjles of families usually considered characteristic 
of the warmer parts of the sea are the EuphrosynidjB and 
Amphinomidge, yet examples of both occur in Norway and of 
the former in Greenland ; indeed their range is almost 
cosmopolitan. The Eunicidae likewise are often conspicuous 
in tropical and subtropical seas, yet the abundance and size 
of some from the shores of Norway and from the North 
Atlantic show the cosmopolitan distribution of the group. 
With our present knowletlge it can hardly be said of any 
family that it is, on the one hand, a purely northern or a 
purely southern, or, on the other hand, a purely temperate 
or a purely tropical one. Some Annelids range from Green- 
land to Japan, from Norway to the Cape and New Zealand, 
and many are cosmopolitan. 

In considering how it has happened that the same form is 
found in Greenland, Europe, and Japan, some, like Sir John 
Murray, would suppose that such had been universally dis- 



Distribution of Marine Animals. 127 

tributed in the ocean at a former period, but that physical 
changes had subsequently restricted the range. Others see 
in this condition proof of the enormous powers of dispersion 
at the disposal of marine organisms, and the origin, in the 
several areas, from a pre-existing form. 

Moreover, whatever may be the conditions (and Sir J. 
Murray thinks the quantity of carbonate of lime secreted by 
marine organisms is determined by the temperature of the 
water and therefore chiefly chemical rather than physical) in 
regard to coral-reefs, northern Annelids (e. g. Filigrana 
imphxa and other Serpulidaj) have no difficulty in forming 
considerable masses of calcareous tubes *. Temperature 
appears to have no appreciable influence on the abundance 
and size of these calcareous tubes in cosmopolitan species. 
Nor is there a distinction in regard to the calcareous secre- 
tions of the Polyzoa and Echinoderms of the extreme north 
from those in the tropical oceans. 

The families of the Nemerteans have a range as wide as 
that of any previous group, and the type of structure varies 
little whether the form be arctic, tropical, or antarctic. Of 
no special region of the ocean can it be said that its Nemer- 
tean fauna is diagnostic, for with advancing knowledge 
(largely due to the labours of Mr. E.. C. Punnett) the dis- 
tribution of the types is always extending. There is no 
evidence, moreover, that the arctic and antarctic forms have 
other relationships than those which spring from a cosmo- 
politan distribution. 

So far as can be ascertained, the families of the Echino- 
derms correspond with those of other groups in regard to 
distribution. 8ome range from the arctic to the antarctic 
seas, and, as Mr. Bather observes, from the eastern shores 
of America round the world to the western, the same 
species thus occurring on the opposite shores of the Isthmus 
of Panama. It has, however, to be remembered that a com- 
munication existed between the respective sides up to a 
recent period. Some, again, range to great depths as well as 
have a wide distribution. 

As in other groups, some forms suggest a northern area 
and some a tropical, but on the whole it cannot be stated 
that there are special regions of the ocean characterized by 
special families of Echinoderms, though it is true that certain 
types, like the Pentacrini and Elasipoda, occur in deep water. 

* Murray tbhiks that tliose forms secreting a large quantity of car- 
bonate of lime would be killed by the lowering of temperature at the 
poles — like those with pelagic larva?. 



128 Prof. Mcintosh on the 

Further, the slightly pelagic Opliiopleron of Amboyna, one 
of the Moluccas, is not so widely distributed as some other 
types devoid of such an apparatus for progression. 

The distribution of the Coelenterates, such as zoophytes, 
jelly-fishes, sea-anemones, corals, and sea-fans, presents 
special features, for some are more purely tropical, others 
more characteristic of the colder areas, whilst not a few — like 
Campanularia^ Ohelia, and Eudendnum — are cosmopolitan. 
Thus the coral-reefs are tropical and subtropical, yet some 
stony corals, such as Lophohelia and Caryophyllia, occur 
in temperate seas. The jelly-fishes and sea-anemones are 
cosmopolitan, though some, like Cestus, are characteristic of 
the warmer seas. Alcyonarians range from tropical to cold 
regions, those in the former, however, according to Prof. 
Hickson, being distinguished by the abundance of their 
spicules or by massive skeletal structures. 

Sponges are often widely distributed, some forms being 
common to the North Atlantic and the Cape, others to the 
latter and Australia ; whilst European types range to South 
Africa and America. 

The Foraminifera, Radiolarians, and other types of the 
Protozoa (e. g. JSoclihica) have an extensive distribution, 
the former ranging from the Arctic to the borders of the 
Antarctic Ocean, and forming vast deposits in many areas. 
The distribution of Noctiluca and the pelagic forms like 
Ceratium is equally wide ; nor is there any hard-and-fast 
line separating the distribution of families or larger groups 
from each other. 

In connexion with regional distribution in the ocean, it 
has been supposed by some that the fauna of the deep water 
(abyssal region) is peculiar, but many families found there 
have representatives in shallower water and even between 
tide-marks. Thus amongst the deep-water fishes the Muraj- 
nida; include the eels so common between tide-marks in tlie 
Channel Islands and elsewhere. The CkipeidtiJ comprise 
the herring, sprat, and anchovy — widely distributed pelagic 
fishes which come near the shore to spawn. The Ophidiidae 
are almost universally spread from Greenland to New 
Zealand, and the family includes the sand-eel of our shores. 
In the same way the Pediculati, another family of deep-water 
fishes, has a representative, viz. the frog-fish, in shallow 
bays. A considerable number of Mollusca are also inhabi- 
tants of the depths of the sea, but representatives of the 
same families or even genera occur in shallow water; and 



Distribution of Marine Animals. 129 

so with the marine Polychreta and otlier Invertebrates 
down to the Foraminifera — only arenaceous forms ot the 
latter are more abundant in abyssal regions, and it is said 
that no Brachyurous crustacean has been met with below 
1000 fathoms [Canon Norman). 

Sir John Murray thinks that migration into the deep sea 
took place from the mud-line (viz. about 100 fathoms), and 
that there is little evidence, from the observations made in 
the ' Challenger,' to show that the deep sea has been peopled 
since the earliest geological times. The uncertainty on this 
head, however, is apparent by the statement of Prof. James 
Geikie that it was the absence of these abysses in early times 
(Palsfiozoic) which enabled many forms to become cosmo- 
politan. Murray, again, considers that the fauna of the deep 
water is less ancient than that of many shores {Lingula and 
Heliopora) and fresh waters {Ceratodas). In considering the 
deep-water fauna, however, it is well to bear in mind the 
difficulty of bringing the animals up for investigation. 

A brief glance may now be taken at the bipolarity of 
marine animals as promulgated by PfefFer and Murray. The 
latter, especially from his experiences in the ' Challenger ' 
expedition, has put forward a strong claim on this head. 
He is of opinion that there are a large number of identical 
and closely allied species in the extra-tropical regions of the 
northern and southern hemispheres, which, so far as known, 
are not represented in the intervening tropics — even though 
the climatic conditions as regards temperature are the same. 
He thinks that the identical species now living towards both 
poles, or their immediate ancestors, had a world-wide distri- 
bution, which involves a nearly uniform temperature through- 
out the whole body of the ocean (probably in Middle Meso- 
zoic times) J and that as the poles cooled these animals were 
drawn towards the equator. As we go back to the Palaeozoic 
period, he affirms, the tropical zone of temperature slowly 
widens. Murray further supports his theory by pointing 
out that pelagic larvse are absent in the cold waters of the 
arctic and antarctic regions; yet this may have been acci- 
dental, and due to the depth at which the tow-nets were 
used. Certainly the Sponges, Coelenterates (Zoophytes), 
Echinoderms, Annelids, and Molluscs of these regions have 
ciliated pelagic larvae. This bipolar theory has been opposed 
by Ludwig for the Sea-Cucumbers, Ortmann for the Crus- 
taceans, and D'Arcy Thompson generally, whilst many of the 
appearances may be explained by the cosmopolitan distri- 
bution of the various types. 

In summing up, therefore, it would appear that the distri- 
Ann. & Mag. iV. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. 9 



130 ]\Ir. G. A. Boulenger on neiv 

Inition of marine animals lias features wliicli divero-e from 
those which cliaracterize the distribution of land-animals — 
accordino" to the views now prevalent ; and, further, that 
the absence of impassable barriers does not, of necessity, lead 
to a cosmopolitan habit in those which can avail themselves 
o£ the opportunity. In the case of land-animals much 
weio;ht has been placed on this check to migration, so that 
it is a prominent feature in the literature of the subject. 
Further, the conditions in the ocean tend to the permanence 
of the various types, which, with their wide distribution, 
varied sites, and uniform medium, have much to favour them 
in the struggle for existence. The vast or cosmopolitan 
distribution of many forms is thus conspicuous. 

Again, in the present state of knowledge, the division of 
the ocean into regions characterized by special faunistic 
features can with difficulty, to say the least, meet with 
support from all the groups of marine animals. 

This preliminary survey of the subject, moreover, is in- 
teresting insofar as it discloses no serious obstacle to the 
introduction of European food-fishes, shell-fishes, crabs, and 
other forms to various parts of the world — especially those of 
primary importance to man. If, for instance, the same or a 
closely allied shell-fish or annelid can live and flourish equally 
in the waters of Britain and those of the Cape, there is pro- 
bably no insuperable barrier to the transference of a valuable 
food-fish from the one to the other. The recent transmission 
of adult plaice from Scotland to Australia has already met 
with success, and the same experiment may soon be carried 
out at the Cape. 

Though at present, broadly speaking, no definite plan of 
distribution amongst the families of oceanic forms is dis- 
cernible — very few families being monopolized by one region 
to the exclusion of the others, — future investigators may 
enable such a plan to be outlined ; yet the number of cosmo- 
politan forms, and of others which range almost as widely, 
will always give a tone to the picture of the sea in contrast 
with that of the land. 



XIV. — Descriptions of new Frogs and Snakes from Yunnan. 
By G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. 

In a recent number of these 'Annals' * I described a new 
gecko, GeJiT/ra T/unnanensis, obtained at Yunnan Fu (altitude 

* Vol. xii. 1903, p. 429. 



1-rogs and Snakes from Yunnan. 131 

about COOO feet) by Mr. John Graham, of the China Inland 
Mission. The Natural History Museum has since received 
from the same gentleman further collections made in the same 
district, and among them I had the pleasure of finding 
examples of two new frogs and five new snakes, of which 
descriptions are here offered. 

Rana pleuraden. 

Vomerine teeth in two small oblique groups between tlie 
choanae. Head moderate, as long as broad ; snout obtusely 
pointed, prominent, as long as the orbit; canthus rostralis 
obtuse; loreal region oblique, concave; nostril equally 
distant from the eye and from the end of the snout ; inter- 
orbital region narrower than the upper eyelid; tympanum 
very distinct, two thirds to three fourths the diameter of the 
eye. Fingers and toes rather slender, obtusely pointed ; 
first finger extending beyond second ; toes half-webbed ; 
subarticular tubercles rather feeble ; a small oval inner meta- 
tarsal tubercle. The tibio-tarsal articulation reaches between 
the eye and the tip of the snout. Skin smooth or with small 
warts; a moderately broad, very prominent, dorso-lateral 
glandular fold ; no other folds on the body. Olive-brown or 
greyish above, spotted with black ; a light vertebral streak 
usually present ; a dark brown or blackish band on each side 
of the head, passing through the eye and involving the 
tympanum ; a whitish streak along the upper lip ; limbs with 
more or less regular black cross-bars; sometimes a light line 
along the inner side of the leg, continued to the outer toe ; 
hinder side of thighs marbled black and yellow ; lower parts 
white, throat sometimes brownish. Male with a vocal sac on 
each side, forming loose folds on the throat, and a very large 
flat gland on each side of tlie body, above and behind the 
shoulder. 

From snout to vent 63 mm. 

Several specimens. 

Callula verrucosa. 

Snout rounded, not prominent, as long as the eye ; inter- 
orbital space as broad as the upper eyelid. Fingers slender, 
with slightly swollen tips, first a little shorter than second ; 
toes moderate, nearly half-webbed, the tips blunt, not swollen, 
fifth considerably shorter than third ; subarticular tubercles 
well developed ; metatarsal tubercles two, oval, compressed, 
the inner very large. The tibio-tarsal articulation reaches 
the shoulder or between the shoulder and the eye. Upper 

9* 



132 Mr. G. A. Boiilenger on new 

parts witli Inrfjo smootli warts ; a fold from the eye to tlie 
shoulder. Dark greyish brown above, nnifonn or with six 
longitudinal rows of small darker spots ; lower parts uniform 
dirty white. 

From snout to vent 46 mm. 

Three specimens, from the garden of the Mission station. 

Closely allied to C. incta, Bibr. 

PolyodontopMs GraJiami. 

Rostral once and a half as broad as deep, just visible from 
above ; suture between the internasals nearly as long as that 
between the prajfrontals ; frontal much longer than its 
distance from the end of the snout^ shorter than the parietals ; 
loreal as long as deep ; one praeocular ; two postoculars, only 
the upper in contact with the parietal ; temporals 2 + 2 ; eight 
upper labials, fourth and fifth entering the eye ; four lower 
labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are 
longer than the posterior. Scales in 17 rows. Veiitrals 185 ; 
anal divided; subcaudals 83. Reddish brown above, with 
three dark brown longitudinal lines, which become more and 
more indistinct after the anterior fourth of the body ; head 
dark brown, with a black streak on each side and a black bar 
behind the parietals ; a white streak along the upper labials 
and another behind the occipital bar ; lower parts white, with 
a black dot at the outer end of each shield ; on the posterior 
part of the body and on the tail these dots are confluent into 
a black lateral line. 

Total length 350 ram. ; tail 60. 

A single specimen. 

Intermediate between P. collaris. Gray, and P. Sagittarius^ 
Cant. 

Tropidonotus quadriliyieatus. 

Eye moderate. Rostral broader than deep, just visible 
from above ; internasals broadly truncate anteriorly, a little 
longer than broad, nearly as long as the praef rontals ; frontal 
once and a half as long as broad, as long as its distance from 
the end of the snout, much shorter than the parietals ; loreal 
as long as deep; one pra3- and two postoculars; temporals 
2 + 1 ; seven or eight upper labials, third and fourth or fourth 
and tifth entering the eye ; four lower labials in contact with 
the anterior chin-shields, which are shorter than the posterior, 
f^'cales in 19 rows, all keeled, the dorsals strongly. Ventrals 
153; anal entire; subcaudals 51. Pale olive-brown above, with 
two black vertebral lines, widening on the nape and occiput, 



Frogs and Snakes fi-om Yunnan. 133 

and a broad black lateral band extending from the eye to the 
end of the tail ; black lines on the sutures between the upper 
labial shields, which are white; lower parts bright yellow. 

Total length 435 mm. ; tail 65. 

A single male specimen. 

This species appears to be allied to T. Pealii, W. Sclater, 
from Assam. 

Tropidonotus octoUneatus, 

Eye moderate. Rostral broader than deep, just visible 
from above ; internasals broadly truncate anteriorly, as long 
as broad, nearly as long as the prajfrontals ; frontal once and 
a half as long as broad, a little longer than its distance from 
the end of tlie snout, much shorter than the parietals ; loreal 
as long as deep ; one prse- and two postoculars ; temporals 
2 + 2 J nine upper labials, fourth, fifth, and sixth entering 
the eye ; five lower labials in contact with the anterior chin- 
shields, which are a little shorter than the posterior. Scales 
in 19 rows, dorsals moderately keeled, laterals feebly, outer 
row smooth. Ventrals 152 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 58. 
Pale greyish brown above, with two black longitudinal lines, 
separated by five series of scales, these lines widening on the 
nape and passing into the dark brown colour of the upper 
surface of the head ; a black lateral band extending from the 
eye to the end of the tail ; a black zigzag lateral line, formed 
by the outer edges of the ventral shields j an interrupted 
black line on each side of the belly, formed by a short streak 
on each shield ; upper lip and lower parts yellow, the outer 
ends of the ventral shields reddish; black spots or vertical 
bars on the up[)er lip. 

Total length 610 mm. ; tail 125. 

A single female specimen. 

This species is most nearly allied to T, parallelus, Blgr. 

Tropidonotus plearotoinia. 

Eye moderate. Rostral broader than deep, just visible 
from above ; internasals narrowly truncate anteriorly, a little 
longer than broad, a little shorter than the prtefruntals ; 
frontal once and a half as long as broad, longer than its 
distance from the end of the snout, shorter than the parietals ; 
loreal as long as deep; one prte- and three postoculars; 
temporals 2 + 1 ; eight upper labials, third, fourth, and fifth 
entering the eye ; five lower labials in contact with the ante- 
rior chin-shields, wiiich are as long as the posterior. Scales 
in 19 rows, feebly keeled, two outer rows smooth. Ventrals 



134 On new Frogs and Snalces from Yunnan. 

148 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 66. Yellowish olive above, 
with two very indistinct darker streaks along the back ; a 
blackish lateral band, extending from the eye to the end of 
I he tail ; scales of outer row greyish, edged with black ; upper 
lip white, with some black on the sutures between the shields ; 
lower parts uniform bright yellow. 

Total length 350 mm. ; tail 85. 

A single male specimen. 

Allied to T. modesfus, Gthr. 

P seudoxenodon sinensis. 

Very closely allied to P. macrops, Blyth, with which 
specimens from Sze Chuen have been confounded by Giinther 
and by myself. Distinguished by having usually only seven 
upper labials, third and fourth entering the eye, 19 or 20 
scales on the middle of the body as well as on the neck, a 
smaller number of ventrals, viz. 144 to 158 instead of 160 to 
175, and a different coloration, the upper labial shields being 
marked with black bars corresponding to the sutures, and the 
quadrangular dark brown spots on the anterior part of the 
belly being absent. 

The numbers of ventral and caudal shields are as follows 
in the specimens examined : — 

2 . Kia-ting-fu, Sze Chuen, 1070 f. {Pratt) 158+ ? 

S. „ » M , 158+55 

cJ . Son-pan-ouei, Sze Chuen, 10,000 f. (Stt/an) 144 + 67 

J . Yunnan Fu, 6000 f. {Graham) 155 + 67 

$. „ „ „ 154-f62 

In a fresh condition this snake is olive-green above, with 
black and yellow or orange spots, the latter usually forming 
a vertebral series, at least on the posterior part of the body ; 
a blackish streak along each side of the nape, sometimes 
united in a point on tiie occiput ; an oblique black streak 
from the eye to tlie angle of the mouth ; frequently a light 
cross-band between the eyes ; loreal region and upper lip 
bright yellow or orange, the labial shields with black lines 
corresponding to the sutures between them ; belly yellow or 
orange in front, uniform or speckled with blackish, greenish 
or dark greyish olive behind, more or less profusely speckled 
with black. 

Total length 780 mm. ; tail 140. 



On Fishes from the Cameroon Mountain. 135 



XV, — On some Fishes from the Lakes of the Cameroon 
Mountain. By Dr. EiNAR LoNNBEEG, C.M.Z.S. &c. 

A FEW weeks af^o I received from my friend Gunnar Liiinell, 
residing at Cape Debundscha, a small collection of fish which is 
of considerable interest, having been obtained from the small 
isolated lakes of volcanic origin on the Cameroon Mountain, 
viz. Lake Barombi-ba-kotta and the Elephant Lake. 

The natural conditions of the latter lake have been men- 
tioned in my previous paper on fishes from the Cameroon 
(Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vol. xii., July 1903) and need 
not be repeated. Concerning the Lake Barombi-ba-kotta^ 
the Swedish civil engineer P. Dusen aives the followinof 
information * : — In the middle of the lake is a small islet of 
basalt. On the western side there is a steep slope about 
10 metres in height, but the surroundings are not very high 
and crater-walls seem to be absent. Mr. Dusea is therefore 
uncertain whether to regard this lake as a very old crater 
or a " Maar " formation. The lake receives only a small 
tributary, the rivulet Manatunge, at the mouth of which 
basalt-rocks were seen ; but there is no watercourse leading 
from the lake or draining it, so that it is thus fully isolated. 
The lake appears to be situated about 20 kilometres from 
Mungo River as the crow flies, and about twice as far from 
the nearest sea-sliore. Mr. Dusen puts its altitude above the 
sea-level at 90 m. In these circumstances it is therefore 
the more interesting to find that it has a fish-fauna consisting 
of at least five species of Cichlidse, which have been sent to 
me by Mr. Linnell, namely : — 

Hemichromis fasciatus, Peters. 
A small specimen. 

Pel matochr amis longirostris, Boulenger. 
A specimen in good condition. 

Tilapia macrocephala (Bleeker). 
A fine large specimen, measuring 189 mm., wilh quite 
normal dentition. 

Tilapia kottce, sp. n. 

Scales cycloid, without marginal denticulations. About 
10 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior arch. An outer series 
of teeth of moderate size, two or three inner series of vciy 

* Geol. Foren. Forh. no. 15o, Bd. xvi. (Stockholm, 1894). 



136 Dr. E. Lonnberg on FisJies from the 

minute teeth. Depth of body 2^ to 2| in total lengtli with- 
out caudal. Length of head 2| (in younger) to 2| times (in 
older specimens) in total length. Snout and forehead with 
straight upper profile, forming a distinct although blunt angle 
with the outline of the back. Diameter of eye contained 
1?, (in younger) to \\ times (in older specimens) in length of 
snout, 3i (in younger) to 4 times (in older) in length of head, 
1^ to 1 J in interorbital width. Maxillary extending almost 
to the vertical through the anterior border of the eye. Three 
series of scales on the cheeks ; opercle with large scales. 
Dorsal XV (XVI in one specimen) (11-) 12 ; last spine longest, 
I to ^ length of head ; middle soft rays produced 1^ times as 
long as longest dorsal spine. Pectoral not extending to origin 
of anal, pointed, but in all specimens a little shorter than head. 
Ventral produced, usually reaching vent or a little beyond. 
Anal III 8, third spine shorter than last dorsal ; soft rays 
])roduced 1^ times as long as third anal spine. Caudal 
truncate or a little emarginate. Scales cycloid, 26-27 ^^ ; 
lat. line ^^3. Very faint traces of four or five dusky hairs 
may be seen in some specimens, in others not. A black 
opercular spot always present, and a blackish spot at the base 
of the anterior soft rays of the dorsal. Anal often more or 
less dusky to blackish ; in the latter case, the chin, lower jaw, 
ventrals, and more or less of the opercle and belly as well as 
lower half of the caudal are blackish to black. In some speci- 
mens roundish light spots surrounded by dusky are seen on 
the posterior part of the soft dorsal and upper half of the 
caudal. The black-bellied specimens are smaller, but have a 
larger anal papilla, and an examination of the interior 
proves that they are males. The larger specimens with 
light-coloured belly are females. As the genital organs do 
not contain ripe products, it is evident that the sexual 
difference in colour is constant, and not confined to the 
breeding-season. The males measure 10 to 12 cm. in length, 
the females 12^ to 14 cm. 

I am much indebted to Mr. Boulenger, who has kindly 
sent me a specimen of Tilapia Zillii (Gervais) from Lake 
Menzaleh, Egypt, which he regards as most nearly related 
to the Tilapia from Lake Barombi-ba-kotta. There are, 
however, several characteristics that show these two fishes 
to be quite distinct from each other. The shape is different : 
in T. Zillii the profile forms an even bow without the 
pronounced nuchal angle of T. kottce ; in the former species 
the soft rays of the dorsal and anal fins are much more 
produced, so that they are about twice as long as the 



Lakes of the Cameroon Mountain. 137 

longest anal spine. Tlie number and arrangement of scales 
also differ; for instance, in T. Zillii there are 4-3|- scales 
between the lat. 1. and anterior dorsal spines, and 2^ between 
the posterior end of lat. 1. and tlie dorsal, whereas in T. kottcc 
the same numbers are 3 and 1^. The proportions are also 
dissimilar : in two specimens of exactly the same length the 
head of T. kottce is 36 7o and that of T. Zillii only 31 % of 
the total length without caudal. The colour is also different, 
as T. Zillii has 6 to 8 dark bars and sometimes a longitudinal 
stripe. All these particulars, together with the geographical 
separation, induce me to establish a separate species, named 
after Lake Barombi-ba-kotta. According to Mr. Boulenger, 
T. Zillii is distributed from the Algerian Sahara to Lake 
Eudolph and tlie Lake of Galilee. 

From the Tilapia lata group, T, kottce is distinguished 
by its shorter pectorals &c. 

Mr. Linnell has obtained quite a number of specimens of 
T. kottoi, so that the above description is based on several 
examples. 

Tilapia dubia, sp. n. ? 

It is with much hesitation that I propose this new species, 
as it is based on only one specimen ; but, on the other hand, 
its markings are so distinct, and it differs so decidedly from the 
species of Tilapia to which it might otherwise be related, 
that it seems incorrect not to describe it separately. 

An outer series of rather large and only slightly notched 
teeth, about l-i on each side of the upper jaw ; on the inner 
side of this outer row two or three series of minute teeth. 
Depth of body 2 times in total length without caudal, length 
of head 3 times. Snout with straight upper profile, as long 
as diameter of eye, which is contained 3 times in length of 
head and 1^ times in interorbital width. Maxillary extend- 
ing to between nostril and eye. Three series of scales on the 
cheek ; large scales on the opercle. Gill-rakers short, 13-1 J: 
on lower part of anterior arch. Pectoral pointed, much longer 
than head, and extending a good deal beyond the origin of 
anal. Ventral not produced reaching vent but not beyond. 
Dorsal XVI 13, spines subequal from the fifth, about ^ length 
of head. Anal III 10, third spine stouter than dorsal spines, 
but of nearly the same length. (Caudal mutilated.) Caudal 
peduncle nearly 1^ as deep as long. Scales cycloid, probably 
about 27-28 f|, lat. lin. ^. An opercular black spot, another 
at the base of the anterior soft rays of the dorsal. Eight dark 
bars, the first just in front of the opercular spot, the second 



138 Dr. E. Lonnberg on Fishes from the 

from the foremost dorsal spines, the fifth from the dark sjDot 
of soft dorsal, the sixth at the end of the dorsal, and the 
eio'hth at the base of the caudal. Anal and ventrals dusky 
to blackish. Total length with the caudal probably about 
82-85 mm. 

This form is evidently closely allied to T. Maricp, Bou- 
lenger, with which it agrees in relative dimensions of head 
and body, number of rays of vertical fins, and exterior 
markings. The differences are found in the dentition (as 
Mr. Boulenger says* respecting T. Alarice, "teeth small, in 
three series "), and in the shortness of the pectoral in the last- 
mentioned species, in which it is only as long as head and 
does not extend to origin of anal. On the other hand, the 
ventrals of T. Marice are longer and reach origin of anal. 
That species has also four series of scales on the cheek. It 
should also be mentioned that Boulenger's specimens were 
about the same size as mine, so that the differences are not due 
to age. 

T. Buttikoferi (Hubrecht) seems also to resemble this form 
in having eight dark bars and similar relative proportions. 
The teeth of the outer row in that species are also simiharly 
enlarged ; but T. Buttikoferi differs in having " 5 or 6 series 
of scales on the cheek," smaller number of spines but larger 
number of soft rays in the dorsal, shorter pectoral (subequal 
to or shorter than head, not extending to origin of anal), 
and longer ventral as in T. Marice. To unite these appears 
therefore impossible or only apt to cause confusion. When 
these fishes become more perfectly known, it may be possible 
to place some series of forms togetiier as subspecies under 
one and the same species ; but this seems rather early yet, 
and therefore it is best to collect as much knowledge as 
possible by carefully describing the different varieties. 

From the Elephant Lake only one species has been added 
to the collection f, but it is of interest as being new to 
science. It is a Barhus of the B. Bynni group, and I propose 
to call it 

Barhus LinneUii, sp. n. 
Depth of body o^ to nearly 4 (3j\) times in total length 

* In his very valuable paper " A Revision of the African and Syrian 
Fishes of the Family Cichlidse. — Part II.," Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
1899, p. 98. 

t Mr. Linuell informs me that Mr. Rathke, of the German station, 
Joliann Albreclityliohe, lielped him to procure this fiah from tlie 
^Elephant Lake. 



LaTces of (lie Cameroon Mountain. 139 

witlioiit caudal ; length of head ^\ to 3^ times in total length. 
Snout rounded, 2^ times (or slightly more) in length of head. 
Diameter of eye (of tiiese large specimens) 6 to 6i times in 
length of head. Interorbital width about equal to length of 
snout, thus about 2^ to 2| times in length of head. Mouth 
inferior; lips well developed, lower continuous. Barbels two 
on each side, the posterior a little longer than the anterior, 
exceeding the latter l>y a fourth or a fifth of its length ; 
the anterior is equal to diameter of eye or a little (^- to jL.) 
longer, the posterior is 1^ times diameter of eye; the distance 
between the barbels is quite intermediate between the length 
of anterior and posterior barbels. Dorsal III 9; last simple 
ray rather strong, bony, not serrated, slightly curved, a little 
more than half as long as head (55 °/q) ; free edge of the fin 
emarginate, its distance from the occiput less than its distance 
from the caudal. Anal III 5, longest anal ray decidedly 
longer than longest dorsal ray, and measuring | (68 °/q) 
length of head. Pectoral about | length of head, not reacli- 
ing ventral, latter below anterior part of dorsal. Caudal 
peduncle 1^ to 1^ times as long as deep. Scales 20-27^', 
2 (or 2|) between lateral line and root of ventral, 12 round 
caudal peduncle. Two specimens, respectively 360 and 
435 mm. in length. 

This Barhus is no doubt nearly related to B. Batesiij 
Boulenger, but differs from that species in several respects. 
Since Mr. Boulenger described ^ B. Batesii on a single speci- 
men from Kribi Kiver, Southern Caraeroons, he has received 
several specimens from 185 to 340 mm. long, and he has in the 
most friendly way favoured me with a fresh description (for 
which I owe him my best thanks) of this species, based on 
the increased material. A comparison with this description 
reveals that Barbus L/nnellii differs from B. Batesii in several 
particulars. The former has a comparatively larger head and 
longer snout. Its interorbital width is larger, but the barbels, 
and the distance between them, when compared with the 
diameter of the eye are smaller. The dorsal is lower, but the 
anal is rather higher when compared with the length of 
the head. The scales are fewer in number and larger, as 
may readily be seen. The two forms must therefore be kept 
distinct, even if Barhus LinneUii of the Elephant Lake be 
regarded as derived from B. Batesii through isolation. 

The Museum, Gothenburg, 
Jan. (ith, 1904. 

* Proc. Zonl. Soc, 190o, vol. i. p. 2"). 



140 Mr. H. n. Druce on new 



XVI. — Descriptions of new Species of Lycasnidre /yom Borneo 
avd JSev) Guinea. Bj HAMILTON H. Deuce, F.Z.S., 

r.E.s. 

Thysonotis hehes, sp. n. 

(?. — Upperside. Allied to T. Piepersii*^ from which it 
differs by its smaller size, by being of a darker and more 
])urple shade of blue, and by the outer margins of the fore 
wing being even more broadly black, especially towards the 
anal angle. 

Underside differs from that of T. Pvpersii by the almost 
total absence of the yellow basal streak on the costa of the 
fore wing and the absence of the metallic green borders to 
the black lunules in the border of the hind wing. There are 
a few metallic scales at the base of the hind wing and about 
halfway along the costa from the base. 

Thorax black ; pali)i black, clothed with whitish hairs at 
the base; abdomen black, ringed with blue scales at each 
segment ; legs black, witli grey scales at joints. 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

Hah. U])per Aroa Eiver, British New Guinea {Meek, 
Mus. Druce). 

The two specimens we possess were captured in January 
and February. 

Candalides pruina^ sp. n. 

^. — Upperside. Uniform deep black, with the costal half 
of the fore wing from tiie base nearly to the outer margin 
dark, shining, hoary purple, with the costal margin and the 
neivules narrowly black, and a central patch of differently 
placed scales lying principally on the median nervure and on 
the bases of the median nervules. When held at an angle 
the black hind wings show a slight olivaceous tinge. The 
cilia of the fore wing are black, slightly whitish at the angle, 
as is also the apex of the hind wing, which is again distinctly 
white along the abdominal margin, widening out to a small 
white patch at the base of the abdominal fold. 

The uiideraide is marked exactly like that of C. silicea f, 
but the black spots are slightly fainter and the apex and 
costa appear very slightly suffused with greyish. 

* Cupido Piepersii, Snellen, Tijd. Entom. xxi. p. IG, pi. i. fig. 3 (1878). 
t Jiolochila silicea, Grosje-Smitli, Novitates Zoolog. i. p. 580 (1894) ; 
lihop. Exot. ii., Orient. Lye. ix. HolocMlu, i. figs. 6, 7, 8 (1896). 



Jjycsemdas from Borneo and New Guinea. lil 

Head, thorax, and abdomen black above, whitish beneath ; 
palpi white, tipped with black; legs black and white. 

Expanse l^V"!! inch. 

Hab. Upper Aroa Eivcr, British New Guinea (Meek, 
Mus. Druce). 

I'he two specimens we possess were captured, one in January 
and one in February. 

Not nearly allied to any described species. 

Tajuria lucullus, sp. n. 

c?. — Allied to T. cato *, from which it differs on the u])per- 
side by being of a more silvery shade of blue and by the blue 
area on the fore wing extending right up to the anal angle, 
but not reaching to the upper wall of the cell as in that 
species. The lobe on the hind wing is considerably smaller, 
with its black spot larger and the orange crown very 
indistinct. 

On the underside the ground-colour is slightly paler than 
in T. cato and in the fore wing the dark transverse line 
commences near the costal margin, further from the apex 
than in that species, and runs almost straight nearly to tlie 
inner margin; in the hind wing the dark line is also placed 
further inwards and the orange blotches near the anal angle 
are darker, more condensed, and larger than in T. cato. The 
lobe itself is entirely black and the space above the sub- 
median nervure is entirely covered with shining pale blue 
scales. The black spot between the lower median nervules is 
larger. 

There are indistinct lines closing the ends of the cells in 
both wings which are absent in T. cato. 

Thorax and abdomen bluish above, pearly grey below ; 
legs black, with whitish spots ; antennoe black above, spotted 
with white below. 

Expanse 1^ inch. 

Hah. Kina lialu, Borneo (Mus. Druce). 

This insect is closely allied to T. cato, but is at once distin- 
guished by the characters enumerated above. 

One specimen only, in fine condition. 

Tajuria stigmata, sp. n. 

1^ . — Allied to Tajuria lierenis'\, but differs by being 
smaller, by the blue on the u])perside being darker and of a 

* Tajuria cato, II. H. Druce, P. Z. S. 1805, p. GOl, pi. x.xiii. figs. 14, 15. 
t Tajuria berenis, II. H. Druce, P. Z. S. 189G, p. 074, pi. xxi. tig. (j. 



142 Mr. O. Thomas on 

more violaceous hue, and by the possession of a large oliva- 
ceous brown band occupying the upper end of the cell and 
reaching to the black apical border. The lobe is much 
smaller and black. 

On the underside the ground-colour is much as in T. h&- 
renis, but the transverse lines are placed further inwards from 
the margins and are much straigbter. There are no faint 
lines closing the cells of both wings, as in T. berenis, and the 
orange patches at the anal angle of the hind wing are paler, 
more extensive, and not separated by the submedian inter- 
space, as in T. berem's. The black lobe is crowned wath 
shining silvery-blue scales. 

$ . — Upperside differs from male only by the disk of the 
fore wing being of a slightly paler blue, the apex being less 
broadly black, and by the total absence of the olivaceous 
brand. 

On the underside the dark transverse line is more con- 
spicuous and more distinctly edged outwards with whitish 
tlian in the male. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen bluish above, pearly white 
below ; legs white-spotted ; antenuie minutely white-spotted. 

Expanse If inch. 

Eab. Kina Balu, Borneo (Mus. Druce). 

Distinguished at once from all others of the group by the 
large brand in the male, which may necessitate the erection of 
a new genus to contain it. 



XVII. — Two new ifammnls from South America. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

Oryzomys otiiscus, sp. n. 

A medium-sized species allied to 0. intermedlus and 
0. laticeps. 

Size about as in 0. intermedius, therefore larger than in 
0. laticeps. Fur close and rather short; hairs of back barely 
10 mm. in length. General colour of upper surface dark 
greyish tinged M'ith buffy, the resulting tone being rather 
paler than Kidgway^s " bistre " and very near that of certain 
of the darker forms of the laticeps group, e. g. 0. perenensis, 
Allen. Median area of back noticeably darker than rest. 
Sides rather, but not conspicuously, more buffy. Whole of 
under surface and inner sides of limbs greyish white ("grey 



new Jfanunals from South America, 1-13 

no. 9 "), the bases of the hairs slaty, the tips white. Line of 
demarcation on sides fairly well defined. Head like body; 
muzzle rather darker, with dark rims round the eyes. Ears 
rather lar_2:e, thinly haired, greyish brown. Outer surface of 
arms and leg-s drab-grey ; hands and feet pure white. Tail 
approximately equal in length to the head and body, very 
finely scaled, practically naked ; greyish brown, rather paler 
for its proximal third below. 

Skull closely similar in size and shape to that of 0. inter- 
medius, therefore decidedly larger than in 0. laficeps ; the 
palatal foramina are, however, rather shorter than in the 
former, though not so short as in the latter, and are more 
widely open. The supraorbital edges are squared or finely 
beaded, but are w ithout overhanging ledges. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and body 140 mm. ; tail 145 ; hind foot, s. u. 3L 
(range 30-33), c. u. 33 ; ear 24. 

Skull: greatest length 36*3; basilar length 28; greatest 
breadth 18*5; nasals 13'7 ; interorbital breadth 5'6 ; palate 
length 15'6 ; palatal foramina 5' 1x26; length of upper 
molar series 5. 

JrJab. S. Louren(jo, near Pernarabuco. Alt. 50 m. 

Tt/pe. Adult male. B.M. no. 3. 10. 1. 42. Original 
number 1573. Collected 23rd July, 1903, by Alphonse 
Robert. Eight specimens. 

This Oryzomys is readily distinguished from any species 
hitherto known. In its colour it is remarkably like some of 
the forms of the 0. laticeps group, but is separable from 
them by its much larger skull and longer palatine foramina. 
In some of the specimens the darker dorsal area is so marked 
as to suggest an affinity with 0, sublhieatus, Thos., but the 
hind feet in that species are conspicuously shorter. 

From 0. physodes, Licht, (Rio Janeiro and Espirito Santo), 
0. lamia, Thos. (Minas Geraes), and 0. intermedins, Leche 
(Sao Paulo to Rio Grande do Sul), of all of which Mr. Robert 
has obtained specimens, this species in distinguishable by 
the absence of the rufous or buffy body-colour found in those 
animals. 

Marmosa germana, sp. n. 

A large species of the cinerea group, with a wholly brown 
tail. 

Fur thick, close, and wavy; hairs of back about 10-11 mm. 
in length. General colour above pale brown, rather paler 
than "mummy-brown," rather less _yellovv than "raw 
umber " of Ridgway. Under surface soiled buffy greyish, 



144 Dr. W. T. Caiman on the 

the hairs slaty, with pale bufFy tips. Crown of head like 
back. Dark orbital rings broad, strongly marked, extending 
forwards on to the sides of the muzzle. Cheeks and chin 
clearer buffy. Outer sides of arms and legs like back, inner 
sides like belly ; hands and feet practically naked, pale 
brownish. Tail furry at its base for a shorter distance than 
usual, the fur, which is coloured like that of the back, ex- 
tending for only about an inch and being surpassed posteriorly 
by the outstretched feet ; remainder of tail naked, as usual, 
but instead of being white terminally it is uniformly pale 
brown to the end, at least above, the under surface being in 
one specimen slightly paler terminally. 

Skull with well-expanded zygomata and broad interorbital 
region, with overhanging postorbital ledges. Teeth large, 
of the usual proportions in this group. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in skin) : — 

Head and body 187 mm. ; tail 245 ; hind foot (s. u.) 23 ; 
ear 19. 

Skull : basal length 39*5 ; greatest breadth 25 ; nasals 
18*5 X 6"2 ; interorbital breadth 7*6 ; breadth across post- 
orbital processes 9"4 ; breadth of brain-case 15; palate 
lenoth 23*5 ; combined length of three anterior molariform 
teetti 7-7. 

Rob. Sarayacu, Oriente of Ecuador, 

Type. Female (young adult). B.M. no. 80. 5. 6. 77. 
Collected by Mr. Clarence Buckley. An old male also in 
collection. 

This opossum shares with M. regina * alone of the ])resent 
group the distinction of having a wholly brown tail, not 
turning to white at its end. From that species it is separated 
by its duller and less yellowish belly-colour, broader skull, 
and larger molars. 



XVIII. — On the Classification of the Crustacea Malacostraca. 
By W. T. Calman, D.Sc. 

In the course of preparing a general account of the Crustacea 
for a forthcoming volume of Prof. E. Ray Lankester's 
' Treatise on Zoology ' I have been led to discard the com- 
monly accepted classification of the Malacostraca and to 
adopt a scheme which was briefly outlined by Dr. H. J. 
Hansen some ten years ago. The object of the present 
* Ann. k Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) ii. p. 275 (1898). 



Classification of the Crustacea Malacostraca. 145 

paper is to discuss somewhat more fully than is possible 
■within the limits of a text-book certain of the facts beariui^ 
upon the case, to put into systematic form (with some modifi- 
cations and additions) the classification suggested by 
Dr. Hansen, and to invite criticism of the result. 

In 1815 Leach *, adopting a basis of classification which 
had previously been applied by Lamarck to the whole class 
of Crustacea, divided the subclass Malacostraca into two 
legions — thePodophthalmaandtheEdriophthalma — according 
to the condition of the eyes, movably pedunculate in the ono 
and sessile in the other. Without attempting to summarize 
the numerous modifications which have been suggested, it 
may be said that Leach's classification has been accepted in 
principle by the majority of carcinologists since his time, and 
is that most generally followed at the present day. As 
originally defined, the two groups were sharply distinguished 
from each other not only by the characters given by Leach, 
but also by the presence in the Podophthalraa of a cephalo- 
thoracic shield or carapace which was absent in the Edrio- 
phthalma, this character giving occasion for the names 
Thoracostraca and Arthrostraca applied to them by Bur- 
nieisterf. The progress of research, however, rendered it 
increasingly ditficult to form satisfactory definitions of the 
two divisions. In particular the recognition by Fritz Miiller 
of a true, though reduced, carapace in the Tanaidte and the 
elucidation of the structure of the Cumacea begun by 
H. Goodsir and by Kroyer provided intermediate links, the 
Cumacea, indeed, being placed sometimes in the one group 
and sometimes in the other. Claus J established a third 
division (Leptostraca) for Nthalia and its allies, and the 
separation of the Stomatopoda from the other Podophthalma, 
first suggested, I believe, by Huxley §, left in the last-named 
group only the Schizopoda and Decapoda. 

An important departure from the line of classification 
generally followed was made in 1883 by Prof. Boas ||, who 
abandoned the group Schizopoda, pointing out that the Mysidge 
and Lophogastridas were by no means closely related to the 

* " A Tabular View of the External Characters of Four Classes of 

Animals which Linne arranged under Insecta ," Trans. Linn. Soc. 

London, xi. (1815) pp. 306-400. 

t ' Beitrage zui- Naturgeschichte dt>r Ranbenfiisser,' Berlin, 1834, p. 55. 

X ' Grundzuge der Zoologie,' 4te Auil. (1880) p. 573. 

§ lutrod. Classification Anim. (1869) p. 125 ; Manual Anat. Invert. 
Animals (1877), p. 317. 

II " Studien Uber die Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen der Malakostraken," 
Morphol. Jahrb. viii. pp. 485-579, pis. xxi.-xxiv. (1883). 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. 10 



146 Dr. W. T. Caiman on the 

Eupliausiidaf, with which they had until then been associated. 
Boas divided the Malacostraca into seven orders — the Euphau- 
siacea, Mysidacea, Cumacea, Isopoda, Amphipoda, Uecapoda, 
and Squillacea. This view was severely criticised by Claus*, 
who, while admitting points of affinity between Mysidge and 
Arthrostraca on the one hand, and between Euphausiidae and 
Decapoda on the other, retained the Schizopoda as a central 
and primitive group, and classed them along with the 
Decapoda as Thoracostraca. 

In 1893 Dr. Hansen f, in a preliminary account of his 
researches on the morphology of tlie appendages in In-^ects 
and Crustacea (not yet published in full), proposed a still 
further modification of the classification on the lines laid down 
by Boas, from whom, however, he differs on many points. 
While agreeing in discarding the group Schizopoda, Hansen 
points out that the Euphausiacea do not occupy the primitive 
position assigned to them by Boas, and he emphasizes their 
close affinity with the Decapoda, with which he proposes to 
associate tliem, opposing to the group thus formed another of 
equal rank, comprising the Mysidacea, the Cumacea, and 
the Edriophthalmate orders. Hansen's proposals seem to 
have attracted little attention, and I am not aware that any 
writer has adopted the classification suggested, though to me 
this arrangement of the Malacostraca appears to be the only 
one which adequately expresses our present knowledge of 
their morphology. 

As Dr. Hajisen does not give any names to the two groups 
which he defines, it may be convenient to state here that I 
propose the names Peracarida {jnjpa, a pouch) for the 
division which includes the Mysidacea, Cumacea, Tanaidacea, 
Isopoda, and Amphipoda, and Eucarida for the Euphausi- 
acea and Decapoda. 

From this it will be seen that t]\e chief point on which 
there is divergence of opinion is the retention of the Schizopoda 
as a natural group. That the M^^sidae present affinities with 
the Edriophthalma and the Euphausiida? with the Decapoda 
is not disputed ; but if we adopt Claus's view that tlie 
Schizopoda are a central group approximating to the stock 
from which the other ordeis have been derived, there is 
nothing to forbid their association with the other Podo- 
phthalraa in our taxonomic arrangement. When, however, 

* " Neue Beitrage zur Morphologie der Orustaceeii," Arb. Zool. Inst. 
Wien, vi. pp. 1-108, pis. i.-vii. (1885). 

t " Zur Morphologie der Gliedinassen und Mundtheile bei Crustaceen 
uTid Insecten," Zool. Anz. xvi. pp. 193-198 & 201-212. Translated in 
Ann. & Ma-, Nat. Hist. {G) xii. pp. 417-434 (1893). 



CJassiJicaiion of the Crustacea Malacostraca. 147 

we come to compare the characters (as given, for instance, by 
Sars *) of the Euphausiidse on the one hand, with those of 
the Mysidse, Lophog-astridEB, and Eucopiidje on the other, we 
find that, with one important exception, to be discussed 
presently, the two groups do not agree in one single character 
which they do not share with the lower Decapods, and for 
the most part also with the Stomatopoda and Leptostraca. 
They agree in possessing a carapace, movable eyes, a scale- 
like exopodite on the antenna, an elongated and ventrally 
flexed abdomen, and a " tail-fan " formed by the lamellar 
rami of the last pair of appendages displayed on either siile 
of the telson. This combination of characters goes to make 
up what might be called the caridoid " facies," and at first sight 
strongly suggests affinity between the groups exhibiting it. 
It seems reasonable to suppose, however, that these characters, 
together with such others as the natatory exopodites of the 
thoracic limbs, are precisely what we must attribute to the 
liypothetical stock ot the JMalacostraca, and that the caridoid 
form has been retained in each of the divergent branches 
proceeding therefrom by those members which have adhered 
most closely to the primitive habits of life, and especially of 
locomotion. That the stalked eyes and the carapace are 
primitive features is not now disputed, nor can it be doubted 
that the possession of an exopodite on the antenna is also 
primitive, though it has been lost by the Leptostraca. The 
lamellar form of this exopodite is intelligible as an adaptation 
to swimming habits, and its reduction or loss corresponds 
fairly closely in most cases with diminished natatory powers. 
The fan-like disposition of uropods and telson is another 
character not shared by the Leptostraca, which, nevertheless, 
was probably possessed by the primitive Malacostraca, since 
it occurs in the lower Decapoda and the Stomatopoda, and 
also, though more or less modified, in Curaacea and many 
Isopoda. The retention of these primitive characters does 
not necessarily imply any special affinity between the various 
groups which exhibited them. 

The one character, above referred to, which is stated to 
distinguish all Schizopoda from the Decapoda is the freedom 
of the terga of one or more of the posterior thoracic somites 
from the carapace. In the Mysidai, Lophogastridaj, and 
Lucopiidse at least five of these somites are complete upon 
the dorsal side and distinct from, although more or less over- 
lapped by, the carapace. It has been stated that in the 
Lupuausiidffi the last thoracic somite remains distinct, while 

* Rep. Schizoporla • Challen^rer.' pp. 10 k 11 (188o). 

10* 



148 



Dr. W. T. Caiman on the 



in the Decapoda all are coalesced with the carapace. If this 
were so it would constitute a strong, though not conclusive, 
argument in favour of retaining the Euphausiidse in asso- 
ciation with the other families of Schizopoda. As a matter 
of fact, however, this difference between the Euphausiidse 
and Decapoda does not exist. 




Junction of thoracic and abdominal regions of the hody, from the dorsal 
side. A. Nyctiphanes norveyica (Euphausiacea) ; B. Pandctlus Bon- 
nieri (Caridea). 

a, carapace ; b, intermediate plate ; c, tergum of first abdominal somite ; 
d, tergum of second abdominal somite ; e, articular surface defined 
by a groove on surface of second somite. The thorax and abdomen 
are drawn slightly apart, to show the area occupied by soft articular 
membrane between (indicated by shading). 

If the junction of thorax and abdomen in a typical 
Euphausid such as Nyctijjhanes be compared with the same 
region in one of the lower Decapoda (Penaeidea or Caridea), a 
precise similarity of structure is found (see figure) . The poste- 
rior margin of the carapace is concave on the dorsal side, 
leaving between it and the apparent anterior margin of the first 
abdominal somite an area of roughly lenticular outline, which 
is fully exposed when the abdomen is flexed, and is occupied by 
a firmly chitinized plate {h). Anteriorly this plate is overlapped 
by the carapace, with which it is connected by soft articular 



Classification of the Crustacea Malacostraca, 149 

membrane, and posteriorly it is firmly connected with the 
first abdominal somite. It is to all appearance quite compa- 
rable to thearticular surface (e) on the dorsal aspect of the other 
abdominal somites, which is concealed beneath the posterior 
margin of the somite in front when the abdomen is extended, 
and it only differs from these articular surfaces in being more 
sharply defined from the somite of which it forms a part. 
It is possible, though I know of no evidence to support the 
view *, that this plate is actually the tergal portion of tlie 
last thoracic somite, which has become detached from the 
sternal portion and has coalesced with the succeeding somite, 
but, in any case, the structure is exactly alike in Euphausiidaj 
and in the lower Decapods. I have carefully sought for 
other evidence of a distinct tergal element of the last thoracic 
somite in Euphausiidfe, but without success, and I can only 
conclude that the statement of its existence is an error based 
upon the observation of this intermediate plate without direct 
comparison with the Decapoda. 

One point in w^hich the Euphausiacea appear to agree 
with a section of the Mysidacea and to differ from the 
Decapoda is the possession of a single series of branchise at 
the bases of the thoracic limbs. In the Decapoda the gills 
are arranged in several (typically four) series. Those of the 
Euphausiacea are attached to the coxopodites of the limbs, 
corresponding to the podobranchiae (and epipodites) of the 
Decapods, from which, however, they differ in their mode of 
branching. In the LophogastridiB and Eucopiidse, on the 
other hand, the gills are attached to the articular membrane 
at the base of the limbs, and are, in fact, arthrobranchiaj. 
As Glaus has pointed out, this difference in the place of 
attachment does not necessarily invalidate the comparison 
between the branchise of the two groups, since he has shown 
that in certain Decapods the arthrobranchiae develop as out- 
growths from the basal portions of the limbs, and that the 
pleurobranchiae had in all probability a similar origin. There 
is, however, another fact which may have a bearing on this 
question. In Gnaihophausia (Loplaogastridae) Sars describes 
a small tongue-like process, tipped with a group of setae, on 
the outer side of the coxopodite of all the thoracic limbs 
except the first pair, and he regards this as a reduced epipo- 
dite. It seems not unlikely that this process, and not the 
gill itself, is homologous with the epipodial gill of the 

* Williamson figures this plate as a separate sclerite in the larva of 
Crangon. " On the Larval Stages of Decapod Crustacea. — The Shrimp 
{Crangon vuh/aris, Fabr.j,'' Rep. J'ishery Board Scotland, xix. (3) 1901, 
pi. V. tig. 156, " in." 



150 Dr. W. T. Caiman on tU 

Eupliauslidse. Ou the assumption that the primitive Malaco- 
straea possessed at least two epipodial appendages on each 
thoracic limb (as in Anaspides), the distal series may have 
become modified as branchise in the Euphausiidae and the 
proximal in the Lophogastridge. In any case, the form of 
the gills diflers considerably in the two cases, and the only 
point which they have in common as against the Decapoda is 
the arrangement in one instead of several series. 

Among the characters in which the Mysidacea differ from 
the Euphausiacea and agree with the Edriophthalmate orders 
the most conspicuous is the possession by the female sex of 
a brood-pouch or marsupium, in which the eggs and young 
are carried. It cannot be doubted that this structure is 
homologous throughout the whole series which I have name 1, 
from this feature, the Peracarida, in spite of real or alleged 
differences in the mode of its development. It is formed by 
a series of overlapping plates (which Glaus considers, with 
great probability, to be of the nature of epipodites) attached 
to the inner side of the coxopodites of some or all of the 
thoracic limbs. When, as in many Isopoda, the coxopodites 
are fused with the body, the plates are attached to the sternal 
surface of the somites, in some cases these plates or oostegites 
develop as bud-like outgrowths from the bases of the limbs, 
increasing in size at successive ecdyses as sexual maturity is 
approached; but in certain Isopoda it has been shown that tlie 
course of development is abbreviated, the oostegites growing in 
the space between the sternal cuticle and the hypodermis, and 
being set free, completely formed, at a single moult *. 
Probably some similar process has given rise to the statement 
that the oostegites arise by splitting of the ventral cuticle in the 
Oumaceaf and in the Isopod Gnathia\. At the same time 
it is certain that the formation of the brood-pouch is profoundly 
modified in certain parasitic Isopods of the tribe Bpicaridea. 
In many of these the oostegites develop in the typical fashion 
just described, but in the more specialized forms tiie structure 
is very different and hard to understand. In Hemioniscus, 
where the development has been worked out in detail by 
Caullery and Mesnil §, the marsupial cavity is hollowed out 

* Cf. Leicbmann, " Beitr. z. Naturgesch. d. Isopoden/' Bibl. Zool. x. 
(1891). 

t G, O. Sars, ^' Beskr. af de paa Freg. Josephines Exp. f iindne 
Cumaceer," Kougl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl. ix. 13 (1871J, p. 19. 

I Dohrn, " Eutw. imd Organ, v. Prauiza [Aiiceus) vuixUluris,'^ Zeitschr. 
f. wiss. Zool. XX. (1870) p. 70. 

§ " Eecherclies siir V Hemionuct(s balani, Buchholz . . . .," Bull. Sei. 
France et Belgique, xxxiv. pp. 31(3-362, pis. xvii. & xviii. 5 ligg. in te.xt 
(1001). 



Classification of the Crustacea Malacostraca. 151 

in a thickening of the ectoderm on the sternal surface, and is 
from the first completely closed. Further research will be 
required to show what relation this cavity bears to the normal 
marsupium. 

Apart from such exceptional cases, however, the possession 
of oostegites is a character quite peculiar to the group of 
orders included in the Peracarida and not found in any other 
Crustacea. It is true that the Euphausiidge are described as 
carrying their eggs in sacs attached to the sternal surface of 
the thorax, and it has been assumed that these represent the 
mai'supium of tlie Mysidacea. But, as Sars * has pointed 
out, the " ovisacs " are apparently formed by the consolidation 
of some cementing substance which is extruded along with 
the eggs from the oviducts. The rarity of ovigerous specimens 
would suggest that the eggs are so carried for only a brief 
period, while in some of the commonest species they have 
never yet been observed. This last circumstance is explained 
by an interesting observation for which I am indebted to 
Mr. E. W. L. Holt. In Euphausia pellucida Mr. Holt 
finds that the eggs when expelled from the body are not 
agglutinated together in masses, but are simply carried for a 
time between the thoracic feet of the female. In Ni/ctiphanes 
Couchii the egg-sacs have long been known. By the kindness 
of Mr. Holt I have been enabled to examine well-preserved 
specimens of both these species, and I tind that, as, indeed, is 
implied by Sars's account, the structures found in iV. Couchii 
are more properly described as egg-masses than as sacs, there 
being no definite enc'osing membrane, but simply a tilm of 
hardened cement which also penetrates between and holds 
the eggs together. It is plain that this structure bears no 
morphological relation to the oostegites of the Peracarida. A 
very similar arrangement is found in the Decapod Leucifer^ 
where, according to Brooks fj the eggs are " attached in a 
loose bunch of twenty or more to the last pair of thoracic 
limbs." 

A feature which is very characteristic of the Peracarida, 
and one on which Boas and Hansen lay considerable stress, 
is found in the structure of the mandibles. In all the orders 
composing the series, with exceptions in the case of parasitic 
and other secondarily modified forms, an accessory blade, the 
lacinia mohilis of Hansen \, is developed just behind the 

* Rep. Schizopoda ' Challenger,' p. 118. 

t ** Leucifer, a Stud}' in Morphology," Phil. Trans, cl.vxiii. (1882) p. 60. 

\ The tevm lacinia mobilis was first applied b}' Hansen ('Dijmphna 
Togtets Zool. Bet. Udbytte ' (1887), p. 197) to the accessory blade alone, 
but he afterwards extended its meaning to include aho the row of spines 



152 Dr. W. T. Caiman on the 

cutting-edge, and is followed by a row of serrated spines 
extending towards the molar process. In the Euphausiidae 
and Decapoda no lacinia mohilis is found in the adult, though 
in the larvai of both a group of serrated spines is sometimes 
present, which disappears in the course of development. 
Even in the adults of some of the more primitive Decapods, 
for instance in certain Atyidge *, a tuft or row of stout bristles 
is found just below the cutting-edge, and it seems probable 
that this is a vestige of the spine-row of the Peracaridan 
mandible. 

In distinguishing the Peracaiida from the Eucarida, 
Hansen attaches great importance to certain characters pre- 
sented by the thoracic limbs. Boas had already pointed out 
that the Mysidas and the Edriophthalmate orders have these 
limbs terminated by a claw-like spine, which is absent in the 
Euphausiacea and Decapoda. Hansen regards this claw as 
representing a segment of the limb, and identifies it with the 
minute terminal segment which he has discovered in the 
Leptostraca. Boas had further indicated a difference between 
the two groups in the direction of the articulations of the 
limbs. In the Peracarida the *'knee" or chief ventral 
flexure of the leg is between the fifth and sixth segments, 
counting from the base, while in the Eucarida it is between 
the fourth and fifth. Hansen interprets this difference in the 
following manner : he assumes that the position of the knee 
is the same in both cases, that the apparent fourth segment 
of the leg in Eucarida is equivalent to tlie fourth plus the 
fifth in the Peracarida, and tliat the three segments beyond 
the knee in the former case are homologous with the two 
segm.ents and the terminal claw in the latter. If this sug- 
gestion be correct, we have a difference of a very marked 
kind between the two groups. Dr. Hansen will doubtless 
produce further evidence in its support when his researches 
are published in full, but at present there are difficulties in 
the way of adopting it as a basis for classification. In 
certain primitive Isopoda (Janiridae &c.) the leg terminates 
in two, tometimes three, claws, not differing greatly in size 
or perceptibly in structure, and it is difficult to believe that 
one of them is to be regarded as the terminal segment while 
the others are simply modified setie. Further, in many 



■which are often closely connected with it (" Cirolanidse," Videusk. Selsk. 
Skr. (6) V. (1890) p. 276, footnote). In the present paper I have used the 
term in its original and more restricted sense. 

* Cf. Caiman, " On Two Species of Macrurous Crustaceans from Lake 
Tanganyika," Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1899, p. 705, pi. sxaIx. fig. o. 



Classification of the Crustacea Malacostraca. 153 

Peracarida the "claw " is coalesced with the segment which 
carries it, the suture-line between the two disappearing and 
the place of junction being indicated, if at all, only by the 
insertion of a minute seta, and it is not impossible that such 
evidence of the existence of a " claw " may yet be found in 
the terminal segment of the decapod leg. In the absence of 
any definite proof that the fourth segment of the leg in 
the Eucarida represents two fused segments, it seems better 
to assume for the present that the segments of the legs are 
serially comparable in the two groups. 

Dr. Hansen includes among the characters of the Pera- 
carida the presence of tubular processes for the orifices of 
the vasa deferentia, which are stated to be absent in the 
Eucarida. It is true that such processes are present in tiie 
majority of the Peracarida, though they are sometimes much 
reduced and may perhaps be altogether wanting in some 
cases. They are absent in the Euphausiacea and in the 
lower Decapoda, but in some Paguridea and in the Brachyura 
the vasa deferent i a terminate in tubular processes wliich are 
often of considerable length. 

The possession of spermatophores is another character on 
which it seems unsafe to rely as distinguishing the Euphau- 
siacea and Decapoda from the other orders of Malacostraca. 
It certainly constitutes an important difference between the 
Euphausiacea and the Mysidacea, but it can hardly be ex- 
tended without qualification to some of the other groups. 
Prof. Gilson applies the term " spermatophores " to the 
aggregations of spermatozoa found in certain Isopoda *, but 
not to the sperm- masses of the Macrura f. The distinction 
which Prof. Giard \ makes (in Insects) between spermato- 
phores and " spermotagmata/' according to the presence or 
absence of a definite investing membrane, appears to be hard 
to recognize among Crustacea and to have little systematic 
importance §. On the other hand, the form of the spermatozoa 
appears to afford constant and important characters differen- 
tiating the two groups. 

* " £tude coniparee de la spermatogenese cliez lea Artbropodes," La 
Cellule, i. (1884) p. 158. 

t Op. cit. ii. (1887) p. 187. 

X " rfur la spermatogenese des Dipteres du genre Sciara,^' C. R. Acad. 
Sci. cxxxiv. (1902) p. 1124. 

§ Prof. McMurricli describes (" Embryology of the Isopod Crustacea," 
Journ. Morph. xi. 1895, p. 67) a very defiuite spermatophore in the Isopod 
Jeera in connexion with the process of " hypodermic impregnation " 
-which he believes to occur in that genus; but his account is not very 
detailed, and the phenomena which he describes are so remarkable that 
further investigation is much to be desired. 



154 Dr. W. T. Calinau on the 

With regard to these and other points of internal anatomy 
our knowledge is very incomplete for many of the groups. 
Nothing is known of the internal anatomy of the Lopho- 
gastrida?, and very little regarding the Euphausiidse and 
the lower decapods. One point which seems to tell against 
the system of classification here advocated may be given for 
what it is worth. This is the presence in all of the Podo- 
phthalmate groups [Anaspides ?, Mysidce, Euphausiidce^ 
Decapoda, Stomatopoda) of an unpaired descending artery 
originating from the posterior end of the heart or from the 
base of the posterior aorta (superior abdominal artery) and 
perforating tlie nerve-cord to become connected with the sub- 
neural artery (-ternal and inferior abdominal arteries), in 
the Edrioplithalmate orders no similar arrangement is known, 
the subneural artery, where it exists, being connected with 
the dorsal poition of the vascular system by paired lateral 
arteries or by a cii'cumoesophageal ring. In view of the 
great divergences which may exist in the disposition of the 
arterial trunks within the limits of a single order (e. g. the 
Isopoda), no great taxonomic importance can at present be 
attached to such ditferences. 

Besides the characters, summarized in the definitions given 
below, which hold good throughout the various orders brought 
together in this classification, there are many connecting 
characters which serve to link together the individual orders 
and to indicate their affinities, although they cannot con- 
veniently be included in our definitions. Many of these are 
discussed in the papers of Boas and Hansen, and we may 
simply mention as examples the retroverted palp of tlie 
maxillula in Lophogastridt^ (Mysidacea), Cunuicea, and 
Tanaidacea, the branchial epipod of the first thoracic a[)pen- 
dage in the same orders, and the distinct, though immovable, 
ocular peduncles of the Tanaidacea. On the other side the 
Euphausiacea share with some suborders of the Decapoda 
the possession of an appendix interna on the pleopods, and 
the elaborate copulatory armature of the first pair of pleopods 
in the former group recalls that of the Pen^idea in the latter, 
although differing in details. The larval development of 
the Euphausiacea runs closely parallel to that of the Penteidea, 
and Dr. Hansen's recent discovery * in a species of Sergestes 
of luminous organs resembling, though of somewhat different 
structure from, those of the Euphausiacea, helps still further 
to diminish the narrow space which separates the two. 

* Fioc. Zool. Soc. London, 1903, i. p. 72. 



Chissijicatloti of the Crustacea Mahcjsfraca. 155 

Since tlie papers of Boas and Hansen were written, the 
necessity for a rearrangement of the Malacostraca has been 
rendered still more urgent by Mr. G. M. Thomson's * 
discovery of Anaspides. This remarkable form presents a 
combination of characters which indicate for it a very isolated 
place in our classification. It is not merely a schizopod 
without a carapace. The double series of epipodial lamellaj, 
the segmentation of the thoracic limbs, the double gnatlio- 
basic lobes of the first pair, and the apparent distinctness of 
the first thoracic somite from the head f are among the 
characters which remove it from close affinity with any 
of the commonly recognized orders of Malacostraca. 
Though Anaspides is not by any means like the hypothetical 
ancestral malacostracan, its unmistakable resemblance to some 
of the oldest fossil Malacostraca [Uronectes &c.) shows that 
at least it is a very ancient type. In the classification given 
below I have regarded Anaspides and its fossil allies as con- 
stituting a division of equal rank with the Peracarida and 
Eucarida. For this I have adopted the name Syncarida, 
formerly proposed by Packard for the fossil forms alone. 

The details which Mr. Thomson has given of the internal 
anatomy of Anaspides are very remarkable, and further in- 
vestigation on this point is much to be desired. Unfortu- 
nately no specimens have yet reached this country in a state 
of j)reservation suitable for anatomical purposes. The mode 
of development is also quite unknown. 

With regard to the other orders little need be said here. 
Claus's investigations \ on Nebalia leave no doubt that the 

* " On a Freshwater Schizopod from Tasmania," Trans. Linn. Soc. 
London, (2) Zool. vi. pp. 285-303, pis. xxiv.-xxvi. (1894). Cy. also Caiman, 
"On the Genus A)iaspiJes and its Affinities with certain Fossil Crustacea," 
Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, xxxviii. (4) pp. 787-802, 2 pis. (1896). 

t I formerly suggested (Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb. xxxviii. pt. 4, p. 787) 
that the "cervical groove" of Anaspides, which was described by 
Thomson as marking oii the first thoracic somite from the head, really 
represented the line of junction of the mandibular with the maxillular 
somite, on the ground that owing to the forward direction of its lateral 
portions the lower ends come to lie just behind the mandibles. I am 
now disposed to duubt the correctness of this view. There appears to 
be a tendency in those Malacostraca which are without a carapace for the 
lateral plates (pleural or coxal) of the auterior thoracic somites to become 
displaced forwards at their distal ends as if to protect the moutli-parts : 
this is well seen in some Arcturidae, for instance. It seems quite likely 
that this groove in Anasjjides has undergone a similar displacement, and 
that it really does detine the first thoracic somite, which is not distinct in 
anj' other Eumalacostraca. 

X Especially " Ueb. d. Organismus d. Nebaliden und d. syst. StcUun"- 
d. Leptostraken," Arb. Zoul. In.^t. Wien, viii. (I889j. 



156 Dr. W. T. Caiman on the 

Leptostraca are intimately related to the Malacostraca, and 
their position seems best expressed by Grobben's * arrange- 
ment, which divides the subclass into two main groups, 
Leptostraca and Eumalacostraca. 

The Storaatopoda must form a division of equal rank with 
the Eucarida and Peracarida. To preserve the consonance 
of names I propose to term it Hoplocarida. The morphology 
of the members of this group has been somewhat neglected, 
and their precise relationship to the other orders is by no 
means clear. Their internal anatomy is imperfectly known 
and would doubtless repay investigation f. 

Classification here proposed. 
Subclass MALACOSTRACA. 

Series Leptostbaca, Claus, 1880. 

Division Phyllocaiiida, Packard, 1879. 

Order Nebaliacea, nov. nom. 

Series Eumalacostraca, Grobben, 1892. 
Division Syncarida, Packard, 1886. 

Order Anasjndacea, nov. 

Division Peracarida, nov. nom. 

Orders Mysidacea. 
Cumacea. 
Tanaidacea. 

Isopoda. 
Aniphijmda. 

Division Eucarida, nov. nom. 

Orders Euphausiacea. 
Uecapoda, 

Division HorLOCARiDA, nov. nom. 

Order Stomatopoda. 

Series Leptosthaca. — Abdomen of seven somites, the 
last of which is without appendages, and a telson bearing a 

* " Zur Kenntniss des Stammbaumes und des Systems des Crustaceen," 
SB. Akad. Wien, ci. (1892) Abth. i. pp. 237-274. 

t Kowalevsky states (Biol. Centralbl. ix. (1889) p. 41) that the max- 
illary gland (" shell-gland ") is greatly developed in the Stomatopoda, 
but I cannot tind any description of it. I have observed on the posterior 
surface of the maxilla in Squilla mantis a papilla with a minute terminal 
pore which may be the aperture of the duct of this gland, but I have 
had no opportunity of dissecting well-preserved specimens. 



Classification of the Crustacea Malacostraca. 157 

pair of movable articulated rami (caudal furca). An adductor 
muscle runs transversely between the two valves of the 
carapace. Tiioracic limbs all similar, more or less foliaceous, 
with protopodite of three segments. 

Series Eumalacostraca. — Abdomen of six somites 
(the number may be reduced by coalescence), the last of 
■which typically bears a pair of appendages, and a telson 
which never bears movable furcal rami *. No adductor 
muscle of the carapace. Thoracic limbs rarely all similar 
(Euphausiacea), typically pediform ; protopodite of two seg- 
ments, except in Btomatopoda. 

Division Synoarida. — Carapace absent. All the thoracic 
somites distinct. Eyes pedunculate. Antennal protopodite 
of two segments. Mandible without lacinia mobilis. 
Thoracic limbs flexed between fifth and sixth segments. No 
oostegites. No appendix interna on pleopods. Hepatic 
C£eca numerous. Heart much elongated, tubular. 

Division Peracarida. — Carapace, when present, leaving 
at least four of the thoracic somites distinct. First thoracic 
somite always fused v\ith the head. Antennal protopodite 
typically of three segments. Mandible with lacinia mobilis 
(except in parasitic and other modified forms). Thoracic 
limbs flexed between fifth and sixth segments. Oostegites 
attached to some or all of the thoracic limbs in female, form- 
ing a brood-pouch. No appendix interna on pleopods. 
Hepatic cffica few and simple. Heart elongated, extending 
through the greater part of thoracic region, or displaced into 
abdomen. Spermatozoa filiform. Development taking place 
within the brood-pouch ; young set free at a late stage. 

Division EuCARlDA. — Carapace coalescing dorsally with 
all the thoracic somites. Eyes pedunculate. Antennal 
protopodite with, at mosr, two distinct segments. Mandible 
without lacinia mobilis in adult. Thoracic limbs flexed 
between fourth and fifth segments. No oostegites. An 
appendix interna sometimes present on pleopods. PTepatic 
CEeca much ramified. Heart abbreviated, thoracic. Sperma- 
tozoa spherical or vesicular, often with radiating appendages. 
Development as a rule with metamorphosis. A free-swimming 
nauplius-stage in the more primitive forms. 

• The movable appendages of the telson in Euphausiacea are modified 
setae (Sars, 'Challenger' Kep., Schizopoda, p. 102). 



158 Bihh'ographical Notices. 

Division IIorLOCARiDA. — Carapace lea vino; at least four of 
the thoracic somites distinct. Two movable segments are 
separated from the anterior part of the head, bearing respec- 
tively the pedunculate eyes and tiie antennules. Antennal 
peduncle of two segments. Mandibles without lacinia mobilis. 
Posterior thoracic limbs with protopodite of three segments. 
(The relation of the segments of the anterior thoracic limbs 
to those of the limbs in the other divisions is doubtful.) 
An appendix interna on pleopods. Hepatic cfBca much 
ramified. Heart much elongated, extending through abdo- 
minal and thoracic regions. Spermatozoa spherical. Deve- 
lopment with metamorphosis. No free-swimming nauplius- 
stao:e. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. — The 
Cretaceous Hods of Britain. Vol, II. The Lower and Middle 
Chalh of England. By A. J. Jukes-Browne, B.A., F.G.S. With 
Contributions by William Hill, F.G.S. 8vo. Pages xiii and 
568. With 93 Illustrations, including one Geological Map, two 
Plates from photographs, and four from micrographs. E. Stan- 
ford, London ; J. Menzies, Edinburgh ; and Hodges & Co., 
Dublin. 1903. 

In the first volume of this series A. J. Jukes-Browne and W. Hill, 
■with others, described the Gault and Upper Groeusand of England. 
This second volume, by the same authors, together with manj^ 
contributors, deals with the Lower and Middle Chalk. The third 
volume will include the description of the Upper Chalk, with 
chajiters on the economics of the soil, stone, &c., on the water- 
supply, and the physical features of chalk districts, also a complete 
catalogue of the fossils found in all the different divisions of the 
Chalk. The present volume begins M'ith a general and chrono- 
logical account of the researches that led to the definition of the 
several stratal divisions of the Chalk ; and in the sequel the zones 
or horizons marked out by the occurrence of particular fossils are 
carefully explained. This part of the book seems to have been 
written before the valuable results of the researches by E.owe aud 
Sherborn were published ; these and their subsequent work along 
the cliii-sections of the Chalk will have greatly helped geologists in 
the study of the strata and zones, and are largely utilized in the 
chapters on the Middle Chalk. 
The Lower Chalk (" Ceiionianian " in part) includes all the beds 



Bibliograpliical Xotices. 159 

of marls and chalk between the Gault or Upper Greensand and the 
Melbourn Rock, namely, the so-called " Chloritic Marl " (and the 
" Cambridge Greensand "), the " Chalk Marl " (with the " Tottern- 
hoe Stone" in some districts), and the "Grey Chalk." These are 
Bubsequently described as to their characters, range, and fossils, 
according to the several counties and the northern parts of France. 
The Middle Chalk (or Turonian Stage) is defined as consisting of 
zones marked by the occurrence of certain fossils, such as 

3. Zone oi Holaster planus, including the Chalk Rode. 

2. Zone of Tertbratulina gracilis. 

]. Zone of RhipicJionella Cuvieri, or Inocemmus mytUoides, 
with the MelhoHvn Rode at its base. 
These successive divisions are described as distributed in the 
several counties and in the North of France. 

Throughout the long series of Memoirs published by the Geolo- 
gical Survey of Great Britain and Ireland, descriptive of the districts 
already surveyed, there are frequent allusions to the economic 
materials procured from the land, and to the relative conditions of 
the soil and subsoil. About 1871 the Geological Survey made a 
point of mapping the " Surface Drifts,'" such as the gravels, brick-earth , 
and boulder-clay, beginning with those of the Midland Counties, 
so that the agriculturalists of several wide districts have since then 
had the opportunity of recognizing and studying the nature and 
origin of the surface soils in connexion with the notes and explana- 
tions frequently given in the ' Memoirs.' In fact, the Secretary of 
the Board of Agriculture, cognizant of the advantages of geology to 
the farmer, wishes to advauce its publicity and causes copies of the 
Memoirs to be distributed to scientific centres for recognition and 
review. 



A Treatise on Zoology. Edited by E. Rat Lankester, M.A., LL.D., 
F.R.S., &c.— Part I. Introduction and Protozoa. Second Fascicle. 
1903. London : Adam and Charles Black. 

It has been found necessary to publish Part I. of Prof. Lankester's 
' Ti'eatise on Zoology ' in two fascicles, and of these the second 
forms the subject of the present notice. The decision of the editor 
not to delay the publication of this volume until the first was ready 
is undoubtedly, both in the interests of the student and the authors 
of the several sections, a v?ise one. 

Anything like a complete account of the several contributions to 
this fascicle would be impossible in the space at our disposal. Four 
in number, they are the work of Messrs. Farmer, Lister, Minchin, 
and Hickson, whose names are a sufficient guarantee that the quality 
of the work is not only sound, but of the best that can be got. 

Prof. Farmer contributes a section on Animal and Vegetable 
Cells, wherein he traces the history of the cell from the epoch- 
making discovery by Hooke in 1665 " of the chambered structure of 



1 G B ih lio graph ica I No t ices. 

plants " to the latest revelations of the modern microscope. "Wide 
though this survey is, and admirable in its treatment, we yet feel 
some surprise at the omission of any reference to the views of 
Mr. Sedgwick on the subject of the cell-theory. 

The section on the Foraminifera by Mr. J. J. Lister is a monu- 
ment of thoroughness. Embracingall the results, of any consequence, 
of the work of others in this field, he has added much that is rxQw, 
presenting his facts with great clearness and force. We have only 
one small omission to notice, and that is the absence of Sherborn's 
'Bibliography of the Foraminifera' and his ' Index to the Genera 
and Species of the Foraminifera ' from the list of " Literature 
referred to." 

Scarcely less valuable is the section by Prof. Hickson on the 
Infusoria (Corticata Heterokaryota). It is refreshing to remark in 
reading this section, and also other sections of this treatise, a more 
philosophical method of treatment than is to be found in any other 
similar work. 

But the bulk of this book is devoted to what may justly be called 
the masterly treatise on the Sporozoa by Prof. E. A. Minchin. 
Eemembering the part that many of these lowly organisms play as 
parasites and the ravages they commit, there can be no doubt but 
that the decision to make this section as complete as possible will be 
commended. To the medical man, as well as to the biologist, it will 
prove a source of great help, inasmuch as the author's account of 
the life-history of the malaria parasite is the first which has 
appeared in a general work on natural history in this country. 
Besides this, however, there is much else in the section that is now, 
for the first time, placed before the student in a readily accessible 
form, and a very great deal that is the result of laborious research 
on the part of the author himself. 

Like the earlier parts, the tone of this volume is seriously dignified 
and the matter of the very best of its kind possible. There is a 
wealth of illustrations, all of which are excellent and many are 
new. We await with impatience the appearance of the first 
fascicle. 



We regret to announce the death of Dr. William Fkancis, for 
many years one of the Editors of this Magazine, which took place 
on the 19th January. A short notice will appear next month. 



THE AXNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[SEVENTH SERIES.] 
No. 75. MARCH 1904. 



XIX. — A Synopsis of the Suborders and Families of 
Teleostean Fishes. By G. A. BoULENGEE, F.R S. 

For several years I have been endeavouring to improve the 
classification of Teleostean Fishes, chiefly through a study of 
their skeletons, of which a large series lias been prepared in 
the British ]\luseum ; and Dr. A. Smith Woodward iias 
recently jMiblislied his views on tlie arrangement of the fossil 
types of this order. The time has come to gather together 
the information thus obtained. The synopsis liere offered was 
prepared two years ago for the fish-volume of the ' Cambridge 
Natural History,' but owing to circumstances over which I 
have had no control its publication in that work is still further 
delayed. Several important changes to my original scheme 
have been made during this lapse of time, owing to the work 
carried on in America by Drs. Gill, Jordan, and Starks, and 
in this country by my young colleague Mr. (.). Tate Regan, 
whose criticisms on many points I gratefully acknowledge. 

I need hardly say that I regard this new arrangement of 
an enormous and most difficult group, including close upon 
12,000 species, as merely provisional, and I am fully aware 
that not a few groupings are nothing but card castles, which 
future investigations are likely to upset. But my aim has 
been to build up on phylogenetic lines, and as such I sincerely 
trust my attempt will be found a considerable improvement 
on the previous systems and serve as a basis for criticism, 

Ann. & Mag. X. Hist, Ser. 7, Vol. xiii. 11 



162 Mr. G. A. Boulenger on the Suborders and 

The arrangement here proposed has been used in the 
' Zoological llecord ' for 1902, which has just appeared. 

The precise definition of tlie order Teleostei, as compared 
with the Holostean Ganoids, is a matter of some difficulty. 
The most important character appears to be the presence, of 
an ossified supraoccipital bone. Remnants of primitive 
characters, such as Ganoid scales, fulcra, rudiments of a 
splenial bone, spiral valve to the intestine, multivalvular 
bulbus arteriosus, are still found in some lower Teleosteans, 
but no longer in that combination which characterizes the 
preceding Order. Although Albula is exceptional among all 
Teleosteans in having two transverse series of valves to the 
bulbus arteriosus instead of one, no Ganoid has fewer than 
three. The order Teleostei, thus defined, is divided into 
thirteen suborders, the probable relations of whicli are 
expressed in tlie following diagram : — 

-XI. Opisthomi. XIII. Plectogualhi. XII. Pediculati. 



IX. Anacanlhini. X. Acantbopterj'gii. VIII. Percesoces. 



VII. Catosteomi. V. Ilaplomi. VI. Heteroini. 



I — IV. Apodes. 

' — III. Symbranchii. 



I. Malacopterygii. II. Ostariophysi. 



Ganoidei Holostei. 



In the classification of Glinther, which has been generally 
in use in this country for the last thirty-five years, the 
Teleosts were divided into six principal groups, regarded as 
of ordinal rank : — 1. Acanthopterygii ; 2. Acanthopterygii 
Pharyngognathi ; 3. Anacanthini; 4. Piiysostomi ; 5. Lopho- 
branchii ; G. Plectognathi. Group 1 corresponds to Suborders 
YI. (part.), VII. (part.), VIII. (part.), X., XL, and XII. 
of the present classification ; Group 2 to Suborder X. (part.) ; 
Group 3 to Suborders IX. and X. (part.) ; Group 4 to Sub- 
orders I., II., III., IV., v., VI. (part.), and VJII. (part.) ; 



Families of Teleostean Fishes. 163 

Group 5 to Suborder VII. (part.) ; and Group G to Sub- 
order XIII. 

Fuller definitions of the families, with an indication of the 
principal genera contained in each, will be given in the forth- 
coming seventh volume of the ' Cambridge Natural History.' 

Suborder I. Malacopteryqii. 

Air-bladder, if present^ communicating with the digestive 
tract bj a duct. Opcrcle well developed. Pectoral aich 
suspended from the skull ; mesocoracoid arch present. Fiii.s 
without spines, the ventrals abdominal, if present. Anterior 
vertebrae distinct, without Weberian ossicles. 

This suborder, which corresponds to the Isospondyli and 
Scjphophori of Cope and to a part of the Isospondyli of 
A. S. Woodward, embraces the most generalized of the 
Teleosts, and is intimately connected with the liolostean 
Ganoids by the fossil forms which are placed at the base of 
the series of families. The physostomous condition of the 
air-bladder, the connexion of the pectoral arch with the skull, 
the presence of a mesocoracoid arch, the backward position of 
the many-rayed ventral fins, the normal condition of the ante- 
rior vertebrge, the absence of true spines to the fins, and the 
separation of the supraoccipital bone from the frontals by the 
parietals are primitive characters which occur combined in 
some families of this suborder only. The mesocoracoid arch 
is retained by the Ostariophysi, which differ in the remarkably 
modified condition of the anterior vertebrge, but it disappears 
in all other Teleosts, which gradually acquire a more forward 
position of the ventral fins and a reduction in the number of 
their rays, develop spines in the vertical fins, and lose the 
communication of the air-bladder with the outside. 

The Malacopterygii may be divided into twenty-one 
families : — 

I. Fins friuged with fulcra, or scales coated with ganoine ; uotochord 
usually continuous through the vertebr.13 (connecting forms 
between Ganoids and Teleosts). 
Vertebral centra not more than rings ; fins with 
fulcra ; scales rhombic, united by peg-and- 

socket 1. Pholidophoridce f. 

Vertebral centra not more than rings ; fins with 

fulcra ; scales cycloid 2. Archceomcenidce f. 

Vertebral centra complete or with minute per- 
foration; tins with fulcra ; scales cycloid .. 3. OUgopleuridce^. 
Vertebral centra nearly complete, but with per- 
foration ; no fulcra ; scales cycloid 4. Leptolepididce \. 

t This sign indicntes that the family is rejireseuted bv fossil forms only, 

11* 



164 Mr. G. A. Boulenger on the Suborders and 

II. Fins Avithout fulcra ; scales without ganoine ; vertebral centra 
usually complete. 

A. Supraoccipital separated from the frontals by the parietals. 

1. Ventral fins with 10 to 16 rays. 

An intergular bone ; parasphenoicl narrow .... 5. Ehipidce. 
No iuterg-ular bone ; paraspheuoid very broad . . 6. Albulidce. 

2. Ventrals with not more than 7 rays. 

a. Suprateraporal very large, plate-like, covering the greater 

part of the parietal bone. 

Prsemaxillary single, its posterior extremity free 
from the maxillary ; symplectic absent ; 
basis cranii simple 7. MormyridcB. 

Prseniaxillary paired, its posterior extremity 
firmly attached to the maxillary ; sym- 
plectic present ; basis crauii double 8. Ilyodontidce . 

b. Supratemporal small ; maxillary firmly attached to posterior 

extremity of proemaxillary. 
Prsemaxillary paired ; a large hole on each side 

of the sliull, between tJie postfrontal and the 

squamo.-al ; basis cranii double ; suboper- 

culum absent; ribs sessile 9. Notopferidcs. 

Praeniaxillary paired ; basis cranii simple ; sub- 

operculum reduced ; ribs inserted on para- 

pophyses 10. Ostcoglossidcc. 

Prsemaxillary single ; basis cranii simple ; sub- 

operculum and interoporculum absent; ribs 

inserted on parapophyses 11. Pantodontidce. 

c. Supratemporal small ; maxillary movable ; ribs sessile ; ven- 

tral fins below the pectorals .... 12. Ctenothrissidce t. 

B. Supraoccipital in contact with frontals. 

1. Interoperculum enormous; symplectic absent; basis cranii 

simple 13. Fhrar.l olamidcb, 

2. Interoperculum normal ; symplectic present ; basis cranii 

double. 

a. Teeth in socliets ; maxillary firmly attached to prse- 

maxillary. 
Symplectic exposed, fitting into a notch of the 

quadrate 14. Saiirodontidce f. 

Symplectic hidden between the quadrate and 

the hyomandibular 15. Chirocentridce. 

b. Teeth not in sockets. 
Postclavicle on outer side of clavicle ; no adipose 

dorsal fin 16. Clupeida. 

Pustclavicle on inner side of clavicle ; an adipose 

dorsal fin 17. Salmonida. 

Postclavicle absent; no adipose dorsal fin 18. Alepocejjhalida. 

3. Interoperculum normal ; basis cranii simple. 
Maxillary large, toothed ; preecaudal vertebra3 
without well-marked parapophyses ; scales 
cycloid or absent ; adipose dorsal fin present 
or absent 19. Stomiatid(S. 



Families of Ttleostean Fishes, 165 

Mouth small, toothless ; vertebras with strong 

p:irapophyse3 ; head and body covered with 

spiny scales 20, GonorhynchidcB. 

Mouth small, toothless; no symplectic; head 

and body naked 21. Cromeriidce. 



Suborder 11. O S T A R I P ii Y S I. 

Air-bladder, if well developed, communicating with the 
digestive tract by a duct. Pectoral arch suspended from the 
siiull; mesocoracoid arch present. Fins without spines, or 
dorsal and pectoral witli a single spine formed by the co-ossifi- 
cation of the segments of an articulated ray. The anterior 
four vertebraj strongly modified, often co-ossified and bearing 
a chain of small bones (Wcberian ossicles) connecting the 
air-bladder with the ear. 

This is one of the most natural groups of the class Pisces, 
although its members are so diversified in outward appear- 
ance as to have been widely separated in the systems of 
older authors. It is to Sagemelil* that is due the credit of 
having first grouped, under ihe above name, the Characines, 
the Carps, the Cat fishes, and the Gymnotids, the relations of 
which had been realized to a certain exlent by Cope. But it 
was not until the homology throughout the group of the 
ossicula auditus, first described by E, 11. Weber in 1620, had 
been demonstrated by Sagemehl that the justification for tlie 
course here followed appeared in its full strength, as sucli an 
agreement in tlie structure of so complicated and specialized 
an apparatus can only be the result ot acommnnity of descent 
of the families which are possessed of it. It is invariably 
the anterior four vertebras that take part in the support of the 
AVeberian apparatus. The first vertebra is mucli reduced; 
its upper arcii is absent and replaced by the ossicles termed 
claustrum and scaphium'\, the former being perhaps nothing 
but the modified neural arch, which fill in the space between 
the exoccipital and the neural arch of the second vertebra; 
the princij)al piece of the apparatus, the tr/pus, variable in 
form, is related to the third vertebra, of v.'hich it is regarded 
as a modified rib; a fibrous ligament extends from the ante- 
rior extremity or the tripus to the scapJiium, and in this 
ligament is inserted the fourth piece, the intercalariam. The 
various forms of this suborder also show a complete agree- 
ment in the spinal nerves which pass through these ossicles. 

* Morphol. Jahib. x. 1885, p. 22. 

t For the uomenclalure of these ossicles, ef. Bridge and Haddon, Proc. 
Roy. Soc. xlvi. 1889, p. 310. 



166 Mr. G. A. Boulenger on the Suborders and 

The parietal bones either separate the fi-ontals from the 
supraoccipital or are fused with the latter. 

This suborder is divided into six families. The Characinids 
are the most generalized, and the others are probably derived 
from them in the manner expressed by the following 
diagram : — 

Loricaviidee. Asprediyiidce. 



Cyprinidce. Siluridee. Gymnotidce. 



Characinidce. 

I. Parietal bones distinct from the supraoccipital ; syiuplectic present; 

ribs mostly sessile, all or the greater number of the priecaudal 
vertebrae without parapophyses. 

Mouth not protractile, usually toothed ; pharyngeal 
bones normal ; body scaly ; an adipose dorsal tin 
often present 1. CharacinidcB. 

Mouth not protractile, usually toothed ; pharyngeal 
bones normal ; body eel-shaped, naked or scaly ; 
vent under the head or on the throat 2. Gymnotidce. 

Mouth usually more or less protractile, toothless; 
lower pharyngeal bones large, falciform ; body 
naked or scaly ; no adipose dorsal fin 3. Cyprinidts. 

II. Parietal bones usually fused with the supraoccipital ; symplectic 

absent ; body naked or with bony scutes ; mouth usually toothed, 
with barbels ; adipose dorsal fin often present. 

Ribs attached to strong parapophyses; operculum well 

developed 4. Siluridee. 

Ribs sessile ; parapophyses absent ; opercidum more 

or less developed ; mouth inferior 5. Loricarii.dce. 

Ribs sessile ; strong parapophyses to the vertebrfe ; 

operculum absent 6. Aspredinidce. 



Suborder III. S Y M B E A N C H 1 1. 

Eel-shaped fishes without paired fins^ with the pectoral 
arch free or suspended from the skull and with the anterior 
vertebrae distinct, without Weberian ossicles. Gill-openings 
confluent into a single ventral slit. Air-bladder absent. 



Families of Teleostean Fishes. 167 

The structure of tlie skull conforms to that of typical 
Malacopterygians. The prgemaxillary and maxillary are 
both well developecl_, the latter placed behind the former^ and 
forming but a very small part of the oral border ; the 
symplectic is present ; the parietals form a long sagittal 
suture and separate the frontals from the supraoccipital. The 
vertebrte are very numerous, tlie pra^caudals bearing very 
strong parapophyses, to which short slender ribs are attached. 
The skin is naked (Symbranchidsp) or covered with minute 
scales (Amphipnoida?), and the vertical tins are rudimentary, 
reduced to mere dermal folds. 

Like the Apodes, these fishes are no doubt derived from 
some low type with abdominal ventral fins, but whether from 
the Malacopterygii or the Haplomi we have as yet no data 
from which to conclude. 

Only two families : — 

Post-temporal well developed, forked, attaclied to 

the skull 1. Symbranchidcs. 

Post-temporal absent, the shoulder-girdle free from 

the skull , 2. Amphip)ioidce. 



Suboder IV. A P D E s. 

Air-bladder, if present, communicating with the digestive 
tract by a duct. Pra^maxillaries absent ; the maxillaries, if 
present, separated on the median line by the coalesced ethmoid 
and vomer. Pectoral arch, if present, not connected with and 
remote from the skull ; mesocoracoid arch absent. Fins 
without spines, the ventrals absent. Anterior vertebrae 
distinct, without Weberian ossicles. 

The Apodes, or Eels, are elongate serpentiform fishes with 
naked skin or with minute scales imbedded in the skin, the 
opercular bones small and completely hidden under the 
integument, narrow or minute gill-openings, the vertical fins, 
if present, confluent behind or separated by the projecting 
tip of the tail. The pterygo-palatine arch is often reduced or 
absent, and there is no distinct symplectic ; the supraoccipital 
bone is small, separated from the frontals by the parietals, 
which meet on the middle line. The vertebras are very 
numerous (up to 225) and the prsecaudals bear strong para- 
pophyses, to which short slender ribs may be attached ; 
epnieurals are sometimes present. 

The five families into which this suborder is divided show 
remarkable degrees of simplification in the structure of the 



1G8 



Mr. G. A. BouleDger on the Suborders and 



Anguillidce. 
NemicWhrjidcs. 



skull, through reduction or loss of either the maxillary or the 
pterygo-palatine arches. 
Five families : — 

Maxillaries present, separated on the median line 

by the ethmo-vomer ; palato- pterygoid 

present, connected with the hyomandibular 

and quadrate ; gill-clefts separate, opening 

into the pharynx by wide slits ; tong-ue 

present ; vent i'ar removed from the head. . 1. 
Distinguished from the preceding by the position 

of the Tent, whiih is close to, or at no great 

distance from, the gill-openings 2. 

Maxillaries narrowly separated on the median 

line, their extremity strongly attached by 

ligament to the mandible ; pterygo-palatine 

arch absent; gill-openings externally con- 
fluent into a single ventral slit 3. SynaphobranchicUe. 

Maxillaries narrowly separated on the median 

Jiue, extremely elongate ; mouth enormous ; 

pterygo-palatine arch absent ; hyomandi- 
bular arcli slender and movablj' articulated 

to the cranium ; branchial arches far behind 

the sliull 4. Saocopharyvyida;. 

Maxillaries absent, replaced by the palato- 

pterygoid, the moutli bordered by the latter 

and the ethrao-vomer ; palato-pterygoid 

bone separated from hyomaudibular arch; 

branchial openings into the phar3-irx narrow 

slits ; no tongue 5. Murceiiida;. ' 



Suborder V. 11 A P L M i. 

Air-bladder, if present, communicating with the digestive 
tract by a duct. Opercle well developed. Pectoral arch 
suspended from the skull ; no mesocoracoid arch. Fins 
usually without, rarely with a few spines ; ventrals abdo- 
minal, if present. Anterior vcrtebra3 distinct, without 
Weljerian ossicles. 

The absence of the mesocoracoid arch distinguishes the 
Haplomi from the Malacopterygii, with which they are 
iniited by various authors. Tiiey lead to the Percesoces 
through the Cyprinodontids, and to the Lower Acaiitho- 
pterygians, such as the Berycids, through the Scopelids, 
^tephanoberycids, and Percopsids, as is evidenced by the 
structure of the mouth and the forward position in some of 
the genera of the ventral fins, which, however, are never 
attached to the pectoral girdle. Most of the forms which 
are here included inhabit either fresh waters or tlie deep sea. 



Families of Teleostean Fishes, 169 

Fourteen families : — 

I. Parietals separating the frontals from the supraoccipital ; post- 
temporal simple; prcecaudal vertebrae with autogenous para- 
pophyses. 
Margin of the upper jaw formed by the prae- 
maxillaries and the maxiilaries ; basis cranii 

simple ; no adipose dorsal tin 1. Galaxiidcs. 

Margin of the upper jaw formed by the proe- 
maxillaries only ; basis cranii double ; 
adipose dorsal fin present 2. Haphchitonidee. 

IT. Frontals in contact with the supraoccipital. 

A. Prajcaudal vevtebra3 without parapoplwses. 

1. Margin of the upper jaw formed by the praemaxillaries and the 

maxiilaries. 
Body without or with minute scales, usually 

with rows of scutes ; adipose dorsal tin 

usually present 3. Encliodontidce f. 

Body scaly : post-temporal forked ; no adipose 

dorsal tin ; ventrals with 6 to 11 rays .... 4. Esocidce. 
Body scaly; post-temporal incompletely ossified ; 

pectoral tin Avithout pterygials; no adipose 

dorsal tin ; ventrals with 3 rays only 5. Dalliidce. 

2. Maxiilaries excluded from the oral border. 

a. Adipose doi'sal fin usually present; ventral fin with 7 to 10 

rays. 

Post-temporal forked ; dorsal fin formed of arti- 
culated rays 6. Scopelidce. 

Post-temporal simple ; dorsal tin very long, 
formed of slender, non-articulated, simple or 
bifid rays 7. Alepidosauridce. 

b. No adipose dorsal fin ; head and mouth enormous, dentition 

feeble ; bod}' naked ; ventral tins, if present, with 5 rays. 

8. Cetomimidce. 

B. Proscaudal vertebrae with well-developed parapophyses ; maxii- 

laries excluded from the oral border. 

1. Dorsal and anal tins without spines; scales cycloid, or with 

erect spines ; no adipose dorsal tin. 

Mouth not protractile ; ventral fins far forward, 

with 7 to 17 rays 9. ChirothricidcB f. 

Mouth not protractile ; ventral fins remote from 

the pectorals, with 9 ray.s 10. Kneriidce. 

Mouth protractile ; ventral fins, if present, with 

5 to 7 rays 11. Cyprinadontidce. 

Mouth scarcely protractile; ventral fins rudi- 
mentary or absent ; vent close to the gills. . 12. Amblyopsidce. 

Mouth slightly protractile ; ventral tins with 5 

or G rays 13. Stephanoberi/cidce. 

2. Dorsal and anal fins with true spines ; scales ctenoid ; an adipose 

dorsal fin ; ventral tins with 9 rays. . 14. Percopsidce. 



170 Mr. G. A. Boulenger on the Suborders and 

Suborder VI. Heteromi. 

Air-bladder -without open duct. Opercle well developed; 
parietal bones separating the frontals from tlie supraoccipital. 
Pectoral arch suspended from the supraoccipital or the epiotic, 
the post-temporal small and simple or replaced bj a ligament ; 
no mesocoracoid. Ventral fins abdominal, if present. 

The Halosauridffi and Notacanthidge are deep-sea fishes of 
obscure affinities. In the abdominal position of the manj- 
rayed ventral fins and in the absence of the mesocoracoid arch 
they agree with the Haplomi ; but if, as the investigations of 
Giinther lead us to believe *, there is really no open commu- 
nication between the air-bladder and the digestive tract, they 
should be removed from this physostomous suborder. The 
two families have many characters in common, such as the 
attachment and structure of the pectoral arch, which is devoid 
of a postclavicle, the position of the pectoral tins high up the 
sides, the strong parapophysis inserted very low down on the 
centre of the vertebrae, the extent of the parietal bones, which 
meet in a sagittal suture and separate the frontals from the 
supraoccipital. The recent discovery of a third family, the 
Lipogenyidie, which in the structure of the dorsal fin is so 
exactly intermediate between the two others, has lessened the 
gap between the Lyomeri (Halosauridas) and Heteromi 
(Notacanthidaj) of Gill, which I propose to unite in a suborder 
under the latter name. These fishes are no doubt derived 
from forms in which a separate caudal fin existed ; such a 
type must have been near the Dercetidas, as defined by A. S. 
Woodward, which may provisionally be placed ligre. 

There is a fifth family which may be placed in this sub- 
order, the Fierasferida3, the structure of which has been 
exquisitely described and figured by Emery. Hitherto 
placed with or near the Ophidiidse, they differ widely from 
them, as well as from all other Acanthopterygians, in the 
conformation of the skull, the supraoccipital being separated 

* Yaillant was inclined to lake a different view, "but with considerable 
diffidence, owing to his iiiabilitj actually to trace an open duct. I believe 
Giinther to be right on this point, as well as in his account of the suspen- 
sion of the pectoral arch in Notacanthus, which I have been able to verify. 
Besides, Mr. W. S. Rowntree, who has great experience in these matters, 
has kindly examined at my request a well-preserved example of Halo- 
saurojjsis macrochlr, and informs me that " the air-bladder passes ante- 
riorly into a tapering band of tissue which ends in a thread-like ligament 
attached to the stomach near its posterior end and in the mid-dorsal line 
— not to the oesophagus ; no trace of an open communication could be 
found." 



Families of Teleostean Fishes. 171 

from tlie frontals by the parietals, which form a long median 
suture. This is a feature which has only been observed in 
fishes with abdominal ventral fins ; and although the total 
absence of these fins in Fierasfer deprives us of an important 
criteiion in deciding on its affinities, I am inclined to regard 
this fumily as derived from an abdominal type. The con- 
formation of the pectoral arch has much in common with 
that of the Halosaurs, and, notwitiistanding the interpretation 
that has been given to the bones at the back of the cranium 
in the latter type, the same may be said in a general way ot 
tlie skull. 

As pointed out by Emery, the very anterior position of tlie 
vent in the Fierasferida^ is directly related to the curious mode 
of life of these fishes, and the analogous condition obtained in 
various families, sucli as the Gymnarchidge, Nemichthyidae, 
Amblyopsidae, and Aphredoderidse, shows it to be of relatively 
small importance. 

Five families : — 

Ordiimr}' scales small or wanting, but two or more 

continuous series of enlarged scutes along each 

side ; mouth large, pniemaxillaries apparently 

forming the greater part of the upper border of 

the muuth, which is toothed ; opercular appa- 
ratus complete ; dorsal tin more or less extended, 

without spiues ; anal short ; caudal separate ; 

ventrals with not less than 7 or 8 rays 1. Dercetida f. 

Body covered with cycloid scales, the tail tapering to 

a point, without caudal lin ; head with scales ; 

mouth moderate, bordered by the pra^maxillaries 

and the maxillaries, both toothed; suborbitals 

large ; prjeopercle rudimentary ; dorsal tin short, 

without spines; ventrals formed of 9 or 10 soft 

rays ; anal very long, without spines, extending 

to the end of the tail 2. Hulosauridce. 

Similar to the preceding, but with a toothless, round- 
ish inferior mouth and with the short dorsal and 

the long anal formed partly of spines and partly 

of soft rays ; ventrals with 3 spines and 7 soft 

rays 3. Lipoc/aiykhe. 

Body covered with cycloid scale?, the tail tapering to 

a poii.t, ^\ithout caudal hu ; head with scales; 

mouth small, inferior, bordered by the prtemax- 

illaries only ; jaws toothed ; no suborbitals ; prae- 

operculum small ; post-temporal replaced by 

ligament; dorsal fin formed of a series of short 

disconnected spines : anal very long, formed 

partly of spines and partly of soft rays ; ventrals 

with 1 to 5 spines and 7 to 10 soft rays 4. Notacnntlwke. 

Body extremely attenuate, naked ; no caudal fin; 

mouth small, inferior, bordered by the pnemax- 



172 Mr. G. A. Bouleiiger on the Suborders and 

illaries ; jaws toothed ; no suborbitals ; pvfe- 
operculuni Avell developed ; dorsal and anal very 
long, formed of soft rays ; ventrals ab.-ent ; vent 
immediately behind the gill-opening 5. Fierasferidai. 



Suborder VII. Catosteomi. 

Air-bladder, if present, wltliont open duct. Parietal bones, 
if present^ separated bj the supraoccipital. Pectoral arch 
suspended from the skull ; no raesocoracoid arch ; coracoid 
usually very large, or produced posteriorly. Ventral fins, if 
present, abdominal, or pelvis attached to the coracoid bones. 

The mouth is bordered by the prsemaxiHaries, or by the 
prgemaxillaries and a small portion of tlie maxilhiries. Air- 
bladder present, except in the SoU'nostomidje and PegasiJte. 

Following the suggestions of Kner and Steindachner and 
Cope to their logical conclusion, A. S. Woodward has united 
the Lophobranchs of Cuvier with the Heniibranchs of Cope, 
a course which seems fully justified, and has received furtlier 
support from the recent investigations of Swinnevton *, who 
has proposed to unite the two groups under the new name of 
Thoracostei. The structure of the Lojiliobranchs (Soleno- 
stomidaj and Syngnathidcu) shows that these fishes are only 
extremely specialized foruis of the group of which the 
Sticklebacks are the well-known type, and the character of 
the "tufted" gills alone is surely not of sufficiently great 
importance to warrant the retention of the Lophobranchii as 
a division equiv;ilent to the suborders adopted in the ])resent 
classification. Besides, as recently pointed out by A. iluotf, 
there is no fundamental difference, only one of degree, 
between the so-called tufted gill and the normal type; each 
" tuft " corresponds to one branchial lamella, and at a certain 
stage of develoj)ment the disj)osition of the branchial lamellaj 
is the same in a Syngnathus and an ordinary Teleostean. I 
have recently attempted to show J that the Laniprididie are 
related to the lleuiibranchii, although sufficiently distinct to 
warrant the establishment of a division, named Selt'nichthyes§. 

The affinities of the Lamprididse are very doubtful. Lam- 
pri's has usually been placed with the Acanthopterygians, a 

* Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci. xlv. 1902, p. 503. 

t Ann. Sci. Nat. (8) xiv. 1<J02, p. 197. 

t Ann. & Mat"-, ^'at. Hist. (7) x. 1902, p. 147. 

§ E. 0. Starks', in an important paper (l\ U.S. Nat, Mus. xxv. 1902, 
p. 019), has shown that the so-called " infraclavicle " of sticklebacks and 
allies does not exist as a distinct element. The definition of the Cato- 
steomi as I had originally drawn it up has accordingly been modified. 



Families of Teleostean Fishes. 173 

view which is still upheld by Gill *. I now agree with this 
liigh authority in regarding the bone wliich I took for an 
infraclavicle as a much developed coracoid, and the bone 
termed by me the coracoid as a pterygial. But it has also 
been shown, by Starks, that sucii a thing as an infraclavicle 
does not exist even in the stickleback, the bone so-called 
being only a part of the coracoid; and as, in most of the 
sticklebacks, the pelvic bones join the latter, the resemblance 
between them and Lampris remains. As I have previously 
pointed out, the absence of spines in the fins and the position 
of the ventral tins, together with the great number of rays in 
the latter, which is only met with in the lower Teleosteans, 
are characters which necessitate the removal of Lampris from 
the Acanthopterygians, and I cannot find a better place for 
them than near the Gastrosteidte. 

Tlie whole question of the arrangement of the Physoclists 
with abdominal ventrals (Catosteomi and Percesoces) is, 1 
feel, much in need of revision, and it may be found advisable 
to break up this group into a greater number of suborders, in 
wliicii case the Selenichthyes would stand by themselves; 
the Heniibianchii and Lophobranchii would be united under 
the lornier name, as j^roposed by Woodward, or under that of 
Thoracostei (Swinnerton) or Plithinobranchii (Hay). 

Eleven families : — 

I. Prfeopercuhim nnd symplectic distinct; branchial apparntus fully- 

developed, gills pectinate; mouth terminal, toothless; post- 
temporal forked, free ; pelvic bones connected with scapular arch, 
vertical fins with 15 to 17 rays ; ribs long, sessile; hns without 
spines, (Selenichthyes.) 1. Lampvididoi. 

II. Prreoperculum and symplectic distinct, latter much elongate ; 

branchial apparatus niore or less reduced, gills pectinated ; post- 
temporal simple, immovable ; mouth terminal. (Hemibranchii.) 
A. Mouth toothed. 

1. Pelvic bones close to or connected with scapular arch ; spinous 
dorsal represented by isolated spines. 

Suout conical or but slightly tubiform ; ventral 
fins with one spine and one or two soft 
rays ; ribs slender, free ; anterior vertebrae 
not enlarged 2. GastrosteidcB. 

Snout tubiform ; ventral fins with one spine and 
iour soft rays ; ribs flattened, fused with 
the lateral bony shields; anterior vertebra 
not enlarged 3. Aulorhynchidce. 

Snout tubiform ; ribs slender, free ; first ver- 
tebra enlarged 4. Protosyngnathidce f. 

* Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxvi. 1903, p. 91.5. 



174 Mr. G. A. Boulenger on the Suborders and 

2. Pelvic bones not connected with scapular arcli ; ventrals 
without spine, -with 5 or G rays ; snout tubiform ; first ver- 
tebra very elongate, formed by the fusion of several. 

Isolated dorsal spines ; body scaly 5. Aulostomatidce. 

No dorsal spines ; body naked 6. Fistiilariida. 

B. Mouth toothless ; snout tubiform ; two short dorsal fins, the first 
with a few spines ; ventral fins with 3 to 5 rays ; anterior ver- 
tebras elongate. 

Body covered with bony shields and small 

rough scales 7. Centriscidce. 

Body completely cuira^sed by bony shields, 

which are fused with the eudoskeleton . . 8. Amphisilidce, 

III. Prteoperculum absent ; symplectic much elongate ; branchial 
apparatus more or less reduced ; gill-lamellfe reduced in number 
and enlarged, forming rounded lobes ; post-temporal simple, im- 
movably attached to the skull ; mouth toothless, at the end of a 
tubiform snout ; body covered with bony plates. (Lopho- 

BRANCHII.) 

Two dorsal fins ; ventral fins present, with 7 
rays ; gill-openings wide ; exoskeleton of 
large star-like plates 9. Solenostomidce. 

A single dorsal tin ; no ventral fins ; gill- 
openings very small ; exoskeleton in the 
form of rings 10. Synffnathidoi. 

IV. Prseoperculum and symplectic absent ; gills pectinated ; mouth 
inferior, toothless ; body entirely covered with bony plates ; ven- 
tral tin with 2 or 3 rays. (IIypostomides.) 

11. Pegasidce. 



Suborder VIII. Percesoces. 

Air-bladder, if present, without open duct. Parietal bones 
separated by the supraoccipital. Pectoral arch suspended 
from the skull; no mesocoracoid arch. Ventral fins, if 
present, abdominal, or at least with the pelvic bones not 
solidly attached to the clavicular arch. 

This group connects the Haplomi witli the Acanthopterygii, 
the Scombresocidge being somewhat related to the Cyprino- 
dontidte *, whilst the Anabantidse show distinct affinity to the 

* Swinnerton (Quart. Journ Micr. Sci. xlv. 1902, p. 554) has pointed 
out that the skull of the Scombresoces belongs to what he terms the 
Acrartete type (e. g. in which the attachment of the palatine cartilage or 
its derivates is contined to the pre-ethmoid cornua), whilst the other 
Percesoces examined by him, as well as the Cyprinodonts, are Uisartete 
(the attachment being at the par-ethmoid and pre-ethmoid cornua) ; but 
the character is so indistinctly defined in some adult Cyprinodonts, that 
I feel some diffidence in making use of this character for systematic- 
purposes in the present state of our knowledge. 



FainiUes of Teleostean Fishes. 



175 



Ospliromenidfe in the following suborder. Other families, 
previouslj included among the Scombriform Acanthopterj- 
gians, are placed here on the assumption that the loose 
attachment of the pelvic bones to the clavicles is a primitive 
character, and not the result of degeneration, such as occurs 
in some cases among the Acanthopterjgians. Although this 
suborder is perhaps only an artificial association, it must be 
borne in mind that, notwithstanding the very wide divergence 
which exists between the first and last families, however 
dissimilar their members appear to be at first sight, a gradual 
passage may be traced connecting the most aberrant types. 
Twelve families : — 



I. Ventral fins, if present, iuserted far behind the pectorals; no spines 

to the fins. 

Kibs attached to the extremity of much-developed 
parapophyses ; lower pliaryngeal bones com- 
pletely united; pectoral fins inserted very 
high up 1. Sconibresociclcd. 

Ribs mostly sessile ; lower pharyngeal bones 
distinct ; pectoral fins nearer the ventral than 
the dorsal liue 2. Ammoclt/tiihe. 

II. Ventral fins, if present, more or less approximated to the pectorals. 

A. Two well-developed dorsal fins, the anterior small and formed, 

at least in part, of spinous rays. 

1. Ribs attached to strong parapophyses. 

Pelvic bones free or connected with the clavicles 

by ligament; pectoral fins inserted high up. . 3. Atherinidce. 

Pelvic bones suspended from the postclavicles ; 
pectoral fins inserted very high up ; teeth very 
feeble or absent 4. Mugilidie. 

Pelvic bones suspended from the postclavicles; 
pectoral fins nearer the ventral than the 
dorsal line, with detached lower rays 5. Tolynemidce. 

Pelvic bones connected with the clavicles by liga- 
ment ; pectoral fins nearer the ventral than 
the dorsal line ; dentition powerful, cardi- 
form ; scales minute or absent G. Chiasmodontidce. 

2. Anterior ribs sessile ; pelvic bones not connected witli the 

scapular arch ; pectoral hns nearer the ventral than the 
dorsal lino 7. Sphyrccnidce. 

B. Spinous dorsal, if present, connected with the soft. 

1. Anterior vertebrae without parapophyses ; scales on head, if 
present, small. 

CEsophagus with lateral sacs which are beset with 
papillae internally ; spinous dorsal long ; 
scales rhomboidal, in oblique transverse 
series ; pelvic bones free 8. Tetragonuridce. 



176 Mr. G. A. Boulenger on the Suborders and 

CEsophao'us with lateral sacs which are beset with 

toothed papilliB internally ; spinous dorsal, 

if distinct, shorter than the soft dorsal ; 

scales moderate or small, cycloid, often 

deciduous 9. StroniatcidcR. 

No sacs in the oesophagus; fins without spines; 

scales very small or absent 10. Icodeidce. 

2. All or all but the two anterior vertebrae with parapophyses ; 
scales on head large ; a suprabranchial cavity. 

No spines to the fins 11. OphioccplinlldcB. 

Strong spines to the dorsal, anal, and ventral fins. 12. Anabcmtidce. 



Suborder IX. Anacanthini. 

Air-bladder without open duct. Parietal bones separated 
by the supraoccipital ; prootic and exoccipital separated by 
the enlarged opisthotic. Pectoral arch suspended from the 
skull; no mesocoracoid arch. Ventral fins below or in front 
of the pectorals^ the pelvic bones posterior to the clavicular 
symphysis and only loosely attached to it by ligament. 

Fins without spines ; candal, if present, without expanded 
hj'pural, perfectly symmetrical, and supj^orted by the neural 
and haemal spines of the posterior vertebra3 and by basal 
bones similar to tliose supporting the dorsal and anal rays. 
This type of caudal fin must be regarded, as I have pointed 
out ^, as secondary, the Gadidai being no doubt derived from 
fishes like the JMacrurida?, in which tiie homocercal fin had 
been lost. The scapular foramen or fenestra is nearly always 
b( tween the scapular and coracoid bones, as in the Tracliiiiidge 
and several allied families, not in the coiacoid, as in the 
otlier Acanthopterygians. Tiic first two vertebrae have no 
epi pleurals. 

]\lr. C. Tate Pegan f, who has recently given a good defi- 
nition of the Anacanthini, divides them into three families, 
which are here adopted : — 

Ventral fin? below the pectorals, with 7 to 12 rays ; 

1)0 caudal fin 1 . MacruridcB. 

Ventral fins jugular, with 1 to 9 rays; caudal 

fin more or less distinct (diphycercal or iso- 

cercal) 2. Gadidce. 

Ventral fins jugular, with 6 rays; no caudal fin; 

pectoral pterygials in increased number (10) ; 

scales as in the Anguillida) 3. Miircenolepididce. 



* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) x. 1902, p. 295. 
t Op. cit. xi. 1903, p. 460. 



Famih'es of Telcostean Fishea. 177 

Suborder X. A C A N T II r T E \\ Y G 1 1. 

Air-bladder usually without open duct. Opercle well deve- 
loped ; supraoccipital in contact with the frontals. Pectoral 
arch suspended from tlio skull ; no niesocoracoid. Ventral 
iins thoracic or jugular, the pelvic bones more or less firmly 
attached to the clavicular arch. Gill-opening usually large ; 
if small, in front of or above the base of the pectoral fin. 

The character from which this suborder, the most com- 
prehensive of the whole class, derives its name, viz. the 
jiresence of non-articulated, more or less pungent rays lu 
the dorsal and anal fins, is by no means universal, exceptions 
to the rule beino; numerous. The mouth is usually bordered 
by the premaxillaries to the exclusion of the maxillaries, and 
if these should, by exception, enter the oral edge, they arc 
always toothless. The ventral fins are sometimes inserted 
at some distance behind the base of the pectorals (Ilaplo- 
dactylida^, Platycephalidffi), in which case, however, this is 
merely due to the elongation of the pelvic bones, which are 
solidly attached to the clavicular arch. The suborder is 
broken up into 9 divisions, which follow in somewhat ar- 
bitrary order, the natural affiuities being opposed to a linear 
arrangement. 

I. No suborbital stay, or process extending from the suborbital bones 

towards the prasoperculum ; basis crauii double in the symmetrical 
forms. Primary shoulder-girdle composed of a perforate scapula 
and a coracoid ; of the four or five pterygials, or basal bones of 
the pectoral fins, only one or two are in co.itact with the 
coracoid ; ventral hns thoracic. 
Enys of the caudal fin not strongly forked at 
the base ; hypural usually with a basal 
spine or knob-like process on each side ; 
epipleural bones usually inserted on the 
parapophyses or on tlie ribs ; dorsal fin 
usually with strong spines ; caudal peduncle 

rarely much constricted I. Pkrciformes. 

Rays of the caudal fin strongly forked at the 
base, embracing a considerable portion of 
the hypural, which always bears a basal 
spine ; epipleural bones usually inserted on 
the centra or on the parapophyses, rarely 
on the ribs ; dorsal spines feeble or de- 
tached ; caudal peduncle much constricted ; 

scales usually very small or absent If. Scombriformes. 

Rays of the caudal fin not strongly forked at the 
base, no hypural spine, and ventral finswitli 
one spyie and six to eight soft rays, or 
cranium asymmetrical III. Zkouuombi. 

II. No suborbital stay ; basis cranii double ; scapula abseut, the 

pterygials inserted on the coracoid ; ventral fins thoracic. 

IV. KURTIFORMES. 

Ann. cf' Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. 12 



178 Mr. G. A. Boulcngev on the Suborders and 

III. No suborbital stay ; basis crauii simple ; scapula and coracoid 
more or less reduced, sometimes vestigial ; pterygials large, only 
one or two in contact with the coracoid ; ventral tins thoracic. 

V. GOBIIFOHMKS. 

IV. No suborbital stay ; basis cranii simple ; a perforate scapula ; 
three pterygials in contact with the coracoid ; ventral fins thoracic ; 
a suctorial transversely laminated disk on the upper surface of the 
head VI. Discocephali. 

V. A suborbital stay, the second suborbital bone being more or less 

produced on the cheek or joining the praeoperculum ; ventral fins 
thoracic VII. Scleeopaeei. 

VI. No suborbital stay ; ventral fins usually jugular or mental, or, if 
thoracic, structure of the pectoral arch difjfering from that ascribed 
to the first five divisions of this Synopsis. 

Pectoral fin with vertical or subvertical base ; 

anal fin usually elongate, rarely small .... VIII. Jugulaees. 
Pectoral fin with horizontal or subhorizontal 

base ; body exceedingly compressed ; dorsal 

fin with all the rays simple ; anal fin absent 

or very small IX. Tjeniosomi. 

Division I. Peeciformes. 

"No bony stay for the prteopercultim. Basis cranii double. 
Spinous dorsal usually well developed. None of the epi- 
pleural bones attached to the centra of the vertebrjB in the 
prsecaudal region. Pectoial arch with well-developed scapula 
and coracoid, the former pierced by a foramen or fenestra ; 
pterygials longer than broad, more or less regularly hour- 
glass-shaped, 4 or 5 in number, one or two of which are in 
contact with the coracoid. Ventral fins thoracic. 

This large group, consisting chiefly of marine forms, has 
members in all parts of the world, with the exception of the 
Arctic and Antarctic regions, and was already represented by 
numerous Beryeidaj and a few Serranida and iScorpididte in the 
Upper Cretaceous. The division into families, capable of 
rigid definition, is a task of considerable difficulty, and the 
necessities of a linear arrangement result in the breaking 
np of seme natural sequences. Thus it appears highly 
probable that the Scorpidida?, themselves derived, togetiier 
with the Serranida;, from the Berj'cidfe, lead to the Caraiigidse 
in the division Scombriformes, whilst a nearly perfect 
passage can be traced between the Acanthurid^e of this 
division and the Balistida3 among the Plectognaths. 
Thirty-six families : — 

I. Gills four, a slit behind tlie fourth. 
A. Two nostrils on each side. 

1, Vtntrals with one spine and to l.'l soft rays. 

I. BcryfidcT'. 



Families of Tdeostean Fiahes, 179 

2. Veiitrals with not more than 5 soft rays. 

a. Lower pharyngeal bones not completely united; showing at 
least a median suture. 
a. O ill-membranes free from isthmus. 

* Ventrals little if at all behind the pectorals. 

t Third vertebra without transverse processes or with 
sessile ribs. 
X A more or less developed subocular shelf, or inner 
lamina of the suborbitals supporting the eyeball, 
sometimes reduced to a more process of the secoiul 
suborbital. 
§ Ilibs inserted on the transverse processes, when 
these are developed. 
Body covered with very large bony scales; 
ventrals with a very strong spine and 

2 or 3 very short soft rays 2. MonocentriJce. 

Dorsal very short, with few graduated, adnate 

spines ; anal very long 3. Pempheridce, 

Spinous dorsal usually well developed, soft 

dorsal usually not much more developed 

than the anal ; palate usually toothed. .. . 11. Serranid(p. 

Dorsal and anal fins elongate and formed 

mostly of articulated soft rays, the spines 

feeble and few 12. Fseudochromidid(e, 

Dorsal and anal fins much elongate, without 

distinct spines ; body band-like 13. Cepolidce. 

Teeth in the jaws fused to form a beak 14. HoplogiiathidcB. 

Sol't dorsal and anal much elongate ; a separate 

spinous doi'sal 15. Sillaginidce. 

Soft dorsal much longer than the anal ; a 

separate spinous dorsal 16. Scicenidce. 

5§ Ribs mostly sessile, behind the parapophyses ; 
body deep; mouth moderately large and pro- 
tractile. 

Suprateraporal forked, distinct from skull .... 2o. Scorpididce. 
Supratemporal completely ankylosed to the 

skull ; mouth very protractile 26. Caproidce. 

\ X No subocular shelf. 

§ Ribs mostly sessile, behind the parapopliyses ; 
anal spines 3 to 14. 
Teeth conical ; palate toothed ; mouth freely 

protractile 4. Centrarchidce. 

Teeth incisor-like ; fins densely scaled 5. Cyphosidce. 

Teeth conical ; palate toothless 6. Lobotidce. 

Maxillary very slender, mouth very protractile . 7. Toxotidte. 

No entopterygoid ; mouth very protractile .... 8. Nandidee. 

§§ Ribs inserted on the transverse processes when 
these are developed ; not more than 3 anal 
spines. 
Mouth not or but feebly protractile ; palate 
toothed ; spinous dor.sal usually longer 
than the soft ; anal with 1 or 2 spines. ... 9. Pereidcp. 
Mouth moderately protractile ; palate toothed ; 
spinous dorsal not longer than the soft ; 

anal with 2 or 3 spines 10. Acropnuiafi'diS, 

12* 



ISO Mr. G. A. Bjulenger on the Suborders and 

Moutli very protractile, pra^maxillary "^'ith an 

upward lateral process ; palate toothless. . 17. Gerrid(e. 

Mouth moderately protractile ; palate toothltiss ; 

anal longer than soft dorsal ; body scaly . . 18. Lactariidce. 

Mouth moderately protractile ; palate tooth- 
less ; anal mucli longer than soft dorsal ; 
body naked 19. TiichodontidcB. 

ft Transverse processes developed on the third veiteLra 
and bearing the rib ; palate usually toothless. 

No subocular shelf ; teeth small 22. rrid!pomafid(C\ 

A subocular shelf; teeth often either cutting 

in front or molar-like on the sides 23. Sparidce. 

A subocular shelf; teeth very small or absent; 

a pair of barbels on the throat 24. MidJldce. 

** Ventrals rather far behind the base of the pectorals ; 

lower pectoral rays unbranched, often thickened ; no 

subocular shelf. 
Anal fin nearly as long as the soft dorsal .... 20. Lairididrp. 
Anal tin much shorter than the soft dorsal .... 21. Hapludactylidfc. — 

/3. Gill-membranes attached to the isthmus. 
* Scales well developed ; vertebrae 24 or more. 
A subocular shelf ; mouth small ; palate 

toothless 27. Chcetodontida;. 

No subocular shelf ; mouth small ; palate 

toothless 28. Drepanidce. 

Subocular shelf more or loss developed ; a 

superbranchial respiratory organ 31. Osijhromejtidce. — 

** Scales minute ; mouth small ; vertebrae 22 or 23. 

Post-temporal not distinctly forked ; vertebrae 
■with strong transverse processes ; ventrals 
with 1 spine and 2 to 5 soft rays 29. Ac(mthurid<e. 

Post-temporal forked ; vertebras without trans- 
verse processes ; ventrals with 2 spines and 
3 soft rays between them 30. Teuthidida. 

b. Lower pharyngeals completely united into one bone, without 
median suture 32. Embiotocidcc. 

B. A single nostril on each side ; lower pharyngeal bones more or 
less completely nulled, but with persistent suture ; no sub- 
ocular shelf; palate toothless 33. Ckldidcc. 

II. Gills three and a half ; lower pharyngeals completely united into 
one bone, without median suture ; palate toothless. 
A single nostril on each side ; teeth conical or 

incisor-like ; a subocular shelf 34. Fomacodridce. 

Two nostrils on each side ; anterior teeth 

usually strong and canine-like ; teeth on 

pharyngeal bones conical or tubercular ; 

no subocular shelf S.j. Ldhrida;. 

Two nostrils on each side ; anterior teeth more 

or less coalesced into a beak ; teeth on 

pharyngeal bones, flat, tessellated; no >■ ' 

subocular shelf <^G. Scaridce. 



Families of Teleostean Fishes. 181 

Division II. SCOMBEIFORMES. 

No bony stay for the prseojiercle. Spinous dorsal, if 
distinct, formed of short or feeble, slender spines. Epi- 
pleurals usually attached to the centra when ribs are sessile, 
or to the parapophyses of the vertebrre, rarely to tlie rib^. 
Pectoral arch similar to that of the Perciforrae^, but ptery- 
gials sometimes more abbreviated. Ventral tins thoracic. 
Caudal fin, if well developed, with very numerous rays 
deeply forked at the base. 

Although bound by natural ties, the series of families that 
cluster round the mackerel offer so many modlficatious of 
structure that it is almost impossible to draw up a diagnosis 
differentiating every one of its members from the Perciformes, 
with which they are closely connected, and from which they 
hardly deserve to be separated. Even after removing many 
genera which have been united with them by my pre- 
decessors, and which will now be found scattered among 
various groups of the system, no better definition of the 
Scombriformes can be given than that the mackerel and 
horse-mackerel are taken as the pattern-forms around which 
more or less aberrant types are located, types yet not so 
aberrant as to be traced back to these familiar forms through 
a number of intermediate grades. As regards external 
features, it may be stated that the dorsal and anal spines, 
if present, are weak and slender, or, it' strong, short and 
detached, the caudal peduncle is constricted, and the caudal 
fill, if well developed, is usually deeply forked and with the 
forked bases of the very numerous rays much longer than 
in most of the Perciformes, embracing at least a considerable 
portion of the expanded ural bones, a character by which the 
Chsetodontidfe, Acanthurida^, and several extinct types which 
have been placed with the Carangidas are at once excluded. 
All are marine and many are p:lagic anJ of very wide distri- 
bution. No prajtertiary members of this division, as here 
defined, have yet been found. 

Nine families : — 

I. PrtBin.ixillaries more or less protractile, not Leak-like ; scales small 
or abseut, sometimes with enlarged lateral scutes ; spinous dor.-al 
short or replaced by a series of isolated spines ; anal usually with 
one or two spines detached from the rest of the tin. 

Priiecaudal vertebrre with transverse processes, behind 

which the ribs are attached 1 . Cdranr/ido!. 

Prrecaudal vertebrre without well-developed para- 
pophyses; ribs and epipleurals inserted close 
tOL-ether ou the centra 2. liluichivoUriihe. 



182 Mr. G. A. Boulenger on the Stdwi-ders and 

II. Pr?emaxillaries not protractile ; scales usuallj- small or ab?ent ; body 
more or less elongate ; dorsal tin elongate, single or divided, 
withont free spines ; no free anal spines. 

A. Pseudobranchige present. 

Vertebrae without transverse processes ; soft dorsal 
fin longer than the spinous ; pectoral fins high 
up the sides 3. ScomhridcB. 

Vertebrae without transverse processes ; soft dorsal 
fin shorter than the spinous, if the latter be 
distinct ; pectoral fin low down the sides 4. TrichivridtP.. 

Vertebrae without transverse processes; soout pro- 
duced into a spear o. Histioj^horidw. 

Vertebrae with transverse processes bearing the 
ribs ; snout produced into a sword ; no 
ventrals , G. Xiphiida;. 

Vertebrae without transverse processes ; gill- 
membranes attached to isthmus ; dorsal and 
anal fins formed of unartlculated, widely set 
rays ; dentition very feeble 7. Luvarida;. 

B. Pseudobranchiae absent; no well -developed transverse processes 

to the praecaudal vertebris, the ribs and the epipleurals inserted 
close together on the centra ; snout short and very deep. 

8. CoryphcenidcP. 

III. Praemaxillaries not protractile, or, if slightly protractile, scales 
large ; dorsal and anal fins elongate, without distinct spinous 
division ; most of the praecaudal vertebra with strong hiBma- 
popbyseS; to which the ribs are attached .... 9. Bramida. 

Division III. Zeorhombi. 

Aberrant, strongly compressed Perciformes, with very 
phort prgecaudal region, modified in the direction of the fiat- 
fishes, culminating in asymmetrical forms, and characterized 
"by the combination of an increased number (7 to 9) of 
ventral rays, with absence of hypural spine (by which the 
Berycidse are excluded), or by asymmetry of the skull in 
the forms in which the spine of the ventral fin has been lost. 
Among the symmetrical forms, the existing Zeidje agree 
with the Berycidas in having more than five soft rays to tlie 
ventral fins^ and are probably derived, together with the 
Eocene Amphistiidse, from some common ancestral group 
still to be discovered in Cretaceous beds. These Zeidai have 
much in common with the Pleuronectidaj * and might be 
regarded as forming part of the family out of which the 
latter have sprung, were it not that they have lost the last 
half-gill. Ampktstium is probably more nearly related to 
the Pleuronectidse, which may have been directly derived 
from the family of which it is as yet the only known 
representative f. 

* Cf. Thilo, Zool. Anz. 1902, p. 305. 

T Cf. Boulenger, Ann. & ^lagT Nat. Hist. {7) x. 1901!, p. 205. 



Families of Ttlcostean Fishes. 183 

This division embraces three families oiilj : — 

A spinous dorsal fin ; anal spines detached from 

the soft portion ; a ventral spine ; gills three 

and a half, three slits between them 1. Zeiclce. 

Dorsal and anal spines few, continuous with the soft 

raj'^s ; a ventral spine 2. Amphistiidm f. 

No spines ; cranium twisted in front, with the two 

orbits on one side ; gills four, a slit behind the 

fourth 3. Pleuronectidce. 

Division IV. Kurtiformes. 

No bony stay for the prseopercle. Dorsal spines feeble, 
few. Scapula absent, the coracoid supporting four small 
pterygials. Ventral tins thoracic. 

A single family, Kurticke. 

Division V. Gobiiformes. 

No bony stay for the praoperculum. Basis cranii simple. 
S[)inous dorsal, if present, formed of few, flexible rays. 
None of the epipleural bones attached to the centra of the 
vertebra in the praicaudal region. Scapula and coracoid 
more or less reduced or even vestigial ; pterygials large, 
4 or 5 in number, forming together a thin plate which is iu 
contact vvitli or narrowly separated from the clavicle; one or 
two of the pterygials in contact with the coracoid. Ventral 
fins thoracic. 

The Gobiidce., which alone constitute this division, are not 
very remote from the Perciformes and may have evolved out 
of a type not very different from the Percidaj. 

Division VI. Discocepiiali. 

Highly aberiant Acanthopterygians with the anterior 
dorsal fin modified into a suctorial, transversely laminated 
oval disk on the head, the skull being very much flattened 
and with simple basis cranii. The pectoral rays are inserted 
on the small, perforate, scapula and on four hourglass-shaped 
pterygials, tliree of which are in contact with the coracoid. 
Ventral fins thoracic. 

A single family, Echeneididm. 

In spite of a superficial external resemblance to the genus 
Elacaie, the sucking-fish, as first observed by Gill,* bear 
certainly no affinity to that genus nor to other Scombri- 
formes. They ai'e probably derived from Perciformes, but 
from which family it is impossible to suggest. 



''0}yn. ^fz^ rU 



184: Mr. G. A. Boulcngcr on the Suborders and 

Division VII. Scleroparei. v^/ ^ 

Second suborbital bone more or less produced towards or 
finkylosed with the pra^operculum (" suborbital stay ") *. 
Ventral fins thoraeic. 

The ''Cheek-armoured Acanthopterjgians/' " Joues cuiras- 
s^es " of Cuvier, after the exclusion of the sticklebacks^ form 
a perfectly natural association, evidently derived from the 
Serranida?, with whicli the more generalized forms have 
much in common. From the perch-like genus Sehastes a 
continuous series can be traced towards the Triglida?, espe- 
cially through such forms as Apistus, Minous, and Chori- 
dactylus, in wliich one or more of the lower pectoral rays are 
detached from the rest of the fin. Througli the Comcphoridaa 
the Scorpa^nidae are connected with the Cottidse, whilst the 
latter merge insensibly into the still more aberrant Cyclo- 
pterida^. These conclusions, which are apparent enough 
iVom a mere comparison of the external characters, become 
fortified by a study of the skeletons. The passage between 
the various groups here accepted as families Is so complete 
that no serious objection could be raised to their union in 
one great family -with a number of minor divisions. 

Tlie character from which the fScleroparei derive their 
name Is subject to many modifications. The second sub- 
orbital (the third, if the pra^orbital be regarded as the first) 
may be merely enlarged and prolonged over the cheek 
towards the pra3operculum [Sehastes, Anhoplopoma), or 
firmly ankylosed to the latter [Scorpcena, Plati/ccphalus), 
or form part of the external armature of the head [Tn'gla, 
Dactylopterus). The structure of the base of the pectoral 
fin appears to aflford Important characters for the definition 
of the families, as first pointed out by Gill. 

Eleven families : — 

I. Head uot completely cuirassed. 

A. Ventral fins not widely separated ; none of the pterygials in 
contact with the clavicle. 

Two nostrils on each side ; basis cranii donble ; 

}^ill-niembraues free from isthmus 1. Scorp.-cnidcc. 

A single nostril on each side; basis cranii double; 

gill-membranes free from isthmus 2. Hexagrainmichc. 

Two nostrils ou each side; basis ci'anii simple; 

gill-membranes free or narrowly attached to 

isthmus 3. Comejjlioridce, 

Two nostrils on each side ; basis cianii simple ; 

gill-opening narrow, above base of pectoral. . 4. Rharnphocottidce. ^ 

* This character suiters one exception, to be found in Couiep/wrus, a 
degraded form otherwise closely related to Cottucomepliuriis, in which 
the slieleton is typical of the present division. 



Families of TeleosUan Fislics. 18o 

B. ^'e;]tl•al fins, if present, not widely separated ; one or several of 

the pterygials in contact witli the clavicle. 

Ventral fins distinct ; gill-clefts wide 5. Cottida. 

Ventral fins united into a sncl<ing-disk ; gill- 
opening narrow, above base of pectoral .... 6. Cycloptendtp. 

C. Ventral fins widely separated; none of the pterygials in contact 

with the clavicle. 

Ventral fins behind base of pectorals ; praec.audal 

vertebrje without transverse processes 7. Flatycephalidcc. 

Ventral tins a little in front of base of pectorals ; 
prascaudal vertebrae with transverse pro- 
cesses 8. ILoplkldlnjuhc. 

II. Head completely cuirassed. 

Ventral fins narrowly separated ; no pectoral ap- 
pendages ; pterygials short and broad 9. AfjonidiC. 

Ventral fins widely separated ; 2 or o lowermost 
raj'S of pectoral tin detached as feelers ; 
pterygials short and broad 10. Tri[ilid(C. 

Ventral tins narrowly separated; pectoral iin 

divided into two portions; pterygials eloii- Alfhi "^ 

gate '. 11. Dac'ylcpteridce. -^ /A ^ l 

Division VIII. Jugularks. 

No bony stay for the prteoperculum. Ventral fin.s jugulai" 
or mental. Gill-openings in front of the pectoral fin, the 
base of which is vertical or subvertical. 

In a recently published note * I have alluded to the group 
of physoclistous fishes for which I propose to revive the 
old name Jugulares, pointing out that some of the forms 
previously grouped together as Trachinidaj agree with the 
Gadidfo, not only in the jugular position of the ventral 
fins, but also in the condition of the scapula and coracoid. 

j\Ir. liegan f has since been able to show that the Gadidaj 
and Macruridse possess certain characters in common by which 
they may be separated, not only from the other Jugulares, 
but even from the Acanthopterygians, and, as mentioned 
above (p. 176), the Miillcrian suborder Anacanthini may be 
maintained, after excluding the Pleuronectidaj. That the 
Blenniidse are akin to Lycodes and allies has long been 
admitted, and authors who have placed (hem in different 
divisions of their systems have had to confess the difficulty 
of referring certain genera to the one family rather than fo 
the other. The fact that Z?/coJes and many forms previously 
associated witii the Ophidiidie agree with the Macrurid;e and 
Gadidae in the diphyccrcal vertebral column, and in tho 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) viii. 1001, p. i^Gl. 
t Op. cit. xi, 1!J0:J, p. -1-3! ». 



183 Mr. G. A. Boulenger on the Suborders and 

absence of spines to the fins^ is merely, it seems to me, 
the result of degradation ; tliej probably form the terminal 
group of a series in which the vertebral column was origin- 
ally homocercal and fin-spines were present, as is the case in 
most of the Blenniidse and Tracliinidse and their near allies. 
All these families may be assumed to have evolved in several 
series, often on parallel lines, from some group closely related 
to the Berycid?e; the resemblance which their terminal forms 
bear to the Anacanthini is, as recognized by Regan, probably 
to be ascribed to convergence, not to any close genetic 
affinity. 

Fifteen families : — ■ 

I. Pectoral rays attaclied to the scapula and to a series of pterygia!?, 

of which only one or two are in contact with the scapula ; ventral 
fins jugular, with 1 spine and 4 or 5 soft rays ; aoteiior dorsal 
rays usually spinous or not articulated, often forming a detached 
fin. 

A. Epipleurals present. 

1. Second suborbital produced inwards to support the eyeball. 
Ventrals close together ; scales very small, cycloid, 

forming oblique bands 1. Trachinidce. 

Ventrals widely separated 2. Tercopliii(l(s, 

2. No subocular shelf. 

Ventrals widely separated ; two nostrils on each 

side 3. Leptoscopidce. 

Ventrals widely separated ; a single nostril on each 

side 4. Nototheniidce. 

Ventrals close together ; scales very small, forming 

oblique bands ; head partly covered with bony 

plates 5. Uranoscnjndm, 

B. No epipleurals. 

Post-temporal forked, articulated to the skull ; soft 

dorsal and anal much elongate 6. Trichonotidce. 

Post-temporal closely adnate to the skull ; soft 

dorsal and anal short (with only 7 to 10 rays). . 7. Callionymidcc. 
Post-temporal simple, articulated to the skull ; soft. 

doi'sal and anal short ; a ventral sucker 8. Gobiesocidee. 

II. Pectoral rays all attached to the pterygials, of which two or three 

are in contact with the scapula; ventral tins, if present, jugular 
or mental, composed of 1 to 4 rays. 
A. Ventrals jugular or absent. 

Post-temporal distinctly forked ; praecaudal ver- 
tebrae with transverse processes ; some or all 
of the dorsal rays spinous or not articulated ; 
caudal fin usually distinct 9. Blenniida. 

Post-temporal small and ankylosed to the skull ; 
prsecaudal vertebrae without well-developed 
transverse processes ; a vei'y short spinous 
dorsal ; caudal tin distinct 10. Batrachidce. 



Families of Tehosiean Fishes. 187 

Post-temporal distinctly forked ; praecaudal ver- 
tebrae with hsemal arclies ; dorsal rays all 
spinous ; caudal fin distinct 11. Pholididce. 

Post-temporal distinctly forked ; prseaaudal ver- 
tebrte with transverse processes; dorsal rays 
all articulated, or a iew of the posterior 
spinous ; no distinct caudal 12. Zoarcidcs. 

Post-temporal forked, aukylosed to the skull ; prse- 
caudal vertebrae with transverse processes ; no 
spines ; no distinct caudal 13. CongrogadidcB. 

B. Ventrals mental (just behind the chin) ; no spines. 

14. Ophidiid(e. 

III. Pectoral rays attached to an undivided cartilaginous plate repre- 
senting the pterygials ; ventral tins jugular, reduced to a filament 
formed of two adnate rays ; fins without spines. 

15. Podatelidce, 



Division IX. T^NIOSOMI. 

Exceedinglj compressed, more or less elongate, often 
ribbon-like fishes of doubtful affinities, probably related to 
the eailier Acanthopterygians, the ventral fins, when well 
developed, comprising as many as 7 to 9 rays. Dorsal fin 
extending from the head to the end of the tail, its rays 
simple (separable into lateral halves), the anterior often 
prolonged ; anal fin very short or absent. Pectoral fin with 
iiorizontal, or nearly horizontal, base, the rays supported by 
the scapula and by three short pterygials, all three, or two 
at least, of which are related to the coracoid. Ribs small 
and slender, or absent. Post-temporal simple and solidly 
attached to the skull. Scales minute or absent. 

Deep-sea or pelagic fishes from the Atlantic and Mediter- 
ranean and from the Pacific ; specimens are rare in collec- 
tions and the life-histories are still very imperfectly known, 
although it has been ascertained that great changes of form 
take place with growth. 

Only two families : — 

Mouth very protractile ; ventral fins more or less 
developed, with 6 to 9 rays, or reduced to a 
single long ray ; no anal fin ; vent about the 
middle of the body ; caudal rays, if present, 
divided into two fascicles, the upper sometimes 
much prolonged and directed upwards 1. Trachypteridce, 

Mouth moderately protractile ; ventrals very small, 
if distinct, with 4 or 5 rays ; body-cavity ex- 
tending nearly the whole length of the much 
elongate body, the vent very far back and fol- 
lowed by a short anal fin ; caudal fin small, 
not divided 2. Lop}iotid(t. 



188' Ml'. G. A. Boulen<Ter on the Sahorders and 

Suborder XT. p i s T H M i. 

Air-bladder without open duet. Opercle well developed, 
liidden under the skin ; supraocclpital in contact with the 
frontals, separating the parietals. Pectoral arch suspended 
from the vertebral column, far behind the skull ; no meso- 
coracoid ; no clavicle distinct from the cleithrura. Vertical 
fins with spines. Ventral fins absent. 

This division stands in the same relation to the Acantho- 
pterygii as the Apodes to the Malacopterjgii. The single 
family, Mastacembedida; inhabiting the fresh waters of 
Southern Asia and Africa, is possibly derived from the 
Blenniida?. 

Suborder XII. P e d i c u l A t i. 

Air-bladder without open duct. Opercle large, hidden 
under the skin ; supraoccipltal in contact with the frontals, 
separating the parietals. Pectoral arch suspended from the 
skull ; no mesocoracoid. No ribs, no epipleurals. Ventral 
fins jugular. Gill-opening reduced to a foramen situated in 
or near the axil, more or less posterior to the base of the 
pectoral. Body naked or covered with spines or bony 
tubercles. 

A small natural group, connected with the Acanthopterygii 
Jugulares through the Batrachida>, in which the elongate 
pterygials of the pectoral fin foreshadow the kind of arm 
(" pseudobrachium ") which is more or less characteristic 
of these highly aberrant fishes. As in the Batrachida3, tiie 
post-temporal is flat and ankylosed to the cranium, and the 
suprascapula is much elongate. The pterygials, two or 
three in number, are separated from the small scapula and 
coracoid by a broad ligament^ the arm-like pectorals being 
more or less distinctly geniculated and inserted far back 
behind the cranium. The head is large, the basis cranii 
simple. The gills are reduced to 2, 2^, or 3. The spinous 
dorsal, if present, consists of a few rays, which may be 
modified into tentacles inserted on the head. 

Five families : — 

I. Gill-openiug iu or Ijehiod lower axil of pectoral ; mouth large, 

terminal or directed upwards. 

Pectoral flu scarcely geniculated ; ventrals present . 1. Lophii(l<T. 

Pectoral tin scarcely geniculated ; ventrals absent. . 2. Ccratiidce. 

I'ectoral fin strongly geniculated ; ventrals present . 3. Antennariidcr. 

II. Gill-opening behind lower axil of pectoral; mouth inferior; 

ventrals absent 4. Oiijantactinidcc. 



Families of Tdeostean Fishes. 189 

III. Gill-opeuing above axil of pectoral ; mouth rather small, sub- 
terminal or inferior; pectoral fin strongly geiiiculated ; venti'.ils 
present; spinous dorsal abs3nt or reduced to a small tentacle 
lodged in a cavity under the snout 5, Malthida. 

Suborder XIIT. Plectognatiii. 

Air-bladder without open duct. Opercular bones more or 
less reduced; supraoccipital in contact vvitli the frontals, 
separating the parietals; maxillary and pncraaxillary bones 
often firmly united. Pectoral arch suspended from the skull; 
no mesocoracoid. No ribs. Ventral fins thoracic and much 
reduced if present ; the pelvic bones, if present, more or less 
completely co-ossified. Gill-opening much reduced. Body 
covered with more or less osseous scales^ bony scutes, or 
spines, or naked. 

A highly aberrant group, closely connected with t!ie 
Acanthopterygii through the Acanthuridge, as pointed out 
long ago by Dareste *. The skeleton is often feebly ossified 
and the vertebroe much reduced in number, but the jaws, 
although short, are very strong, usually with large sectorial 
teeth which may be confluent into a beak; the post-temporal 
is short and simple, suturally united to the squamosal. 
These fishes have usually been arranged in three divi- 
sions: Sclerodermi, Ostracodermi, and Gymnodontes; but 
llegan +, whose classification is here followed, has shown 
that the latter include a type [Triodon) which, in spite of 
its beak-like teeth, is more nearly related to the Sclerodermi, 
whilst the Ostracodermi have much more in common with 
the latter than with the Gymnodontes. It therefore appears 
best to admit only two divisions, the first with four, the 
f-:econd with three families : — 

I. Sclerodermi. Supraclavicle vertical ; pectoral arch of the Perci- 
form type"; all the vertebra3 with a single neural spine. 

A. Body covered with hard or spinous scales; epipleurals present; 

pelvis present. 

Teeth separate ; si)inous dorsal present ; ventrals 

paired ; pelvis immovable 1. Triacanthidcc. 

A beak ; spinous dorsal and ventrals absent ; pelvis 

movable 2. Triodontidcc. 

Teeth separate ; spinous dorsal present ; ventrals 

absent or represented by a single short spine ; 

pelvis movable 3. Balistldcc. 

B. Body encased in a carapace ; no epipleurals ; spinous dorsal, 

pelvis, and veutrah absent 4. Ostraciontidce. 

* Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. (3) xiv. ISoO, p. 105, and C. II. Ac. Sci. 
Ixxiv. 1872, p. 1527. 

t r. Z. S. \W-2, ii. p. 231. 



100 ]\rr. C. T. Regan on 

II. Gymnodontes. Siipraclavicle oblique or nearly horizontal ; lower 
three pterygials enlarged and inamovablj' united to the coraco- 
scapular cartilage ; anterior vertebrae with bifid divergent neural 
spines ; pelvis absent. 

Beak with a median suture ; interoperculum not 
connected with suboperculum ; three gills ; 
caudal fin present ; body inflatable 5. Tttrodontidce. 

Beak without median suture ; interoperculum at- 
tached posteriorly to suboperculum ; three gills ; 
caudal fin present; body inflatable 6. Diodontidce. 

Beak without median suture ; interoperculum at- 
tached posteriorly to suboperculum ; four gills ; 
caudal fin absent, the body non-inflatable, trun- 
cate posteriorly, with the dorsal and anal fins 
confluent 7. Mulidce. 



XX. — On a Collection of Fishes made hy Mr. John Graham 
at Yunnan Fu. By C. Tate Regan, B.A. 

The British Museum lias received from Mr. John Graham a 
small collection of fishes from the large lake " Sea of Tien," 
on the north shore of which the city of Yunnan Fu is situated. 
This lake is at an altitude of about 6000 feet above the sea- 
level, and its overflow runs northwards by the Pulu-shing to 
the Yang-tse-kiang. Of thirteen species represented, eight 
are described below as new to science. The complete list is 
as follows : — 

1. Cyprinus carpio^ L. 

The two specimens received both lack the anterior barbel *, 
and should perhaps be referred to a distinct subspecies on this 
account. Six examples in the British Museum Collection, 
jrom the Southern Shan States, with large scales, 26-29 — °, 
may also be regarded as belonging to a geographical race or 
subspecies. 

2. Barhus Grahami, sp. n. 

Depth of body 3| times in the total length, length of head 
S| times. Snout nearly twice as long as the eye, the diameter 
ot which is 5f times in the length of head and 1^ times in 
the interorbital width. Mouth subterminal, maxillary not 
extending to below the eye. Two barbels on each side, the 
anterior f, the posterior nearly ^ the length of head. 

* Some of the specimens figured in Reeve's drawings of Chinese fishes 
Lave apparently no anterior barbel. 



Fishes from Yunnan Fa. 1^1 

Sc. 110 '-^ 14 between lateral line and root of ventral ; 1. lat. 
70. D. Ill 7, the third simple ray a strong spine, with finely 
serrated posterior edges, the first branched ray the longest, f 
the length of head ; origin of dorsal equidistant from anterior 
nostril and base of caudal. A. Ill 5. Pectoral not reaching 
ventral. Caudal forked, the upper lobe slightly the longer, 
a little less tiian the length of head. Caudal peduncle If 
times as long as deep, lirownish, with silvery reflections, 
lighter below. 

A single specimen, 170 mm. in total length. 

3. Barhus yunnanensis, sp. n. 

Depth of bjdy .3| times in the total length, length of head 
4 1 times. Snout Ig times as long as eye, the diameter of 
which is 5 times in the length of head and If times in the 
interorbital width. Mouth subterminal ; maxillary not 
extending to below the eye. Two barbels on each side, the 
anterior ^, the posterior f the length of head. Sc. 46 4, 4 
between lateral line and root of ventral. D. Ill 8, the third 
simple ray a strong spine with serrated posterior edges, the 
first branched ray tlie longest, ^ the length of head ; origin 
of dorsal equidistant from tip of snout and base of caudal. 
A. I II 5. Pectoral not reaching ventral. Caudal forked, 
the lobes as long as the head. Caudal peduncle If times as 
long as deep. Brownish, with silvery reflections, lighter 
below; membrane of outer half of dorsal and anal blackish. 

A single specimen, 210 mm. in total length. 

4. Achilognathus barhatuIuSj Gthr. 

5. Barilius pohjiepis, sp. n. 

Depth of body 4| times in the total length, loigth of head 
4 1 times. Snout nearly as long as the eye, the diameter of 
which is 3| times in the length of head and is nearly equal 
to the interorbital width. Mouth small, oblique, the maxillary 
not extending to below the eye ; no barbels. Sc. 70 ^~l, 6 
between lateral line and root of ventral. D. Ill 7, its orio-iu 
a little behind that of the ventral and nearly equidistant from 
tip of snout and base of caudal. A. Ill 13. Pectoral ex- 
tending ^ of the distance from its base to the origin of ventral. 
Caudal forked. Caudal peduncle twice as long as deep. 
Brownish above, silvery on the sides and below. 

A single specimen, 130 mm. in total length. 

Allied to JB. hainanensis, Blgr., from which it is distin- 
gui.shed especially by the mucli smaller scales. 



192 j\rr. C. T. Regan on 

G. Misgurnus an guilUcaudatus ^ Oantor. 

7. Nemachilus pleurotcenia, sp. n. 

Depth of body 5 times in the total length, length of head 4 
time?. Snout nearly as long as the postorbital part of head. 
Diameter of eye 4^ times in the length of head and nearly 
equal to the interorbital width. Nostrils well separated, the 
anterior tubular. Rostral barbels shorter tlian the one at 
the ano-le of tlie mouth, which is ^ the length of head. 
Scales minute ; thorax naked; lateral line present anteriorly, 
disappearing before origin of dorsal. D. Ill 8, its origin 
equidistant i'rom anterior nostril and base of caudal, above or 
slightly in advance of the origin of ventral. A. Ill 5. 
Pectoral extending § of the distance from its base to origin of 
ventral. Ventral with 9 rays. Caudal bilobed. Caudal 
])eduncle l^-lg- times as long as deep. Back with some 
dark spots or markings ; a blackish longitudinal stripe along 
the middle of the side ; fins immaculate. 

Two specimens, 46 and 51 mm. in total length. 

8. Nemacliilus nigromaculatus^ sp. n. 

Depth of body 4-4|^ times in the total length, length of 
head 3§ times. Snout shorter than the postorbital part of 
h( ad. Diameter of eye 4|-5^ times in the length of head, 
interorbital width 3-3|- times. Nostrils well separated, the 
anterior tubular. Rostral barbels shorter than tlie one at the 
angle of the moutii, which is less than ^ the length of head. 
Scales very small, not imbricated ; thorax and abdomen 
naked ; lateral line absent. D. Ill 8, its origin equidistant 
from middle of eye and base of caudal, a little in advance of 
the origin of ventral. A. Ill 5. Pectoral extending |-| of 
the distance from its base to origin of ventral. Ventral with 
8 rays. Caudal truncate. Caudal peduncle as deep as or 
deeper than long. Back and sides spotted or marbled witii 
blackish; fins immaculate. 

Two specimens, 61 and 77 mm. in total length. 

9. Siho'us mento^ sp. n. 

Depth of body 5j-5^ times in the total length, length of 
head 4-4| times. Breadth of head lf-1? times in its length, 
diameter ot eye 7^-9^ tmies, interorbital width 3-3^ times, 
lci!gth of snout 3_n-4 times. Lower jaw projecting, the 
mouth superior ; vomerine teeth in two separate patches; 4 
barbels, the maxillary ones extending to the base of pectoral. 



Fislips fi'iim Yunnan Fu. 103 

or beyond, the mental ones nearly 5 as long-. I). 4, its distance 
from the tip of snout ^ its distance fVoni the caudal. A. TI- 
TS, continued on to the caudal. P. I 12, the spine stout, 
anteriorly somewhat roughened or slightly serrated, poste- 
riorly with a series of 6-9 fairly strong- teeth, its length a 
little more than ^ that of the soft part of the tin, which 
extends nearly to the origin of ventral. Ventrals with 10 
rays, originating just in front of the vent and extending to 
the third or fourth ray of anal. Caudal truncate rounded. 
Greyish, clouded with blackisli. 

T^'.'O specimens, 115 and 215 mm. in total length. 

10. Liobagrus nigricauda^ pp. n. 

Depth of body about 6 times in the total length, length of 
liead 3g-/i| times. Breadth of head lg-l|- times in its 
length, interocular width 2|-3 times, length of snout about 
3^ times. Eyes very smalL Jaws equal anteriorly ; mouth 
wide. Post-mental barbel the longest, extending to base of 
pectoral or a little beyond. D. I 5, the spine concealed in a 
fold of skin which also extends over the soft rays, about § 
the length of head; adipose fin low, originating above or a 
little in advance of the anal and extending on to the pro- 
current rays of the caudal. A . 15, P. I T, the spine concealed 
like that of the dorsal, a little more than \ the length of the 
fin, which is rounded and nearly equal in length to f the 
length of head, extending i the distance from its base to the 
origin of ventral. V. 6. Caudal rounded. Greyish, spotted 
or marbled with darker; dorsal and pectoral in great part 
blackish ; ventrals and anal with or without blackish spots ; 
caudal, in the smaller specimen, with a large median blackish 
blotch confluent with a semioval blackish basal band, in the 
larger specimen almost entirely blackish except for two small 
light areas on the upper and lower margins respectively. 

Two specimens, t^l: and 9G mm. in total length. 

The genus Liobagrus, established in 18T8 by Hilgendorf 
f < r L. Beinii ixom Southern Japan, is allied to Akgsis and 
Acrochordonichthys, but is distinguished by the truncate or 
rounded caudal and by the wide gill-openings, which are not 
lestricted from above, whilst the gill-membranes are entirely 
separate from each other and from the isthmus. Amhlgceps 
tiiarginatus, Gthr. (Pratl's ' Snows of Thibet,' Appendix, 
]). 24 5, pi. ii. fig. A, 1892), is another species of this genus, 
diftcring from the one described above in the coloration, 
projecting lower jaw, longer barbels, and truncate caudal, 
Amblgcfps is distinguished from Liobagrus by the nostrils, 

Ann. ii' Alng. N. /fist. Ser. 7. VoL xiii. 13 



194 Mr. W. L. Distant on Capsidae 

^\'hich are close together instead of well separated, and by 
the forked caudal. In Liohagrus, as in Akysis and Acro- 
chordonichthys, and also in Amblyceps, the air-bladder is 
reduced to two small lateral portions enclosed in bone. 

11. Macrones medianaliSj sp. n. 

Depth of body 5|-5|- times in the total length, length of 
head 3f-4^ times. Diameter of eye 5-6| times in the length 
of head,interorbital width Sg- times, length of snout 3j times. 
Nasal barbel extending beyond posterior border of eye, 
maxillary barbel to base of pectoral or beyond, post-mental 
barbel to the edge of the gill-membrane at a point directly 
posterior to its origin or a little beyond. Upper jaw slightly 
the longer; width of mouth ^ the length of head. Upper 
surface of head covered by skin ; supraoccipital process more 
than twice as long as broad, its length ^ that of the head ; 
basal bone of the anterior dorsal ray hidden beneath the 
skin, separated by a short interspace from, or in contact with 
the supraoccipital process. D. 1 7, the spine smooth, equal 
to §-| the length of head ; length of adipose tin equal to its 
distance from the base of middle rays of caudal. A. 17-18. 
P. I 7, the spine with a series of 5-8 teeth posteriorly, equal 
in length to that of the dorsal. V. 6. Caudal bilobed. 
Caudal peduncle twice as long as deep. Greyish, with a 
few large dark spots or blotches. 

Three specimens, 65-128 mm. in total length. 

Although with less than 20 anal rays, the relations of this 
species are with the section Pseudohagrus. 

12. Monopterus javanensis, Lacep. 
13. Ophwcephalus argus, Cant. 



XXl.—Rhynchotal Notes.— XKl. By W. L. Distant. 

HETEROPTERA. 

Fam. CapsidsB. (Part II.) 

This paper concludes the examination of the Capsidse 
contained in the British Museum, including Walker's types ; 



in the British Museiayi and elsewhere. 195 

o£ some of these the condition is so imperfect as to make 
their generic identification a matter of no little difficulty, 
but they will be all found in the "summarized disposition" 
here appended. 

Division M i r A r i A. 
NymannuSj gen. nov. 

Elongately subovate ; head as long as pronotum, sub- 
conical, narrowed anteriorly, with a narrow central linear 
sulcation ; eyes of moderate size, almost touching the 
anterior margin of the pronotum ; antennae about as long 
as the body, first joint strongly incrassated, narrowed at 
base, about as long as head, second joint slender, about 
twice as long as first and almost equal in length to re- 
maining joints together ; rostrum almost reaching the 
posterior coxaj ; pronotum nearly twice as broad posteriorly 
as anteriorly, very faintly transversely impressed on anterior 
area, posterior margin truncate, oblique beyond the scutellar 
angles, mesonotum exposed; scutellum subtriangular ; hem- 
elytra a little convexly arapliated, cuneus longer than broad, 
membrane short ; posterior femora incrassated, posterior 
tibiai finely setose; first joint of posterior tarsi as long as 
second and third joints together. 

Nymannus typicus^ sp. n. 

Pale reddish-testaceous, basal lateral areas of corium 
stramineous, clavus somewhat piceous ; antennae with the 
basal joint castaneous, second joint pale ochraceous, re- 
maining joints fuscous; femora castaneous; tibiae pale ochra- 
ceous ; tarsi, excluding base, fuscous ; membrane dark 
fuscous ; body above finely shortly pilose ; narrow central 
sulcation to head appearing as a fuscous line ; basal angles 
to scutellum linearly foveate and fuscous. 

Long. 6 mm. 

Hah. Cape Colony : Grahamstown (Albany and Brit. 
Muss.). 

Genus Megac^lum *. 

Megaccelum, Fieb. Wien. ent. Monats, Bd. ii. p. 305. n. 21 (1858). 
Cremtiades, Dist. Biol. Centr.-Amer., Rhynch. i. p. 237 (1883). 

* I have here substituted the generic term Megaccelum for Creontiades 
{ante, p. 105). 1 had already sank as a synonym the proposed genus 

13* 



196 Mv. W. L. Distant 07i Caps'ulM 

ranti/iodes, Noiialh. Anu. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1803, p. lo. 
TJ mslojxjgas, Kirk. Tr. Ent. Soc. 1 902, p. 254. 
Kan(jra,'\\\rk. Tr. Ent. Soc. 1902, p. 257. 

Megaccelum fransvaalensis, sp. n. 

Pale luteous; apex of head, eyes, subanterior and sub- 
posterior transverse fascise to pronotum, broken at centres 
and sometimes united along lateral margins, inner and outer 
margins of clavus, an elongate spot on posterior disk of 
coriuni which is angulated and connected with the mem- 
branal margin, membrane, basal joint of antennae (rem.aining 
joints mutilated), extreme apices of tibiaj, and the apices of 
tarsi black ; abdomen beneath with central and sublateral 
fuscous fascia3 ; apices of femora and bases of tibife testa- 
ceous ; pronotum finely transversely granulate ; scutelkini 
shining, almost glabrous ; hemelytra finely and obscurely 
punctate; posterior tarsi mutihited. 

Long. 6 mm. 

JJab. 'J'ransvaal : Zoutpansberg [Junocly Brit. Mas.) ; 
Pretoria [Distani). 

Megacalum nigroquadristriatus. 

Umslopoqas nigroquadristriatus, Kirk. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1902, p. 254, 
pi. V. fig-. 11. 

Head, pronotum, and scutellum pale shining greenish 
yellow, pronotum usually more greenish ; a central longi- 
tudinal fascia to liead, four longitudinal fasciie to pronotum 
(two central and one at each lateral margin, and sometimes 
more or less fused anteriorly), and two basal spots and lateral 
margins of scutellum, black; antenr^se fuscous; hemelytra 
pale opaque greenish yellow, the clavus, inner area, and a 
longitudinal apical spot to corium fuscous; membrane pale 
fuscous; body beneath and legs pale dull ochraceous, legs 
speckled with fuscous, apices of tarsi piceous ; a narrow 
sublateral fascia and sometimes apical segment to abdomen 
piceous ; rostrum reaching posterior coxa) ; second joint of 

Kangra, and since tlien have seen the species on which Umslopoffas is 
founded. It now becomes clear that to keep these genera distinct the 
only reliable character is the proportional length of the joints in the 
posterior tarsi (frequently mutilated in specimens received) ; and as this 
seems to be but a sectional character of a large and well-marked genus, 
1 have thought it best to now include all under Mcgaca'liDu. 



Ill the Briliah Museum and elsewhere. 197 

antenncG about twice the length of fii-st; corium finely 
pilose. 

Long. 7 mm. 

Hah. Natal: Howick {Gregoe, Brit. Mus.). Transvaal: 
Pretoria [JJistant) ; Johannesburg (Ross). 

The British Museum possesses a long series of this species 
from Howick, Natal, whence Kirkaldy's type is recorded, 
and I have also a considerable number of specimens from 
the Transvanl. They are all moderately uniform in markings 
and coloration, and the iigure given by Kirkaldy appears 
to be mucli too highly coloured. 

1 found this the most abundant species in the Transvaal^ 
frequenting grasses, and readily obtained by sweeping. 



Division C y L A r A ii i A. 

Cham us, gen. no v. 

Elongately subovate; head broad, anteriorly broadly 
channelled, with three long, frontal, slightly upwardly curved 
spines, one central and one before base of each antenna, two 
discal callosities on posterior area; eyes prominent, inserted 
near base of antenna3, which are very robust and longly and 
strongly pilose, first joint very strongly incrassate, moJerately 
petiolate at base, second joint almost twice as long as first, 
third much shorter than second, twice as long as fourth ; 
rostrum reaching the anterior coxa3; pronotum with the 
posterior margin about three times broader than anterior, 
constricted before middle, the anterior area with two obscure 
callosities; scutellum in typical specimen destroyed by pin; 
lateral margins of corium sinuate and amj)liate posteriorly; 
cuneus somewhat large, a little longer than broad ; membrane 
Avith a single elongate quadrangular cell ; legs moderately 
short, strongly and longly pilose ; posterior legs mutilated ; 
])ronotum, corium, and cuneus somewhat thickly minutely 
tuberculate, lateral margins longly and strongly pilose. 

Chamus Wealet, sp. n. 

Reddish testaceous ; second and third joints of antennpe, 
extreme lateral margins of corium, rostrum, body beneath, 
and legs stramineous ; pronotum and corium with numerous 
small sanguineous tul^crculations ; cuneus and membrane 
pale dull uchraeeou.-^, the first Avith (he small tubcrculatioiis 



198 Mr. W. L. Distant on Capsidte 

sanguineous near inner angle, the membranal venation also 
sanguineous; lateral margins o£ body beneath sanguineous. 

Long. 64 mm. 

Hab. Cape Colony {Mansell Weale). 



Division 



Arculanus, gen. nov. 

Subelongate ; head broad, subglobose, shortly obtusely 
conically produced in front of eyes, a little narrowed pos- 
teriorly and anteriorly ; eyes of moderate size, situate at about 
centre of lateral margins ; antennae moderately robust, very 
finely pilose, first joint distinctly thickened from beyond base 
and very slightly longer than head, second more than twice 
as long as first, third much shorter than second, more than 
half as long again as fourth ; rostrum short, robust, about 
reaching the anterior coxse ; pronotum somewhat long, with 
a broad anterior collar, narrowed anteriorly, strongly con- 
stricted before middle, M'here there are two strong subconical 
tuberculations, posterior area convexly tumid, foveate near 
lateral angles, which thus appear subprominent, posterior 
margin almost five times as broad as anterior margin ; 
scutellum subtriangular, its lateral margins very slightly 
convex ; corium somewhat long, its lateral margins a little 
sinuate ; cuneus longer than broad and passing abdominal 
apex; membrane with a single elongate quadrangular cell; 
legs moderately short, femora a little thickened. 

A genus which may be placed near Disphi'nctus. 

Arculanus MarsJialh', sp. n. 

Pale sanguineous ; anterior margin of head, tuberculations 
and lateral margins to pronotum, scutellum, outer claval area 
to corium, basal area of cuneus, sternum, coxpe, rostrum, 
bases of femora, tibiae (excluding bases), and tlie tarsi more 
or less pale ochraceous ; above shining, finely and obscurely 
pilose ; outer margin of clavus, inner margin of cuneus, and 
two longitudinal discal lines on apical half of membrane 
fuscous; membrane pale bronzy, the venation sanguineous. 

Long. 7^ mm. 

Ilab. Mashonaland : Umfili River {G. A. K. Marshall). 



VI the Bn'ii'sh Museum and elsewhere!. 199 

Division Phytocorakia. 
Genus Paracalocoeis. 

Faracahcoris Barretti, sp. n. 

Purplish brown ; head, antennae (excluding basal joint), 
lateral margins and a broad central fascia (attenuated 
posteriorly) to pronotum, basal angles of scutellura, a very 
small marginal spot near apex of corium, a marginal spot to 
cuneus, body beneath, rostrum, and legs pale ochraceous ; 
apices of second and tliird joints of antennas and apices of 
tibiae purplish red ; pronotum with two discal blaclc spots; 
first joint of antennae incrassate and pilose, second joint 
distinctly incrassate towards apex, about half as long again 
as first ; pronotum transversely rugulose ; membrane very 
pale fuscous with the veins darker. 

Long. 5| mm. 

Hah. Cape Colony : King William's Town (^Miss Barrett^ 
Brit. Mus.) . 

Division C A P s A e i A. 
Genus Lygus. 

Lygus Schonlandij sp. n. 

Ochraceous ; hemelytra somewhat longly pilose ; apex of 
second joint of antennge black (remaining joints mutilated) ; 
basal area of pronotum, two central longitudinal fasciae to 
scutellum, inner area and two lateral spots (one before middle, 
the other at apex) to corium, and a spot at apex of cuneus 
piceous ; basal and inner margins of cuneus generally 
distinctly narrowly sanguineous ; membrane fuscous with 
paler mottlings; body beneath and legs pale ochraceous; 
raesosternum, a lateral spot to metasternum, base of posterior 
tibiae, and apices of tarsi black ; apical halves of posterior 
femora castaneous with broad fuscous annulations ; rostrum 
reacliing the intermediate coxaj ; pronotum finely and ob- 
scurely punctate; first joint of antennse slightly thickened, 
second joint a little more than twice the lengtli of first. 

Long. 4 to 4^ mm. 

Hab. Cape Colony : Grahamstown (Albany and Brit. 
Muss.). Natal: Durban [Marshall). 



£00 ]Mr. W. L. Distant on Capsulte 

Genus HoiiCIAS. 
Jlorcias Signoretl. 

Capsus Sif/noreti, Stal, Frej;. Eup-. lu'sa, ITeni. p. 257 (1859). 
(^opms dnctipes. Walk. Cat. lict. vi. p. 109. ii. 247 (1873). 
Heetheuia cinctipes, Atkins. Cat. CapsicUe, p. 57 (1890). 

Jlorcias ohumhratiis. 

Capsiis (ihumhratu't, Wallc. Cat. Ilet. vi. p. 111. n. 251 (1873). 
Hcsthcniu obunibratm, Atkius. Cat. Capsitla;, p. GO (1890). 

Jlorcias ? squalidus. 

Cfips!/!; squr/li(Ji(s, AValk. Cat. Ilet. vi. p. 110. n. 249 (1873). 
Rcstlicniu t^qualidus, Atkius. Cat. Capsid;e, p. 61 (1890). 

A single specimen represents the type, in bad condition 
}ind imjierfectly described. The '' piceous band on the hind 
border " of the pronotum does not extend on each side beyond 
the basal angles of the scntellum ; the corium is piceous 
red, with a broad subluteral stramineous fascia ; cuueus 
carmine-red. 

Jlorcias lacteiclavus, sp. n. 

Black ; pronotum (excluding basal margin), prosternum, 
rostrum, segmental incisures, and legs pale ochraceous ; 
clavus, margins of mesosternum, and three narrow marginal 
lines to abdomen lacteous white ; antennre black, annulalion 
1o first joint, base of second, and third (excluding apex) 
lacteous ; posterior femora with a small lacteous spot on 
upper surface near apex, posterior tibife with two lacteous 
nnnulations ; membrane pale fuscous ; sliining, glabrous, 
scutcllum distinctly tumid; head clongately subcoiiical. 

Long. 5 mm. 

JJdb. Ecuador: Cachaljc [Rusenhery^ Brit. Mus.). 

Jlorcias alhivenlrisj sp. n. 

Black ; head and pronotum (excluding basal margin) pale 
ochraceous; head beneath, sternum, coxoe, and abdomen 
lacteous wdiite ; intermediate legs ochraceous, tibiae with a 
broad, subapical, lacteous annulation, tarsi black ; anterior 
and posterior legs mutilated ; apical joint of antenna? lacteous; 
niendM-ane pale fuscous; apex of head piceous j scutclluiu 
distinctly tumid; body above shining, glabrous. 

Long. 6 mm. 

J lab. Ecuador: Chimbo (^Ruseuherg^ Brit. Mus.). 

Jlorcias signatus^ sp. n. 
I^lack ; liead, pronotum, scntelliini, ^ '^^nblat-'ial rlnMk and 



/// the British Museum and elsewhere. 201 

apical angle to corium, base and apex of cuneus, body beneath, 
and legs ocliraceous ; a central, discal, longitudinal spot and 
lateral angles of pronotuni_, lateral margins of abdomen beneath, 
spots to tibiffi, and the tarsi (excluding base) black; apical 
halves of femora testaceous, speckled with black ; basal joint of 
antenufe (excluding apex), central annulation to second joiur, 
and base of third joint ocliraceous; membrane pale fuscous, 
with a lacteous spot near margin of cuneus ; scutelluin nut 
prominently tumid ; body above shining, glabrous. 

Long. 5 mm. 

JIah. Colombia: Call (Brit. Mus.). 

Genus Cypiiodema. 
Cyphodema'2 Junodi, sp. n. 

Head ochraceous, eyes and antennae black ; pronotum 
ocliraceous, somewliat coarsely punctate, with a very large 
transverse, subbasal, black spot, which is angulatcly sinuate 
anteriorly ; scutellum pale stramineous, with a central longi- 
tudinal ocliraceous fascia; corium and clavus black, the first 
with a large central, marginal, pale stramineous spot; inner 
and apical margins of clavus, extreme lateral margin and apex 
of corium and the cuneus dark ochraceous ; membrane fuscous, 
black at basal angle ; body beneath black, legs ochraceous, 
bases of femora and apices of tibia? black; heraelytra very 
finely and obscurely pilose ; second joint of antennaj about 
three times the length of first ; eyes large and transverse. 

Long. 4^ mm. 

Jfal). ^I'ransvaal : Zoutpansberg {Junod, Brit. Mus.). 

A single specimen, agreeing generally with the characters 
and appearance of the genus Ci/phodema. 

Genus CAMrxOBROCiiiS. 

Camptobroc/n's Esau, sp. n. 

Shining black, somewhat longly greyishly pilose; head 
opaque, piceous, with a large testaceous spot at inner margin 
of each eye ; anterior and posterior margins of pronotum, a 
broad central fascia to scutellum (not reaching base), corium 
(excluding inner area and a submarginal punctate line), body 
beneath, antennae, rostrum, and legs pale dull ochraceous ; 
basal joint of antennae, apical halves of posterior femora, and 
bases of posterior tibice dull testaceous ; extreme base of first 
joint and apices of second and third joints of antenna and 
apices of the tarsi piceous ; antennae finely ])ilosc, first and 
second joints moderately thickened, second a little more than 
twice as lung as first ; piunutuin di.-:tinctly [luuctate', seiitcllum 



202 Mr. W. L. Distant on Ca))sida3 

and con'um a little more finely and obscurely punctate ; cuneus 
sanguineous, its outer area and apex black. 

Long. 5 mm. 

Hub. Transvaal : Zoutpansberg [Junod, Brit. Mus.). 

Camptohrochis capensis, sp. n. 

B,eddisli ochraceous ; head and scutellura black, the last 
with a central reddish-ochraceous fascia, which does not reach 
the base ; antennae, lateral margins of corium, tibiae, and tarsi 
pale ochraceous ; apices of tarsi black ; antennse somewhat 
slender, second joint more than twice the length of first ; 
pronotum distinctly punctatCj anterior and posterior margins 
narrowly ochraceous, the last linearly transversely black 
near lateral angles ; scutelluin and corium more finely and 
obscurely punctate than pronotum ; corium and clavus some- 
what longly pilose ; membrane fuscous, with paler mottlings. 

Long. 4 mm. 

Hab. Cape Colony : Grahamstown (Albany and Brit. 
Muss.). 

Division Bryocora ria. 
Genus Tenthecoris. 
Tenthecoris, Scott, Ent. Month. Mag. xxxiii. p. 65 (1886). 

Type, T. hicolor, Scott (Brit. Mus.). 

This genus is very closely allied to Eccrilotarsus^ Stal. It 
is described as an orchid pest, as is also Ecantotarsus exiti- 
osus, Dist., and E. orchidearum, Rent. T. bicolor is very 
closely allied by description to Renter's species ; Scott 
describes the first and second joints of the antennee as red, 
but in one of his typical specimens the apex of the first joint 
and the whole of the second joint are distinctly black. 

Division ? 



Genus Fundanius. 
Fundanius aUernus. 

Capsns aUernus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 111. n. 252 (1873). 
Mesthenia altei'nus, Atkins. Cat. Capsidae, p. 57 (1890). 



Division 



Genus Armachanus. 

Armachanus spicatus, sp. n. 

Uniform pale cinnamon-brown ; a discal, transverse, pale 

greyish line across apex of clavus, and an oblique line of the 

same colour crossing corium near middle ; a prominent black 



in the British Museum and elseichcre. 203 

marginal spot near middle of corium and a larger black spot 
to cunens; head with a long, porrect, anterior, central spine ; 
first joint of anfcennaj a little more than half the length of 
second ; pronotum strongly constricted and depressed before 
middle ; scutellum carinately tumid ; hemelytra obliquely 
depressed on each side, the sutures forming a central longi- 
tudinal carinate ridge ; posterior area of the corium before 
cuneus seniiglobose. 

Long. 5 mm. 

Hah. N.W. Australia : Adelaide River (/. /. Walker, 
Brit. Mus.). 

The genus Armachanus is described and its type figured in 
my second volume on the lihynchota of British India, whicii 
will shortly be published. The typical species was from 
Ceylon. 

Division Plagiognatharia. 
Dagbertus, gen. nov. 

Head somewhat large and subtriangular above, deflected 
anteriorly, where it is conically produced, and a little laterally 
compressed; eyes of moderate size, almost touching, but 
projecting a little beyond the anterior angles of the pronotum ; 
antennte slender, first joint about as long as head and stouter 
than the other joints, second about or a little more than twice 
the length of first, third and fourth slender, tomentose, third 
longer than fourth ; rostrum long, passing the posterior coxse ; 
pronotum trapezoidal, the posterior lateral angles slightly 
subacutely produced, posterior margin slightly convex and 
about twice as broad as anterior margin, lateral margins 
nearly straight; scutellum subtriangular, about as long as 
the pronotum ; hemelytra subhyaline, lateral margins almost 
parallel, a little rounded ; posterior femora moderately in- 
crassate, remaining legs mutilated in the types of the three 
representative species. 

This genus may be placed near Epi'scopuSj Rent. 

Dagbertus Darwini. 

Capms Darwini, Butl. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 89. 

Hob. Galapagos; Charles Island ( (7. Darmn, Brit. Mus.). 

Daghertus quadrinotatus. 

Capsiis quadrinotatus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 113. n. 256 (1873). 
Besthenia quadrinotatus, Atkins. Cat. Capsidoe, p. 61 (1890). 

Iiostrum passing the posterior coxk ; not ^' reaching "same, 
as described by Walker. 



204 Mr. AV. L. Distant on Capsidaj 

Dafjhertus ? spoliatus. 

Cnpsm spoliatus, Walk. Cat. Ilet. vi. p. 112. n. 254 (]873). 
JResiheyiia spoliatus, Atkins. Cat. Capsidee, p. 61 (1890). 

This species is represented in tlie National Collection l)y 
six very imperfect specimens. Exact generic identification 
is out of the question. 



Capsus ohscurellas, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 93. n. 154 (1873). 
Type in such a mutilated condition as to be undeterminable. 

MonaJonion divisum, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 163. n. 9 (1873). 

The type is headless. Probably represents an undescrlbed 
genus with affinities to the Neotropical Resthenia. 

Capsus mtambuUus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 127. n. 304 
(1873). 

In the four specimens representing this species there are 
contained three distinct genera ; but the specimens are all 
mutilated, the type cannot be fixed, and the species must be 
regarded as non-existent. 

Summarized Disposition of WaJkcr''s Genera and Species. 

Capsidae. 

Species considered valid and described under correct Geyiera. 

Monalonion braconoides, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 162 (1873). 
Eucerocoris braconoides, Walk. loc. cit. p. 164. 

■ basifer, Walk. loc. cit. 

Jlelopcltis niger, Walk. loc. cit. p. 165. 

Species considered valid, but requirintj generic revision, 

Lopus partilns,^Ya[k. Cat. Ilet. vi. p. o6 (1873), belongs to gen.Araspus, 
g. 11. 

aiistralis, Walk. loc. cit. p. 57, belongs to gen. Fantilius, Curtis. 

sordidus, Walk. loc. cit., „ Sabellicus, g. n. 

Capsus ijicisus, Walk. loc. cit. p. 92, „ Resthenia, Spin. 

coccineus. Walk. loc. cit. p. 93, „ Lomato2)lcura, Kent. 

• livibatellus, Walk. loc. cit., „ Paxilocapstis, Eeut. 

strigulatus, Walk. loc. cit. p. 94, ,, Camptobroc/tis, Fieb. 

Jilicornis, Walk. loc. cit. p. 96, „ Megaccelum, Fieb. 

marginatus, Walk. loc. cit., ,, roecilocapsus, Pieut. 

Jloridanus, Walk. loc. cit. p. 97, „ Lopidea, Uhier. 

• scitidus, Walk. loc. cit. p. 99, „ Lopidea, Uhler. 

opacus, Walk. loc. cit. p. 100, „ Calocoris, Fieb. 

■ Jaiiiaicen-sis. ^^"alk. Ivc. cif. p. 101, ,, R'sthenia, Spin. 



{» (lie Bi-itLsh Museum and elscwi/ere. 



205 



CiipnHs basalt's, AValk. Cat. Ilet. vi. p. 108 (1873), belongs to gen. lies 
thcnia, Spin. 
— tibialis, AN'alk. Ivc. cit. p. 100, Lclongs to gen. Sf/sinas, Dist. 



atrohiteus, Wr.lk. luc. cit., 

xatdhop/iilus, Walk. loc. cit. p. 110, 

s'jualidas, ^^'alk. loc. cit., 

iiiccrtus, AValk. loc. cit. p. Ill, 

obiimlratiis, ^^'alk. loc. cit., 

altentits, AN'alk. loc. cit., 

leprosus. Walk. luc. cit., 

sjMliatus, AValk. loc. cit. p. 112, 

qiiadrinotatus, AValk. loc. cit. p. 113, 

sobrius. Walk. loc. cit. p. 115, 

illcpidus, Walk. loc. cit., 

solitus, Walk. loc. cit. p. 110, 

pallidulus, Walk. loc. cit., 

■ con<!/)C'rsus, AValk. loc. cit., 

stiff'tisHs, Walk. luc. cir. p. 117, 

sericciis, Walk. loc. cit., 

partita.^!, AValk. loc. cit. p. 

straniiiious, Walk. loc. cit. 

patulus, Walk. loc. cit., 

sinicHs, Walk. loc. cit., 

vicarius, AValk. loc. cit. p. 

incisuratiis, AValk. loc. cit. 

fasciatus, AValk. loc. cit. p. \22, 

■ discoidalis, AN'alk. loc. cit., 

apicifcr. Walk. loc. (it. p. 124, 

lucidi(s, \\'nllc. loc. cit., 

simula/is, AValk. loc. cit. p. 12-3, 

tristis, Walk. loc. cit., 

■ an(/ulifcr, AValk. loc. cit. p. 126, 

— — jnctulifer, \\'alk. loc. cit.. 



110, 
p. 120, 

121, 



Jit'sthoiia, Spin. 
MoiKiIunion, llerr.- 

ScbiilK 
Horcias, Uist. ? 
Mcyacadum, Fieb. 
Ilorcias, Dist. 
Fundatiiw^, Dist. 
I'aracalocoris, lY.^t. 
J)(i(/hcrtus, g. n. 
2)(i(jbertus, g. n. 
Furacalocoris, Dist. 
Li/f/as, Ilalin. 
I'a'cilusci/tMS, Fieb. 
Jji/f/iis, llaliu. 
Ly(jiis, Ilabu '^ 
Lyyus, Hahn. 
I'tirucalocoris, Dist. 
Liocoris, Fieb. 
J\Ie(jaccclum, Fieb. 
Dcrccocoris, Kirschb. 
Mef/acceliiin, Fieb. 
liliinomiris, Ki rk. 
Ar(/enis, g. n. 
Displiinctus, StSl. 
Malaropeplas, Kirk. 
Subellicus, g. n. 
Kosniiomiris, Kirk. 
Bothriom iris, Ki rlt. 
Sutuiniontiris, Kirk, 
Mcfjacadum, Fieb. 
Zaticssa, Kirk. 
Culocoris, Fieb. 
14G, belongs to gen. Li/ffus, 



laticinctus, AValk. loc. cit. p. 127, 
Leptomerocoris viaoricus, A^'alk. loc. cit. 

Hahn. 
Monalonion poUtum, A\'alk. loc. cit. p. 1G3, belongs to gen. Displiinctus, 

Stal. 
divistnn, A\'alk. loc. cit., belongs to gen. ? (type beadltss). 



Species treated as sijnonymic. 

Capsns .raid/ioiiiclas,\Y i\\k. Cat. Ilet. vi. p. 02 {1873}, = L'csihoiia insi/ira, 
Say. 

/iinsuttihs, A^ alk. loc. cit. p. 9'), = Xeurocolptts nuht.'h-s, Say. 

conti(/i/us, W'alk. loc. cit.,= Calocon's norvef/icus, (Jniel. 

straniiiicH<, \\'a!k. loc. cit. p. i)('},= Calororis norcci/ictts, Gmel. 

decoratus, W^alk. loc. cit. p. 100, = Pa'ci/ocapsus ornatulus. Slab 

bicinctus, Walk. loc. cit., = Bcstheiiia ornnticollis, Stal. 

cinctipes, AValk. /oc. cit. p. 10^), = Ilorcias Sii/norefi, Still. 

innotutus. Walk. loc. cit. p. \\i:S, = Lipids austrutis, Dist., nom. n. 

liinbatiis, W^ilk. loc. cit. y. M7, = Li/f/Ns at/iiop.-', Dist., noni. n. 

canesccns, AValk. loc. cit. p. \-l\, = htiiiio)>iiris ricarius. Walk. 

liiirifpr, AValk. loc. cit. ]>. \'J'J. = IIi/alo/)cpliis vitripeiinis, Stal. 

ii.'tiilat !/.■<. \\':\]\i. lor. cit. 1). \-2^.-C<ilocoris laticinctus. AValk. 



206 Mr. 0. Thomas on new Bats from 

Leptomerocoris antennatus, Walk. he. cit. p. li5, = Sabellicus sordidus, 

Walk. 
Helopeltis lracon{for7nis, Walk. he. cit. p. 165, = Hehpeltis {Dulichius) 

clavifer, Walk. 

To he treated as 7ion-existent. 

Types h'vken, undeterminable. 

Capsus obscurellus, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 93 (1873). 
iniaminatus, Walk. loo. cit. p. 127. 

Species the types of which are not now to be found in the British Museum, 

Capsus frontifer, Walk. Cat. Het. vi. p. 94 (1873). 

pallescens, Walk. he. cit. 

nigritulus, Walk. he. cit. p. 112. 

se^niclusus, Walk. he. cit. p. 118. 

siibirroi'atus, Walk. he. cit. p. 119. 

maryinicollis, Walk. he. cit. p. 128. 

Leptomerocoris simplex, Walk, he. cit. p, 145. 
Monahcoris hipunctipennis. Walk. he. cit. p. 159. 
Monalonion ichneumonoides, Walk. loc. cit. p. 162. 



XXII. — New Bats from British East Africa collected hy Mrs. 
Hinde, and from the Cameroons hy Mr. G. L. Bates. By 
Oldfield Thomas. 

The British Museum owes to the kindness of Mrs. Hinde, 
wife of Dr. S. L. Hinde, of Fort Hall, British East Africa, 
a further collection of bats, and these include three well- 
niarked new forms, which I have described below, in con- 
junction with two others obtained bj Mr. G. L. Bates in 
West Africa. 

The new Myotis from Fort Hall, which I have named in 
honour of its captor, is an especially noticeable discovery. 

Pipistrellus crassiilus, sp. n. 

A medium-sized species with disproportionally short fore- 
arms. 

General build thick and heavy. Muzzle broad, swollen. 
Ears short, laid forward they do not nearly reach to the tip 
of the muzzle ; inner margin straight below, convex above ; 
tip evenly and broadly rounded ; outer margin straight 
above, slightly convex below ; basal lobe small, rounded. 
Tragus of medium length, its greatest breadth opposite its 



British East Africa and the Cameroons. 207 

inner base; inner margin straight, tip rounrled, outer margin 
gently convex, ending below in a small basal lobule. Thumbs 
short, with thickened but not enlarged basal pad. Wings from 
the base of the toes. Calcars about equal in length to the 
free border of the uropatagium ; postcalcareal lobules distinct 
but narrow. Tail involved iti membrane almost to the tip. 
Penis very long, slender. 

Fur 3'5-40 mm. long on back. Uniformly dusky browti 
above, scarcely paler below. Membranes blackish brown 
throughout, without any trace of white margins. 

Skull broad, stout and flattened, conspicuously broader and 
lieavier, especially anteriorly, than in P. pipistrellus, which 
has a much longer forearm. Upper profile straight, tlie 
frontal region not inflated. 

Inner upper incisors very thick, bifid ; the postero-external 
cusp nearly as long as the main one ; outer incisor slender, 
unicuspid, reaching about halfway from the cingulum to the 
tip of the inner tooth. Small upper premolar in the inner 
angle between the canine and large premolar, which touch 
one another outside it ; not visible from without. Lower 
incisors broad, bifid. First lower premolar about three 
fourths the height of the second. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in spirit) : — 

Foiearm 28 mm. 

Head and body 47; tail 27; ear 10; tragus on inner 
edge 3*5 ; thumb, free of membrane (c. u.) 4 ; third finger, 
metacarpus 26, 1st phalanx 9, 2nd phalaiiX 8*8 ; fitth finger 
37 ; lower leg 12 ; hind foot, from back of calcar (c. u.) 7 ; 
penis 11. 

Skull: greatest length 12*7; mastoid breadth 7"7. 

Hah. Efulen, Cameroons. 

Type. Adult male. Collected by G. L. Bates. One 
specimen. 

This bat, with the short forearm of such pigmy species as 
ripistrelliis Stampflii and minusculus, has a very much laro-er 
body and head. The breadth and flatness of the skull are 
particularly noticeable. 

Scotophilus nigrita colzas, subsp. n. 

A richly yellow (almost orange) bellied race of S. nigrita. 

General characters as in this species, which is Dobson's 
" S. borbom'cus." Fur long, rather shaggy ; hairs of back 
8-9 mm. in length. General colour above (of the tips of the 
hairs) olivaceous, but the bases of the hairs are a dull sulphur- 
yellow, which shows through on the upper surface. Below 



208 ^Ii'. O. Tliomas on new Bats from 

the central line is a rich chrome-yellow, deepening laterally 
on the sides of the belly to a golden yellow^ which is especially 
bright on the broad band of fur extending on the wing- 
nienibrane between the elbows and knees. 

Dimensions of the type: — 

Forearm 55 mm. (57 in a second specimen). 

Skull : greatest lengtli 20"5 ; zygomatic breadth 145 ; 
cheek-tooth series 5'7. 

JIah. Fort Hall, Kenya District, British East Africa. 

Type. Male. B.M. n"o. 2. 7. 6. 11. Original number 107. 
Colhcted 25th Jan., 1902, and presented by Mrs. Hinde. 

The bats referable to S. nigrita seem divisible by colour 
into several geographical subspecies, of which S. n. Dingjni, 
►"^mith, would be theCape one, and/S. n. leucogaster, Cretzschm., 
the Abyssinian. Specimens representing the true Senegalese 
S. nigrita and the Mozambique forms described by Peters 
are still wanting to the ]\Iuseuni Collection. 

From any member of the group as yet described »S'. n.colias 
seems readily distinguishable by its brilliantly yellow under 
surface. 

Scotoj^hilus nigrita mix, subsp. n. 

A chestnut-broAvn subspecies of S. nigrita. 

General characters of the smaller forms of the widely 
distributed *S'. nigrita. Fur short, close and line; hairs of 
lack about 5 mm. in length. Colour above uniform chestnut- 
brown, or " burnt umber •" (Ridgway), the bases of the hairs 
slightly ])aler than the tips; very different therefore from the 
other pale brown or olivaceous representatives of the species. 
Under surface a rather lighter brown, approaching "russet'" 
(Ridgway), the other forms being all yellowish or whitish 
below. Fur of body scarcely extending on thewing-membranes 
below. 

Dimensionsofthe \y\ e (measuredinspiritb.foreskinning): — 

Forearm 55 mm. 

Head and body 70 ; tail 47 ; ear 15. 

Skull : greatest length 20*5 ; zygomatic breadth 14'7 ; 
upper cheek-tooth series 5"8. 

Tlab. Ffulen, Cameroons. 

Tiipe. Adult male. B.M. no. 3. 2. 4. 5. Collected by 
Mr.G. L. Bates. 

Although conspicuously different in colour from any of 
the known forms of S. nigrita, this bat so clearly represents 
that species in the West-African forest country that for the 
J resent 1 prefer to give it only subspccitic rank. 



British East Africa and the Cameroons. 209 

My Otis Hildegardew, sp. n. 

A beautiful and brightly coloured species allied to 
M. Bocagei. 

Size medium. Ears small, narrow ; inner margin evenly 
convex, tip very narrowly rounded, outer margin concave 
above, convex below, a marked angular antitragal lobule at the 
outer base thickly covered witli fur. Tragus rather short, its 
inner margin slightly but evenly convex, its greatest breadth 
opposite the lower third of its inner margin, whence it slopes 
evenly to the narrow but not sharply pointed tip ; basal lobe 
large, rounded. Feet large ; wings to the metatarsi ; calcars 
long, reaching nearly three-fourths towards the tip of the tail 
and ending in a distinct lobule. 

Fur soft, thick and fine ; hairs of back about 5-6 mm. in 
length. Wing-membranes naked, except for a few hairs on 
the under surface between the humeri and the flanks. Inter- 
femoral furry above at the base, a narrow band passing 
outwards behind the legs nearly halfway down the tibiaj. Top 
of toes hairy. 

General colour of upper surface bright " tawny-ochraceous," 
the head rather paler than the back. Individually the hairs 
are blackish brown for about 2 mm. at their bases, then pale 
tawny, darkening to their tips. Below the general colour is 
" pinkish -buff ,'^ the hairs blackish at their bases. Membranes 
dark throughout, contrasting strikingly with the bright 
colour of the body. 

Skull considerably larger than in M. Bocagei, broader and 
lower than in M. Goudoti. Small upper premolars in the 
tooth-row, subequal in horizontal section, and less unequal in 
height than usual. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in skin) : — 
Forearm 37 mm. 

Head and body (c.) 53 ; tail 37 ; ear (dry) 13 ; tragus on 
inner edge (dry) 4*6 ; thumb clear of membrane 5 ; third 
finger, metacarpus 35, 1st phalanx 15'5, 2nd phalanx 10*7 ; 
fifth finger 53 ; tibia 17 ; foot from back of calcar (c. u.) 9*8 ; 
calcar 17. 

Skull: greatest length 15*2 ; basal length 11"3; breadth 
of brain-case 8; front of canine to back of ??i' 5'7. 
Hah. Fort Hall, Kenya District. Alt. 4000 feet. 
Type. Male. B.M. no. 3. 3. 2. 2. Original number 115. 
Collected 17th Oct., 1902, by Mrs. Hinde. Two specimens. 

This very beautiful bat I have much pleasure in naming in 
honour of its discoverer Mrs. Hildegarde Hinde, to whom 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. 14 



210 On new Bats from British East Africa, &c, 

the British Museum is indebted for so many interesting 
Chiroptera and Kodentia. 

M. Hildegardem is readily distinguishable from any of its 
allies by its striking coloration, as it is far brighter in tone 
than either il/. Bocagei ox M. Goudoti, the species most similar 
to it. 

JSyctinomus Ilindei, sp. n. 

A whitish-winged member of the N. pumilus group. 

Essential characters of ears, tragus, skull, &c., apparently 
as in N. limbatus, Peters. A marked tuft of brown hairs 
behind the joining membrane of the ears. 

Colour of upper surface chocolate-brown, finely flecked 
with white ; tiie bases of the hairs (which attain about 
4-4*5 mm. in length) rather lighter. Under surface brown, 
more or less washed superficially with whitish, especially 
along the middle line of the belly ; a creamy white line 
edging the junction of the wings with the flanks. Ears, 
forearms, hind limbs, and interfemoral membrane dark brown. 
Wing-membranes near the body whitish brown, paling to 
white on the middle part of the wing, and darkening again 
at the tips to brown. 

Skull about as in N. Emini, though with less marked pre- 
orbital processes. Small upper premolar outside the middle 
line of tooth-row, less crushed than in limhatus, more so than 
in Emini. Middle lower incisors deeply bifid. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in skin) : — 

Forearm 40 mm. 

Head and body (c.) 61 ; tail 35; thumb close to membrane 
6; third finger, metacarpal 39, 1st phalanx 15*5; fifth 
finger 39. 

Skull : greatest length 17"6 ; basal length 14'6 ; zygomatic 
breadth 11'4 ; front of canine to back of m^ 6"7. 

Hab. Fort Hall, Mt. Kenya district, British East Africa. 
Alt. 4000 feet. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 3. 3. 2. 4. Original number 
134. Collected 1st Jan., 1903, and presented by Mrs. Hinde. 
Two specimens. 

This Nyctinomus is most closely related to N. Emini, 
de Wint., of Usambiro, German E. Africa *, but differs by 
its whitish wings and more closely crushed upper premolars. 

• Not Mosambiro, as accidentally printed in the original description, 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) vii. p. 41 (1901). 



On neio ITymenojjtera from Northern India. 211 



XXIII. — Descriptions of new Species of Aculeate and 
Parasitic Hymenoptera from Northern India. By P. 
Cameron. 

Apidse. 
Nomia piloseUa, sp. n. 

Black ; the liead^ thorax^ base of abdomen, and legs 
densely covered with longish white pubescence ; the second, 
third, fourth, and fifth segments with emerald-coloured 
smooth bands ; postscutellum with two stout longish black 
spines; metanotal area stoutly closely striated. Wings 
hyaline, the apex infuscated ; tegulae black, pale round the 
outer border. Face and clypeus not very strongly keeled 
down the middle. Hind femora roundly dilated above, the 
basal slope longer and not so long as the apical ; the hind 
tibiae become gradually wider towards the apex and rounded 
on the outer side ; on the inner side the basal two thirds is 
straight, only slightly roundly dilated ; the apex is broadly 
bluntly roundly dilated, somewhat as in A^. Westwoodi, but 
the femora are much thicker, more dilated in the centre 
above, the basal and apical slopes are straight, oblique, 
whereas in Westwoodi the femora above have a gradually 
rounded curve from the base to the apex ; in the present 
species they are shaped more as in N. Elliotii as figured by 
Smith (Trans. Ent. Soc. 1875, pi. i. fig. 7), but not by 
Bingham [' Fauna of Brit. India,^ i. p. 449). The pubescence 
on the present species is much longer and denser than in 
Elliotii, which has the base of the metanotum " finely punc- 
tured," and there is a green band on the first abdominal 
segment ; the present species has no baud on it and the base 
of the metanotum is stoutly reticulated ; also it is much 
more densely pilose. 

Hab. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Habropoda fulvipes, sp. n. 

Black ; the basal two segments of the abdomen rufo- 
fulvous, the lower inner orbits, a dagger-shaped mark (the 
" handle " above) on the centre of the face and clypeus, apex 
of clypeus, labrum, and basal half of mandibles pale yellow; 
the hair on the front of the head darker, behind paler coloured 
than it is on the thorax; antennae dark brownish; legs 

14* 



212 Mv. P. Cameron on new 

fiilvous, with paler hair. Wings hyaline, slightly tinged 
with fulvous ; the nervures and stigma black. ? . 

Length 14 mm. 

Hub. Khasia HiJls, Coll. Eothney. 

Clypeus punctured ; in its centre a stout keel which 
reaches near to the apex ; the face tuberculate in the middle, 
its apex and that of the labrum mai'gined ; on the centre of 
the face at the apex is a broadly triangular yellow-fulvous 
mark ; on either side of the top of the labrum is a brownish 
mark, with two projections, the inner of which is raised. 
There is a dark brownish plate on the outer side of the base 
of the hind tibise, which is longer than broad, shield-shaped, 
roundly narrowed towards the apex, and with the outer edges 
raised. Basal four abdominal segments fringed with pale 
fulvous hair, the apical with longer black hair all over ; the 
pygidium bare, with the sides broadly depressed on the apical 
half. Vertex smooth and shining, the front punctured, with 
a narrow keel down the centre. 

What 1 suppose is the male has the head black, except the 
clypeus, which is pale yellowish testaceous ; the lower part of 
the front and the sides of the clypeus thickly covered with 
depressed fulvous pubescence, as is also the greater part of 
the thorax ; the abdomen above is black except the base and 
apices of the basal two segments broadly, and the ventral 
surface, which are honey- coloured ; the legs are similarly 
coloured, except that the coxse, trochanters, femora, and hind 
tibise are black above ; the hind femora become gradually 
roundly dilated from the base to the apex ; the hind tibiae 
curved, not swollen. Clypeus margined laterally, not very 
convex, its apex transverse, margined narrowly on the inner 
edge. Antennae entirely black. The wings are more clear 
hyaline than in the female, and the nervures and stigma are 
lighter coloured. 

Compared with Bingham's figure of H. Magrettii the male 
of the present species has the thorax only very slightly haired 
and the hind femora are not at all so strongly dilated ; its 
abdomen, too, is longer and narrower. It (the male) appears 
to be much more slenderly built than any species of Habro- 
poda I have seen, is much le^s hairy, and has a much longer 
malar space, the eyes being widely distant from the base of 
the mandibles. The third joint of the antennae is swollen, 
not narrowed at the base, and is hardly so long as the 
fourth, whereas in what I take to be the male of H. Radosz- 
howskii it is clearly longer and distinctly narrowed at the 
base. In neither the female nor the male of my sjjecies is 
the second recurrent nervure interstitial. Tl>e Indian species 



Ilymenoptera from Northevn India. 213 

of Habropoda can hardly be looked upon as typical of the 
gen VIS. Possibly my male represents a distinct species. It 
certainly appears to be too slender for the female^ comparing 
it with the males of other species of the genus and their 
females. 

Coelioxys cariniscutis, sp. n. 

This species is very similar to C. khasiana, with which it 
agrees in size, form, and coloration, including the fulvous 
])ubcscence on the underside of the tarsi, but it differs in the 
clypeus being keeled down the centre, in the sides of the 
scutellum being deeply furrowed, with the outer edge raised ; 
the lateral teeth are stouter, depressed in the centre, become 
narrowed gradually to the apex, which is rounded and not 
depressed ; the prouotum at the base projects into a large 
plate, which becomes gradually narrowed outwardly, forming 
a triangle of which the upper side is longer than the lower. 
There are eight teeth on the apical segment, two basal and 
six apical ; the upper central pair are the shorter ; the space 
behind them is depressed, the base of the depression with an 
oblique slope and shallower than it is at the apex ; the apical 
lower pair of teeth are much longer and stouter than the 
others ; the apices of the third, fourth, and fifth segments 
are less closely punctured than the rest; there is an oblique 
furrow on the sides of the second near the base and an 
oblique depression on the sides of the fifth near the base ; 
the ocellar region has some smooth spaces at the sides and 
behind the ocelli ; the lateral teeth of the scutellum are not 
bent downwards as in khasiana and basalis; the wings are 
fuscous violaceous to the transverse basal nervure. ^ . 

Length 11-12 mm. 

Hub. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Coelioxijs khasiana, sp. n. 

Black ; clypeus, face, lower part of the vertex broadly on 
the sides, pleurae, metanotum, and the apices of the abdo- 
minal segments narrowly covered with white pubescence, the 
rest of the head and thorax with short white pubescence ; 
wings bright dark fuscous violaceous, highly iridescent, the 
nervures and stigma black. ? . 

Length 11-12 mm. 

Hub. Khasia Hills. Coll. llothney. 

Vertex covered with large, deep, round punctures, which 
are much more widely separated at the sitles of the ocelli ; 
the raised central part of the front more coarsely punctured, 



214 Mr. P. Cameron on neio 

almost reticulated ; its sides more closely and less coarsely 
punctured ; face and clypeus closely irregularly punctured ; 
the liair fringing the apex of the clypeus has a fulvous 
tinge. Mandibles to near the apex coarsely punctured, 
the punctures longish. Pro- and mesothorax closely covered 
with large deep punctures, which are small on the base of 
the mesonotum. Apex of scutellum broadly rounded ; the 
lateral teeth large, almost smooth, curved down slightly at 
the apex. Median segment and apex of mesopleurse smooth. 
Abdomen sparsely but distinctly punctured ; the apex of the 
last segment closely rugosely punctured, the centre raised, 
smooth, the sides obliquely depressed ; the apex becomes 
gradually narrowed to a point ; the apical ventral segment 
becomes gradually narrowed and projects largely beyond the 
upper. Legs covered with white pubescence ; the tar^i 
below with longish stiff fulvous hair. 
Comes near to C. basalts, Sm. 



Nomia Rothneyi, sp. n. 

Black ; an interrupted band of white pubescence on the 
apex of the first abdominal segment ; a broad smooth white 
band on the apices of the second, third, and fourth segments ; 
flagellum of antennae brownish beneath ; wings hyaline, the 
stigma testaceous, the nervures darker coloured. $ . 
Length 7 mm. 
Hab. Mussoorie [RotJmey). 

Face broadly roundly raised in the middle ; clypeus 
opaque, with clearly separated scattered punctures, its apex 
transverse; front and vertex closely punctured; an im- 
pressed line on the centre of the upper three fourths of the 
front ; the sides of face, of the front, and the outer orbits 
thickly covered with white pubescence. Thorax closely 
punctured; the sides and apex of the mesonotum and the 
postscutellum thickly covered with grey pubescence. Basal 
area of metanotum large, clearly defined, strongly trans- 
versely striated ; the striae distinctly separated ; the narrowed 
basal inner edges obliquely striated. Pleura3, sternum, and 
legs densely covei'ed with long cinereous pubescence. Abdo- 
men smooth and shining; there is a transverse, curved, 
impressed line behind the white band on the third and fourth 
segments ; the apical two segments are brown. 

This species cannot well be confounded with any of the 
described white-banded species of Paranoinia. 



Uymencptera from Northern India. 215 

Nomia interrupt a, sp. n. 

Blac k ; a narrow line of pale green on either side of the 
apex of the second abdominal segment, the tibiae rufous ; 
the pleurae densely covered with long fulvous pubescence, 
the mesonotura more sparsely with shorter black, the cheeks 
with pale fulvous, the face and clypeus with fulvous pubes- 
cence. Flagellum of antennae for the greater part rufo- 
testaceous. Wings hyaline, slightly tinged with fulvous. 
Face and clypeus stoutly keeled down the centre. ? . 

Li^ngth 18 mm. 

Hah. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Face distinctly projecting in the middle, the projection 
with an oblique slope, almost smooth ; the clypeus distinctly 
sparsely punctured ; the central keel on the two is con- 
tinuous. Clypeus roundly coua^cx, its apex broadly roundly. 
Front and vertex sparsely indistinctly punctured. Meso- 
notuiu closely and distinctly punctured, the scutellum as 
closely but not so strongly. Basal area of metanotum closely, 
strongly, irregularly transversely striated. Tegulse rufo- 
testaceous. Back of abdomen minutely punctured, except at 
the apex of the segments ; the scopa bright rufous. Hair 
on legs long, fulvous, glistening on the tibiae and tarsi. 

A distinct species, easily known by the single, interrupted, 
smooth, greenish band on the second abdominal segment, 
strongly keeled face and clypeus, and the four rufous front 
tibiae. 

Nomia tuberculata, sp. n. 

Black ; the pubescence on the head, thorax, and underside 
of the abdomen pale fulvous ; the base of the first abdominal 
segment thickly covered with fulvous pubescence, the rest of 
the pubescence on the back short, sparse ; the apices of the 
basal three segments broadly smooth and shining. Face 
roundly dilated in the centre, almost smooth ; the clypeus 
broadly depressed in the middle, the sides roundly dilated, 
smooth and shining, bearing some large punctures; the top 
in the centre keeled, the apex is transverse, clearly separated. 
Wings hyaline, the apex with a fuscous cloud ; stigma and 
nervures testaceous. ? . 

Length 13 mm. 

Hub. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Face, front, and vertex sparsely punctured, the face in the 
centre smooth. Postscutellum thickly covered with fulvous 
pubescence. Median segment smooth and shining, its basal 



216 Mr. P. Cameron on new 

area not defined, its sides with a few keels. Teoulse testa- 
ceous. The hair on the legs is long, dense, and fulvous, the 
spurs dark rufous. 

Characteristic of this species is the fact that the raised 
centre of the face and the sides of the clypeus form three 
large tubercles. In Bingham's arrangement {' Fauna of 
Erit. India/ Hym. i. p. 459) it comes near N. terminata, Sra. 

Meyachile khasiana, sp. n. 

The pubescence on the head, thorax, and base of abdomen 
dense, fulvous, on the rest of the back of abdomen and on 
the apex of ventral surface black ; on the base the ventral 
scopa black ; legs covered with cinereous pubescence ; the 
pubescence on the underside of the base of four front tarsi 
rufous, on the hinder black ; wings fuscous violaceous, the 
base more hyaline^ paler. ? . 

Length 13 ram. 

Hab. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Face and clypeus strongly but not closely punctured, the 
pubescence on them paler and sparser than on the front. 
Mandibles widely furrowed along the outer edge ; tlie apical 
part bordered by a narrow curved furrow, the central with 
some irregular furrows, of which the apical is the wider and 
deeper; the apical tooth is long and stout, rounded at the 
apex, the second is broader and shorter and becomes 
gradually narrowed to the apex, which is rounded; the rest 
is broadly bluntly rounded and toothless. Abdomen opaque, 
closely pimctured ; the basal three segments have transverse 
furrows near the middle, the apex of the third is more widely 
depressed. Calcaria testaceous ; metatarsus nearly as wide 
as the tibise ; apex of clypeus transverse. 

Of the Indian species this comes nearest to M. vmbripennis, 
Sm., recorded by Smith from Borneo and Nepaul and by 
Bingham from Sikhim and Tenasserim. The number of 
mandibular teeth is not given by Bingham, but Smith states 
(Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus. i. p. 175) that they have four stout 
teeth, so his species is readily separated from M. khasiana. 

FOSSORES. 

Trypoxylon placidum, sp. n. 

Black; the antennal scape, face, and clypeus thickly 
covered with silvery pubescence, the pleurse, sternum, and 
median segment with longish white hair, the ])ro- and 



Ilijincnoptera from Northern India. 217 

mesonotura tliickly with long fuscous hair, the legs sparsely 
with white pubescence. Wings hyaline, the apex smoky, 
nervures and stigma black. Apical joint of antennae 
thickened, nearly twice the length of the preceding two 
joints united. Front alutaceous, indistinctly furrowed in 
the centre ; vertex opaque, finely, not very distinctly punc- 
tured. Clypeus not carinate in the middle, its apex broadly 
rounded, raised, smooth. Palpi pallid testaceous, black at 
the base. The apex of metanotum has an oblique slope ; 
the basal furrow extends from the base to the apex, becomes 
gradually wider, is shallow and finely transversely striated ; 
the furrow on apical slope wide, deep on the basal half, 
V-shaped ; the apical third of the segment is somewhat 
coarselj' transversely striated. Abdominal petiole narrow, 
with only the apex dilated ; it is as long as the succeeding 
three segments united, its apex distinctly clavate. ? ^ . 

Length 13 mm. 

Hab. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Trypoxylon fulvucullare, sp. n. 

Black ; the basal five or six joints of the antennae fulvous, 
the scape thickly covered with white hair, the flagellum with 
shorter blackish pubescence ; clypeus and mandibles rufous, 
palpi pale testaceous ; the apex ef pronotum and tubercles 
fulvous ; the base and sides of the first abdominal segment 
and the base of the second and third segments broadly rufo- 
testaceous. Apex of fore coxae, trochanters, femora, tibiae, 
and tarsi fulvous, the femora of a deeper hue, the apex of 
the middle femora, the middle tibise and base of tarsi, and 
the base of the hinder tibiae pale testaceous. Wings hyaline, 
with a slight fulvous tinge, the costa and stigma fulvous, 
the latter lighter in tint ; the radius and cubitus testaceous. 
Face, eye-incision, outer orbits and the base, sides and apex 
of mesonotum thickly covered with golden pubescence ; the 
scutellum with short fuscous, the postscutellum with longer 
fulvous hair ; the pleurae and sternum with short pale fulvous 
pubescence. Front and vertex sparsely punctured, the 
former above with a wide and shallow furrow ; the lower 
half triangularly keeled. On the apex of the basal half of 
the median segment is an elongated fovea ; the apical half 
deeply furrowed in the middle. The apical third of the 
petiole dilated. 

Comes nearest to T. color utum, Sra. ; that species has only 
a small tubercle above the base of the antennae, while in the 
present species there is not a tubercle, but a long stout 



218 ISlv. P. Cameron on new 

keel. There is no lateral furrow on tlie base of tlie median 
segment. $ . 

Length 17-18 mm. 

Hab. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Trypoxylon khasia, sp. n. 

One of the larger species. In size comes near to T. colo- 
ratum, which differs in having the pubescence golden. In 
Bingham's table (' Fauna of Brit. India/ Hym. i. p. 221) it 
comes into B, except as regards the size and Z*^. " Abdomen 
red, basal segment only black.'' 

Black ; apex of clypeus testaceous ; mandibles yellow, their 
teeth black ; palpi yellow ; scape and base of flagellum of 
antennse pale yellow, the rest black, brownish beneath j the 
base and sides of mesonotum with a distinct fulvous-yellow 
band ; tubercles yellow, except at the base, and fringed with 
silvery hair; abdomen rufo-testaceous, the petiole black, 
except at the apex, the black there being triangularly incised 
in the middle. Four front legs yellowish, the femora of a 
more testaceous hue, the base of all the coxte black ; the 
hind femora black, running into testaceous towards the 
middle; the hinder tibise yellowish beneath, flavo-testaceous 
above, blackish towards the apex, the tarsi blackish, the 
apices of all the joints testaceous. Wings hyaline, the stigma 
testaceous. The clypeus, orbits, and eye-incision densely 
covered with silvery pubescence; the front obscurely punc- 
tured ; a narrow furrow runs from the ocelli. Thorax 
densely pilose, the pile fuscous on the mesonotum, longer 
and more silvery on the sides ; the sides and apex of median 
segment thickly covered with pale hair ; at its base in the 
middle is an elongated somewhat pear-shaped depression ; 
the apex is dee[ ly and widely furrowed and densely covered 
with long white hair. The greater part of the pleurte covered 
with silvery pubescence. 

Length ^0 mm. 

Hab. Khasia Hills. Coll. Bothney. 

Trypoxylo7i orientale, sp. n. 

Antonnse black, distinctly thickened towards the apex, the 
scape thickly covered with long white hair ; flagellum bare. 
Face, lower part of eye-incision, and clypeus thickly covered 
with silvery pubescence ; front and vertex opaque, covered 
with long fuscous hair. Palpi pale testaceous. Thorax 
thickly coi^ered with pale hair. Median segment short, its 
aj[)cx with an oblique slope ; on the base is a striated depres- 



Ilymeiioptera from Noi-iliern India. 219 

sioBj -wliich becomes gradually wider towards the apex and is 
moderately deep ; there is a smooth, narrower, oblique 
furrow on the sides. Legs black, pilose, the hair on the 
femora longer. Wings clear hyaline, the sides of the dilated 
apex of the petiole and the base and sides of the second 
segment rufous ; the petiole long and slender, as long as the 
following three segments united. $ . 

Length 22 mm. 

Hub. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Psen rufo-balteata, sp. n. 

Black ; the apex of the second abdominal segment and 
the whole of the third rufous ; the fifth and following joints 
of the antennae testaceous beneath. Legs thickly covered 
with white hair ; the spurs pale rufous. Wings clear hyaline ; 
the first cubital cellule in front is half the length of the 
second, the first recurrent nervure is received very near tiie 
first transverse cubital, the second at twice the distance from 
the second transverse cubital. $ . 

Length 5 mm. 

Hab. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Antennje stout, thickened towards the apex; the scape 
beneath spai'sely covered with long black hair. Face and 
clypeus thickly covered with silvery pubescence ; the front 
and vertex almost bare, sparsely punctured ; the eyes almost 
parallel ; the ocelli in pits ; the front with a shallow central 
furrow ; antennal tubercle large, the apex triangular, its 
sides distinctly margined, the middle depressed ; below this 
is a larger broader one, roundly incised at the apex, the sides 
rounded. Pro- and mesothorax shining, sparsely covered 
with white hair ; the mesouotum distinctly but not closely 
punctured ; the scutellums with a few fine punctures. Area 
on the base of metanotum narrow, elongate, and marked 
with stout strise ; the central furrow is wide and deep, 
becoming slightly wider towards the apex, and marked with 
a few stout striae; on either side of it at the apex is a large 
leaf-hke expansion, its apex transverse, on the outer side 
covered with long liair ; at its base is a small rounded pro- 
jection. Pro- and mesoplenree finely and sparsely punctured ; 
below the mesopleural tubercles is a wide, deep, slightly 
oblique furrow, marked with some transverse keels ; there 
is a smooth furrow near the base of the metapleurte : the 
apex of the latter is rugose and is marked with some trans- 
verse keels. 

Comes near to P. nifictnlris, but is quite distinct 
therefrom. 



220 IMr. P. Cameron on new 



Ichneumonidae. 



Suvalta annulipes, sp. n. 

Agrees with S. lavifrons in having the front and vertex 
smooth, but is smaller, lias two yellow marks on the meso- 
notum, the scntellum yellow from base to apex, not yellow 
on the basal half only ; the mark on the mesopleurse is 
smaller, and there is none on the metapleurse ; the black on 
hind femora broader, reaching to the middle; the hind coxse 
are yellow at the base, not broadly in the middle, and the 
hind trochanters yellow, not black. 

The ninth to twenty-second joints of antennse yellowish 
w'hite below; the flagcllum thickly covered with black short 
hair ; scape shining, spai'sely pilose. Face, clypeus (except 
at apex), labrum, mandibles, palpi, apical two thirds of 
scutellum, a large somewhat triangular mark on the sides of 
the first abdominal segment at the apex, the other segments 
broadly at the sides, and the apical almost entirely, yellow. 
Four front legs fulvous, j^ellow at the base, the end joint of 
tarsi black ; hind coxae black, with a large yellow band on 
the base above; the trochanters and basal half of femora 
fulvous, the apical half of femora and of the tibiae black, the 
basal half of the tibiae and of the tarsi yellowish. ? . 

Length 12 mm. 

Hab. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Face strongly punctured above, in the middle transversely 
striated ; apex of clypeus smooth, the base punctured ; 
mandibles punctured at the base. Front and vertex smooth 
and shining, sparsely covered with long black hair ; the 
space between the hind ocelli with large deep punctures. 
Mesonotum rugosely punctured, reticulated in parts. Scu- 
tellum covered with long fuscous hair, its yellow mark is 
rounded before and behind, its sides coarsely punctured, the 
depressions stoutly striated behind. In the centre of the 
metanotum at the base is an area wider than long and having 
inside a few stout oblique keels ; the rest of the basal region 
reticulated, the reticulations wider on the inner side; the 
rest is strongly closely reticulated ; the teeth large, broad, 
rounded at the top, looked at from behind. Propleurse 
sharply margined at the base above, above strongly punc- 
tured ; the rest stoutly striated. Mesopleurse stoutly longi- 
tudinally striated, except in the middle behind ; immediately 
under the tubercles the striae are vertical or oblique ; near 
the base under the tubercles is a keel. Metapleurse coarsely 
rugosely punctured, the punctures running into reticulations. 



ITymenoptera from Nortliern India. 221 

Areolet almost square, the recurrent iicrvure received near 
the apical third. Abdomen short ; petiole shining, strongly- 
punctured : between the apex and tlie middle are scattered 
punctures ; the second and third segments are closely punc- 
tured, the others smooth ; gastrocoeli smooth, hardly de- 
pressed in the middle. 

Suvalta pallidinerva, sp. n. 

Agrees closely in coloration with S. annulipes, but raa}'^ be 
known from it by the longer, more slender petiole, which is 
not so much dilated at the apex nor so strongly punctured ; 
the head is wider compared with the mesothorax, and the 
pronotum is much more dilated at the base, it beiug there 
distinctly tuberculate. 

Length to apex of petiole 7 mm. 

Hob. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Black; clypeus (except at apex), palpi, the inner orbits to 
near the end of the vertex, the outer more broadly from near 
the top, edge of pronotum (broadly in front, more narrowly 
behind), scutellum broadly in the middle, a broad line on 
the sides of median segment from shortly aI)ove the spines, 
a large mark on the base of propleurae (broad above, gradually 
narrowed towards the apex), the tubercles, a large mark ou 
the lower side of the base of mesopleurse (curved and nar- 
rowed above), the base and lower side straight, a mark under 
the hind wings, the greater part of the lateral scutellar keels, 
and the sides of the abdominal segments broadly, yellow. 
Four front legs fulvous, their coxfe and trochanters pallid 
yellow ; the fore feiuora lined with black above ; the hinder 
legs are of a deeper fulvous tint ; the coxse, trochanters, 
slightly more than the apical third of the femora, apical 
fourth of tibia3, the spurs, and base of metatarsus black ; the 
tarsi are of a more yellowish tint than the tibiae. Wings 
hyaline, the nervures, stigma, and costa pale testaceous ; the 
areolet is of equal width tliroughout, a little longer than 
broad, the recurrent nervure is received in its apical third. 

Mesonotum rugosely punctured, the punctures running 
into striations in the middle. Scutellum covered with long- 
fuscous hair, smooth ; postscutellum very smooth and shining. 
The depression in the middle of median segment is smooth, 
at its sides it is finely punctured, the outer part coarsely 
punctured. The segment outside the keel is coarsely rugosely 
punctured ; the teeth broadly rounded at the top, oblique at 
the sides ; behind them are some curved keels. The upper- 
side of the pronotum is roundly incised in the centre, the 



222 ]\[r. P. Cameron on new 

sides o£ the propleurse above are strongly punctured, tlie 
middle strongly obliquely striated. Mesopleurte lonoitu- 
dinally striated (except on the lower side at the base, which 
is punctured, and a small smooth space in the middle 
behind) ; the tubercles are punctured. Metapleurse closely 
rugosely punctured, above more closely punctured, Meso- 
sternum punctured, its furrow triangularly widened at the 
apex. Petiole shining ; before its apex is a punctured baud, 
surrounding a smooth space ; the second and third segments 
are closely punctured ; gastrocoeli shallow, coarsely acicu- 
lated, the part behind them is raised on the outer side and 
is very smooth and shining. 

The autennse and the apical abdominal segments are 
broken off. 

Algathia rufopeiiolata, sp. n. 

Black ; the scape of antennae rufous below, the base of 
flagellum brownish, joints 11-14 white below; a triangular 
yellowish mark in the centre of the face above ; apex of 
mandibles testaceous ; j)^^pi I'^l^ yellow ; scutellums, the 
sides of the apex of median segment, the apices of the second, 
third, fifth, and the whole of the apical abdominal segments 
pale yellow ; the petiole rufous, its apex yellow. Legs red ; 
the four front coxce and trochanters pale yellow ; the femora 
and tibiae fulvous, the tibiae paler, the fore tarsi fuscous 
except at the base, the middle blackish ; the hinder coxae, 
trochanters, and femora rufous ; a large mark on the coxae 
below at the apex, the apex of femora, and tibiae (except a 
small dull rufous band at the base) black ; the calcaria pale ; 
tarsi black, with rufous spines. Wings hyaline, with a slight 
i'uscous tinge, the nervures and stigma black ; areolet nar- 
rowed in front ; transverse median nervure received shortly 
in front of the transverse basal. 6 . 

Length 8-9 mm. 

Hab. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Face sparsely punctured laterally, more thickly in the 
centre ; clypeus punctured, more sparsely below ; labrum 
fringed with long fulvous hair ; the face thickly covered 
with fuscous pubescence. Front sparsely punctured, the 
inner orbits above sharply margined. Mesonotum closely 
punctured, the apex in the middle broadly longitudinally 
striated, almost reticulated ; middle lobe raised at the base. 
Scutellum roundly raised, smooth, covered with long pale 
hair. Postscutellum bifoveate at the base. Metanotum at 
the base with large deep punctures j the areola longer than 



Ilymenoptera from Northern India. 223 

broad, rounded at the base, gradually narrowed to the apex; 
the rounded basal part has a stout central keel and a less 
distinct one at the apex ; the lateral areai stoutly obliquely 
striated; the posterior median strongly, closely, transversely 
striated, the sides more sparsely and strongly. Base of 
propleurse aciculated, the upper half strougly punctured, the 
lower with some stout striations; meso- and metapleui'se 
closely and strongly punctured, the latter more strongly and 
rugosely above the keel. The postpetiole has a depression in 
the middle, which is wide at the ape x, narrowed towards tbe 
base ; the second and third segments closely punctured, the 
base of the second closely and strongly longitudinally 
striated, the strise going on to the gastrocceli, which are 
shallow, brownish, and aciculated at the apex. 

Algathia tibialis, sp. n. 

Black; a mark in the middle of the face above and the 
base of the mandibles rufous ; ])alpi lemon-yellow, the apical 
lateral areae of the mesonotum except at the base yellow; 
first abdominal segment blood-coloured, the sides in the 
middle blackish, the apex yellow, the apex of the second, 
the sides of the third broadly at the apex, and the sixth and 
seventh entirely, pale yellow ; the basal three joints of the 
antennae rufous beneath, the tenth to sixteenth white, 
fuscous above; four front legs rufo-fulvous, the coxte and 
trochanters yellow ; the middle tarsi fuscous ; the hind legs 
rufous, the apex of the femora, tibiae (except at the base), 
and the tarsi black. Wings hyaline, with a slight fulvous 
tinge, the stigma fuscous. $ . 

Length 8-9 mm. 

Hab. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Face closely punctured, thickly covered with fuscous 
hair, the clypeus more strongly and sparsely punctured, the 
front and vertex shining, sparsely punctured, the former 
indistinctly keeled. Mesonotum strongly punctured, longi- 
tudinally striated in the middle tow ards the apex. Scutellum 
shining, thickly covered with long fuscous hair. Areola 
obliquely narrowed towards the base and to a less extent 
towards the apex, which is transverse ; its base has a central 
and a less distinct and more irregular longitudinal keel on 
the sides, the middle irregularly transversely striated; the 
posterior median area is (except at the base) transversely 
striated ; the outer basal area coarsely punctured, smooth 
at the base; the apical stoutly transversely striated, more 
stoutly on the apical than on the basal half; spiracular 



22 i: Mr. P. (laineron on new 

area finely rugose at tlie base, more coarsely transversely 
rugose before the spiracles, the middle with some stout 
curved keels, the apex much more closely but not quite 
so sharply obliquely striated. Mesopleurse closely punc- 
tured, strongly irregularly striated under the tubercles ; the 
metapleurse uniformly, somewhat strongly punctured and 
deeply depressed at the base above. Postpetiole obscurely 
punctured laterally and furrowed in the middle. Scutellum 
thickly covered with long fuscous hair; postpetiole striated 
at the base. 

Agrees closely in coloration with A. rufopetiolata, includ- 
ing the rufous petiole; may be known from it by the 
narrower areola, which receives the keel in the middle, 
while in rufopetiolata it is received clearly above the middle. 

Algathia lat'ibalteata , sp. n. 

Agrees closely in coloration with A. zonuta ; may be 
known from it by the black hind coxee, by the base of meta- 
notum being rugosely punctured, by the areola being rounded 
at the base and stoutly transversely striated, &c. 

Black ; a small mark on the face below the antennjc 
(broad at base, gradually narrowed to the apex, as long as it 
is wide at the base), palpi, teguloe, scutellums (except the 
scutellum at the base), the apex of the first abdominal 
segment, of the second and third more broadly, the apical 
two thirds of the penultimate, and the whole of the last, pale 
yellow. Mandibles black, the apical third rufous. Palpi 
pale yellow. Four front legs fulvous, the tarsi iuf uscated, 
the coxse and trochanters pale yellow ; the hind coxse black, 
the top and more or less of the inner side rufous; basal joint 
of trochanters rufous, apical yellowish; the femora with the 
apex broadly black, the black more extended above; tibiae 
and tarsi black, the former broadly rufous at the base ; 
calcaria pale. Wings hyaline, with a fulvous tinge ; nervures 
fuscous, darker at the base ; areolet much narrowed in 
front ; the second transverse cubital nervure faint. 

Length 11 mm. 

Hab. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Scape of auteunse testaceous in the middle below; the 
flagellum at the base obscure brownish, thickly covered with 
black hair. Face and clypeus with widely separated punc- 
tures and covered with long fuscous hair. Front and vertex 
shining, sparsely haired and punctured; the front ocellus 
surrounded by a furrow. Mesonotum shining, punctured in 
the middle, at the base of the basal lobe almost striated. 



Hijinpnoptern from yorthern India. 225 

The basal lateral arese of ractanotura strongly puiictiired and 
with a curved furrow on the inner side; areola twice longer 
than wide, bulging out obliquely in the middle and with the 
apex wider than the base and transverse ; its basal half is 
furrowed deeply down the middle, the sides irregularly trans- 
versely striated; the base of the posterior median area with 
a stent longitudinal keel in the middle, the rest transversely 
irregularly striated, the striae weaker and closer towards the 
apex ; the outer arese strongly punctured, the punctures large 
and deep, the spiracular area irregularly reticulated at the 
base, the rest strongly transversely striated. Propleurae above 
with large deep punctures, the depressed middle stoutly, 
obliquely, irregularly striated. Mesopleurse strongly punc- 
tured, rugosely near the tubercles ; the raetapleurse between 
the keels strongly and uniformly punctured. The first ab- 
dominal segment smooth, the sides of postpetiole depressed 
and punctured ; the middle with a large deep depression ; the 
second and third segments closely punctured, the base of the 
second closely longitudinally striated ; the gastrocoeli shallow, 
closely striated (except at the apex) ; the apical segments 
thickly covered with white hair. 

Algathia rufipes, sp. n. 

Black ; the tenth to fifteenth joints of antennae white 
below ; face, clypeus, inner orbits and the outer from near 
the top, mandibles at the base, palpi, edge of pronotura 
(except at the base) narrowly, an irregular squarish mark 
behind the middle of the mesonotum, scutellums, sides of 
metanotum broadly, the lower edge of propleurae, tubercles, 
an irregular mark (narrowed in the middle) on the lower 
part of mesopleurae, a short line below the hind wings, a 
small mark over the hind coxae, the centre and apex of 
scutellum, the apices of the first, second, third, and fourth 
abdominal segments, of the sixth, and the whole of the apical 
segment, yellow. Legs rufous, the four front coxae and 
trochanters yellow; the hind coxae and base of trochanters 
black ; the hind tarsi white, the basal and apical joints 
black. Wings hyaline, the stigma testaceous, the nervures 
blackish; areolet narrowed above, the nervures almost 
touching there ; transverse median postfurcal. ? . 

Length 10, terebra 1 mm. 

Hub. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothuey. 

Face closely punctured and covered with silvery pubes- 
cence ; there is an irregular diamond-shaped mark in its 
centre and a less distinct black line above the clypcal foveae. 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Scr. 7. Vol. xiii. 15 



226 Mr. P. (Cameron on new 

Clypeus punctured, but uot strongly or closely, its apex 
slightly bent inwardly. Scutellum opaque, closely and 
uniformly punctured, more strongly than the mesonotum. 
Metanotum closely punctured (except in the centre at the 
base) ; areola longer than broad and of nearly equal width ; 
the teeth broad, large, rounded, and narrowed at the apex. 
Propleurse have a plumbeous hue and are irregularly striated 
at the apex ; the meso- closely, the metapleurse if anything 
still more closely, punctured, the punctuation running into 
striae at the apex. The second to fifth abdominal segments 
are closely punctured ; the gastrocoeli striated at the base ; 
the petiole is aciculated in the middle towards the apex. 

Algathia erythropoda, sp. n. 

Black ; the face, clypeus in the centre above, the mark 
rounded at the apex, the basal half of the mandil)les, palpi, 
the inner orbits, the line dilated in front of the ocelli, a line 
on the pronotum (broad at the base, gradually narrowed to 
the apex), basal half of tegulae, tubercles, scutellum (except 
at the base), postscutellum, the fifth abdominal segment 
(narrowly in the middle) , the apical two thirds of the sixth 
and seventh entirely, yellow. Scape of antennae yellow 
below, thickly covered with white hair ; the joints of flagellum 
dilated below (especially near the apex) and brownish. Legs 
rufous, the front coxae and trochanters yellow, the middle 
coxae yellow, broadly black at the base behind ; the hinder 
black, with the apical half yellow above; the basal joint of 
the trochanters, apex of hinder tibiae, and the hind tarsi 
black ; the spurs pale fulvous. Wings not very clear hyaline, 
the stigma and nervures black ; areolet narrowed in front, 
being there less in length than the space bounded by the 
recurrent and second transverse cubital nervures. 6 . 
Length 11 mm. 

Hab. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Face coarsely punctured, thickly covered with short white 
hair ; the clypeus less strongly punctured, almost smooth at 
the apex ; the vertex strongly punctured, the front smooth. 
Mesonotum closely strongly punctured. Scutellum shining, 
covered with long fuscous hair. Areola broader than long, 
the sides at the base obliquely truncated, the apex slightly 
bent inwardly, the sides distinctly depressed, with two or 
three keels at the apex ; the centre raised, rugosely punc- 
tured ; the posterior median area widened at the base, closely, 
strongly, transversely striated ; the lateral basal areae coarsely 
aciculated on the inner side, the rest strongly irregularly 



Tlymenoiitera from Northern India. 'lil 

striated ; the spiracular area behind strongly aciculated, the 
rest coarsely transversely striated ; the other basal areae 
strongly but not closely punctured ; the apical areae smooth 
at the base, the rest with stout, clearly separated, transverse 
keels. Upper part of propleurse strongly punctured, the base 
aciculated, the middle below stoutly striated ; mesopleurse 
strongly punctured, the base above and the apex below 
striated ; metapleurae punctured strongly all over. Post- 
petiole strongly and closely punctured, raised in the middle 
and obliquely narrowed at the apex ; the second and third 
abdominal segments closely punctured, the apical thickly 
covered with fulvous hair ; the gastrocoeli large, the base on 
the inner side with a stout keel, the outer with two keels. 

Comes near to A. parvimaculata ; it is larger, wants the 
white bands on the postpetiole, the hinder trochanters are 
yellow, not black ; the black mark on the face and clypeus 
is much smaller and the middle coxae are yellow. 

Algathia varipes, sp. n. 

Black ; the face, clypeus, labrum, the inner orbits from 
the middle of the ocelli to the white face, an oblique some- 
wbat triangular mark near the eyes opposite the hinder 
ocelli, the lower three fourths of the outer orbits (the mark 
narrow above, broader below), palpi, mandibles (except their 
teeth), a line on the pronotum (curved at the base), scutel- 
lums, the posterior intermedian, the apex of spiracular end 
of the tooth-bearing areae of median segment, a mark above 
the hind coxae, the apices of the first and second abdominal 
segments broadly (the lines dilated in the middle), the sixth 
slightly in the middle, and the whole of the last segment pale 
yellow ; the four front legs fulvous, the coxae and trochanters 
pale yellow; the hinder coxae black, broadly yellow in the 
middle above ; the basal joint of the trochanters yellow, the 
apical joint and the base of femora rufous, the rest of the 
femora, almost the apical half of the tibiae, and the base of 
metatarsus black ; the rest of tarsi white, the hinder spurs 
dark rufous. Wings hyaline, the costa, stigma, and nervures 
black. 6 . 

Length 9 mm. 

Hah. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Antennal scape beneath and the fourteenth to twenty-fifth 
joints white ; scape thickly covered with long fuscous hair, 
the flagellum with short black pubescence. Face, clypeus, 
and vertex closely and strongly punctured, thickly covered 
with short fuscous hair. Mesonotum closely punctured, 

15* 



228 Mr. P. Cameron on new 

opaque; scutelliims sliining, smooth^ sparsely covered with 
short fuscous hair ; the basal scutellar keel stout, sharp, 
■white at the apex, and extending to the middle. Base of 
median segment depressed at the base, the furrow smooth, 
slightly curved^ petiolar area open at the base, areola longer 
than broad, rounded at the base, rounded inwardly at the 
apex ; posterior median area slightly widened at the base, 
almost smooth, only obscurely transversely striated ; tlie 
supra- external area has some scattered punctures, the tooth- 
bearing coarsely punctured, the spiracular finely punctured 
at the base, the rest obliquely striated ; the posterior inter- 
median coarsely obliquely striated ; the teeth indistinct. 
Propleurse punctured above, below smooth, the apex in the 
middle with some stout punctures ; mesopleurae closely 
punctured, the metapleurae more strongly^ with the punc- 
tures somewhat more widely separated. 

AJyathia Rothneyi, sp. n. 

Agrees closely in coloration with A. varipes, except that 
it has a yellow mark on the mesopleura; otherwise differing 
in having the base of the metanotum opaque and aciculated, 
the keels bordering the petiolar area are longer, the areola is 
not smooth, the teeth are more distinct, the hinder femora 
have only the apical third black, and the scutellar keels reach 
to the apex. 

lilack ; the head below the antennte, mandibles (except 
the teeth), palpi, the inner orbits above, the line narrowed 
below, the apical three fourths of outer orbits, edge of pro- 
notum (the basal half of the line dilated and acute at the 
base), the tubercles, a mark on the hinder edge of raeso- 
pleurre (longer than wide and obliquely truncated at the 
apex), scutellums, the sides of the median segment (broadly 
at the apex), a narrow band on the first abdominal segment 
(roundly dilated in the middle), the apex of second broadly, 
and the apical two entirely, pale yellow. Four front legs 
rufous^ their coxae and trochanters pallid yellow ; hinder legs 
of a deeper red ; coxse black, yellow above and within, the 
basal joint of trochanters yellow ; the apical third of femora 
and of the tibiae and the basal two thirds of metatarsus 
black ; the rest of the tarsi pale yellow, except the apex of 
the last joint. Wings clear hyaline^ the stigma testaceous^ 
nervures fuscous. ? . 

Length 8 mm. 

Hub. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Scape below and joints 9-lG of antenme white, the 



llymenoptera from Nerthern India. 229 

flagellum at base and apex brownish beneath. Face closely, 
the clypeus more sparsely punctured ; palpi pale yellow ; 
labrum fringed with long fuscous hair. Vertex below the 
ocelli closely transversely punctured ; front smooth and 
shining. Mesonotum closely punctured. Scutellum not dis- 
tinctly depressed at base and apex, its keels sharp and extending 
to the base of the apical third and depressed on the inner 
side ; scutellum bifoveate at the base. Basal area of meta- 
notum large, aciculated, obliquely narrowed towards the 
apex ; areola nearly as long as wide, the sides at the base 
obliquely narrowed, its apex slightly roundly turned in- 
wardly ; posterior median area smooth, of uniform width 
and rounded at the base; the other areae closely punctured, 
opaque; the spiracular and the tooth-bearing arcie more 
strongly, irregularly, and not so closely striated, PropleurcC 
above closely punctured, the apex broadly, in the middle 
longitudinally striated ; the base with a broad yellow band, 
broader than the upper one on the pronotum ; mesopleurse 
closely punctured, the middle behind coarsely aciculated, the 
metapleurse at the base aciculated, the rest closely obliquely 
aciculated. Gastrocoeli shallow, striated; the base rufous, 
striated. 

Algathia robust a, sp. n. 

Is very similar in form and coloration to A. maculicepa ; 
may be known from it by the yellow scutellum, by the 
strongly striated front and vertex, by tbe areola being dis- 
tinctly defined and the posterior median area not at all, 
and by the apex of the hind tibiae and the metatarsus being 
black. 

Black ; face (except a small black mark above), clypeus, 
mandibles, palpi, the inner orbits to beyond the hinder 
ocelli, the lower outer orbits (narrowly above, broadly 
below), palpi, a narrow line on the pronotum (not reaching 
to the base), tegixlae, a line on the base of the propleurse, the 
line dilated at the base, two short marks in the centre of the 
mesonotum, scutellums, two broad lines on the sides of 
median segment, the tubercles, lower part of mesopleurse 
(the yellow dilated upAvards at the base), the base of meso- 
sternum, the apices of the first to fourth abdominal segments, 
and the apical entirely, yellow. Four front legs fulvous, 
tinged with yellow, the apices of the tarsi black ; hinder 
coxffi and basal joint of trochanters, apex of femora, of the 
tibise and the metatarsus, black ; on the apex of the hind 
coxie behind is a large yellow mark, narrowed behind. 
AVings hyali)ic, thcncrvurcs and stigma pale testaceous ; the 



230 Mr. P. Cameron on neio 

areolet slightly oblique, narrowed in front, the nervures 
almost uniting there. 6 . 

Length 11 mm. 

Hab. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Pace closely and strongly punctured, its middle above 
almost transversely striated ; clypeus less strongly punctured, 
its apex smooth ; it is thickly covered with short white, the 
labrum fringed with long fulvous, hair. Vertex near the 
eyes punctured, the centre with three keels, running from 
the hinder ocelli, which turn outwardly to the central 
furrow, the front finely transversely striated. Mesonotum 
closely and strongly punctured. Scutellum at base rugosely 
punctured, the rounded apex closely longitudinally striated ; 
the keels large, black, and reaching to the apical third. 
Middle of metanotum at base with an oblique slope, the sides 
margined, very smooth and shining; areola somewhat wider 
than long, the base rounded, apex transverse, it is irregu- 
larly longitudinally rugose, the middle keeled ; the lateral 
arese rugose, in the centre almost reticulated ; teeth large, 
wide, Propleurse obscurely punctured above; the meso- 
pleurse strongly punctured, the middle slightly, the apex 
more strongly longitudinally striated ; the metapleurse with 
the spiracular area closely obliquely striated. Postpetiole 
closely, finely, irregularly striated, the other abdominal 
segments closely punctured ; gastrocoeli deep, finely striated 
at the base ; apex aciculated. 

Algathia flavo-balteata, sp, n. 

Agrees in size and colour with A. robusta; may easily be 
separated from it by the form of the scutellum, which has a 
much sharper oblique slope, by the postscutellum being only 
obscurely, not strongly striated at the base, by the base of 
metanotum being aciculated, by the areola being longer 
compared with its breadth, by the black on the hind femora 
and tibiae being less extended, by the hind coxae being almost 
entirely yellow above, and by the less distinct curve on the 
apex of clypeus. 

Joints 9-15 of antennae below, the face and clypeus (except 
for a small oval mark below the anteunse), mandibles, palpi, 
inner eye-orbits, the outer from near the top more broadly, 
white. A narrow line on the pronotum, tegulse, a large mark 
near the apex of mesonotum, scutellums, two broad curved 
lines on the sides of median segment at the apex, a broad 
line on the lower side of the propleurse, a broader one (curved 
upwards at the base on the lower side of the mesopleuree), a 



Hymenoptera from Northern India. 231 

narrower one on the hinder edge, a mark below the hind 
wings, the basal four abdominal segments at the apex, and 
the apical two entirely, whitish yellow. Four front legs 
fulvous ; the coxae and trochanters yellow ; the hind coxae 
black, the middle above broadly yellow, and there is an elon- 
gated mark on the side at the base; the hind femora and 
tibise rufous, as are also the trochanters ; the hinder knees, 
apcc of tibise, and metatarsus black, the rest of the tarsi 
white. Wings hyaline, with a slight fuscous tint; stigma 
testaceous. ? . 

Length 11 mm. 

Hab. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Tnce closely and strongly punctured ; the clypeus sparsely 
punctured, its apex transverse; the black part of vertex 
strongly aciculated, the front strongly transversely striated 
and furrowed down the centre. Propleurae with a plumbeous 
hue ; the meso- closely, the metapleurte if anything more 
strongly, punctured. Scutellum strongly but not closely 
punctured. Median segment closely punctured ; the apex 
in the centre closely, at the sides much more strongly, 
transversely striated ; the teeth large ; areola longer than 
broad, rounded at the base, slightly narrowed at the apex, 
which is transverse. Postpetiole shagreened or finely 
striated in the middle ; the gastrocoeli large, wide, the base 
finely striated. 

Alyathia femoral a, sp. n. 

Black ; a mark (elongated and rounded at the apex) in the 
centre of the face above, palpi, scutellum, the outer areae on 
the apex of the median segment, the middle of the tubercles, 
the apex of the first and second abdominal segments, a large 
triangular mark on the sides of the third, the apex of the 
penultimate, and the whole of the last segment yellow. 
Scape of antennae rufous beneath, the middle of flagellum 
broadly white. Four front legs fulvous, their coxae and 
trochanters yellowish white ; the middle tarsi and the hind 
legs black, except the trochanters, which are yellow, and the 
extreme apex of the femora, which is rufous ; the calcaria 
white. Wings hyaline, the nervures and stigma black. ? . 

Length 10 mm. 

Hab. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothney. 

Face strongly, clypeus sparsely punctured. Mesonotura 
closely and strongly punctured, thickly covered with short 
thick hair. Scutellum smooth, shining. Areola elongate, 
the base distinctly, the apex slightly narrowed ; the lateral 
keels received in front of its middle ; posterior median area 



232 On new Ilymenoptera from Northern India. 

aciculated, shagreened tOM'ards the apex ; the lateral areaj 
with some rough transverse keels^ the spiracular closely 
punctured^ the apex raised on the inner side, transversely 
striated ; the outer two basal arese are closely but not 
strongly punctured, the outer apical have three stout, curved, 
transverse keels on the apex. The apex of the median seg- 
ment is thickly covered with long soft white hair. Propleurse 
coarsely punctured more finely at the base, the middle below 
obscurely striated. Mesopleurse coarsely punctured, below 
the tubercles obliquely striated ; metapleurae punctured like 
the mesopleurse. First segment of abdomen smooth, the 
depressed sides of the apex punctured ; the second and third 
segments closely punctured, the base of the second striated 
laterally; gastrocoeli not depressed, rufous at the apex. The 
apical segments of the abdomen are thickly covered with soft 
white hair. 

Algathia cm-iniscvtis, sp. n. 

Black ; the scape of anteunse and joints 8-12 underneath, 
the face and clypeus (except for a line in the centre of the 
former, which gets gradually thicker until it reaches the 
clypeal fovese, the clypeus being also black in the centre), and 
the labrum white; the inner orbits broadly to the end of the 
eyes, the outer more narrowly on the lower half, maxillary 
palpi, lower part of propleurse, the edge of pronotum 
(except at the base), tegulye, tubercles, scutellums, the apical 
half of median segment, a large oblique mark on the meso- 
pleurse above the coxae, a smaller one behind the posterior 
coxse, one under the hind wings, the apices of the first and 
second abdominal segments, a mark on either side of the 
third, and the apical two segments, yellow. Legs rufous, 
the four front coxte and trochanters bright lemon-yellow, 
the apices of the tarsi fuscous ; the hinder cox<ie black, 
broadly yellow above and at the sides above on the inner 
side, their middle behind next to the black part rufous ; the 
trochanters black, the basal joint for the greater part yellow 
above ; the apex of the hind femora and the base of the tibiai 
more narrowly black ; the hinder tarsi paler, not so rufous 
in tint as the anterior, their apex black. Wings clear 
hyaline, the stigma and nervures black. ? . 

Length 8 mm. 

Hub. Khasia Hills. Coll. Rothncy. 

Face and clypeus closely punctured, covered with short 
white down; the front and vertex almost impunctate. 
jSIesonotum closely and vmiforraly punctured ; scutellum 
smoulh, covered with fuscous pubescence, its sides stoutly 



On (he Anatomy o/'Eryx and other Boida?. 233 

keeled. Areola sligLtly wider than long, rounded at the 
base, the apex bulging inwardly; the base of posterior 
median area smooth, the rest transversely striated ; the outer 
apical arese are more strongly and widely striated. The 
upper half of propleurse closely punctured, as are also the 
mesopleurse; the metapleurse are more closely and strongly 
punctured. First segment of abdomen aciculated, the post- 
petiole more strongly and raised in the middle ; the second 
and third segments are closely punctured; the gastroccsli 
wide, striated, the oblique apex aciculated. 



XXIV. — Preliminary Note on certain Points in the Anatomif 
of Eryx and other Boiclte, partly indicative of their Basal 
Position among the Ophidia. ]3y Feank E. Beddard, 
M.A., F.R.S. 

It is generally believed that the Boidje occupy phylo- 
genetically a ph^ce at or near the. base of the Ophidian series ; 
and this view is expressed by Boulenger in a tabular state- 
ment of the mutual affinities of the various families of the 
Order *. This opinion is largely based upon the persistence 
of considerable vestiges of the pelvic girdle and upon the 
paired lungs. In studying the anatomy of snakes I have 
been able to note a few other points to which little or, in 
some cases, no attention has been paid and which tend to 
the support of this conclusion. My observations bearing 
upon this subject were made upon Python, Eryx, and Boa. 

The first point to which 1 would draw attention is the 
equal size of the right and left aortic arches, w^hich join to 
lorm the dorsal aorta. In at least many other snakes (for 
example, Zamenis fagelliformis) the right aortic arch is so 
much the smaller that it appears almost as an inconspicuous 
branch of the left. It would appear, however, that in Python 
hivittatus this is not the case f, though Dr. Gadow's drawing J 
of Pelophilus madagascariensis is in accordance with the facts 
which I have observed. 

Secondly, the intercostal branches of the aorta are arranged 
in a fashion which appears to me to be distinctly archaic. 
In most snakes the intercostal arteries are very irregular in 

* 'Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History),' 
London, 18U3, vol. i. p. 2. 

t Jironn's ' Klassen und Ordnungen des Thierreiclis,' Bd. vi. Abth. iii, 
pi. cxxxiv. fig. 2. This figure is copied from Frit.-jch. 

I ibid. pi. c.\xxv. fig. 1. 



234 Mr. F. E. Bedckrd on the 

tlieir origins from the dorsal aorta and their points of entrance 
into the thickness of the dorsal parietes. 

They arise at unequal intervals from the aorta and enter 
the parietes at varying distances from each other. In Pi/fkon 
reticulatus, Hopkinson and Pancoat * did not figure these 
arteries at all ; but Jacquart t in another python figured 
them as single arteries arising regularly from the aorta J. 
1 do not find this in Python spi/otefi. But as the conditions 
in Eryx are more primitive still, I refer to that snake only 
for the present. Here the intercostal arteries are practically 
regular in their arrangement, being metamerically disposed 
in agreement with the vertebrae. Tiiere is a pair to each 
intervertebral interval. The two arteries of the pair either 
arise side by side from the aorta, or an artery single in its 
origin soon bifurcates. I cannot but tliink that this arrange- 
ment of the intercostals is more primitive than that which 
is more usual among the Ophidia. I may remark that it 
cccurs in the Lacertilia (e. g. Chumreleon, PUiqna, &c.). 

I am uncertain whether to regard the total absence of a 
gubernaculum, tying down the ventricle to tiie pericardium, 
as indicative of a primitive structural relationship. It may 
at first appear unnecessary to record the fact of the absence 
of a gubernaculum. For it is generally stated § that the 
Ophidia are to be contrasted with the Lacertilia in this very 
point — the Lacertilia possessing a gubernaculum and the 
Ophidia being deprived of one. I find, however, considerable 
vestiges of this " tag " in certain Ophidia, but not in Eryx 
or Boa. On the other hand, I think it may be regarded as 
probable that a conspicuous azygos vein is a primitive 
feature. Now in Python spilotes this vein collects blood 
from and therefore extends over many more than four inter- 
costal spaces, which is the limit of this vessel in Coronella 
getula. In Eryx conicus the azygos vein collects blood from 
no less than ten intercostal spaces. 

As a general rule a considerable number of renal arteries 
(even as many as eight in Coluber catenifer) supply each 
kidney. This is correlated with the considerable length of 
the gland in most snakes ; I cannot, however, ascertain that 
there is an exact relationship between the length of the 
kidney and the number of arteries supplying it. But the 

* Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. v. 1837, p. 121. 

t Ann. Sci. Nat. (4) iv. p. 321. 

\ In Python Selics 1 find an identical arrangement. The arteries arise 
singly and bifurcate just before entering the parietes. 

§ For instance, in that section of Bronn's ' Klassen uud Ordnungen des 
Thierreichs' which deals with snakes. 



Anaio^ny of Eryx and other Boida3. 235 

existence of only a single renal artery on each side in some 
Boidse, though doubtless associated with a small kidney *, is 
of itself, as it appears to me, a primitive character, inasmuch 
as there is here an absence of reduplication, so common a 
feature of the vascular and other systems in the Ophidia. 

Tiie same arguments may be used in the case of the gastric 
arteries, which are two in Eryx and three in Python spilotes. 
In the genus Coluber there may be as many as ten or eleven 
gastric arteries. 

It is not common in snakes, so far as my experience goes, 
for the two carotids at their origin to be equal in size : they 
are, however, in both Eryx jaculus and E. conicus, but not 
in Python sjyilotes. Another primitive (?) feature which is 
found in only one of the two genera mentioned is connected 
with the dorsal musculature of Python spilotes. As a general 
rule, in snakes a beautiful complex of tendons is seen to 
occupy the dorsal median region when the animal is opened 
from below. In Python this region is much less converted 
into tendon ; it remains muscular. Now there is evidence 
elsewhere in the animal kingdom of muscles becoming more 
tendinous or being converted entirely into ligaments, but not 
of ligaments and tendons acquiring a muscular character f. 

Some features in the circulatory system, other than those 
briefly referred to above, are not without interest. 

It is at least rare among snakes \ for the arteries supplying 
the gonads to arise from the aorta opposite to each other 
instead of one being in front of the other. Nevertheless, in 
a female Eryx conicus the ovarian arteries form a pair arising 
side by side. As is usual, these arteries immediately follow 
the superior mesenteric. 

It is a peculiarity of snakes, contrasted with lizards, that 
the anterior abdominal vein of the latter is single, while it is 
at least sometimes partly double in the Ophidia. This point 
of difference from the Lacertilia, and, so far, of resemblance 
to the Crocodilia, is apt to be slurred over in text-books. In 
one specimen of Eryx conicus the vessel was single throuo-h- 
out ; in another it was partly double, as was the case with 
two specimens of Eryx jaculus. In Boa constrictor the vessel 
was single for a distance of six inches behind the gall-bladder 
and thence to the cloaca double. 

• In Heterodon platyrhinits, for example, the proportions between the 
length of the body (to the vent) and the length of the larger kidney are 
9 : 1, in Boa constrictor 15 : 1. 

t For example, one of the glutaeal muscles in hornbills. 

X I have not myself observed a single instance, except in the case 
mentioned above. 



236 On a iicio Genus of Spatangoids. 

In Python Sebce tlie fluctuation of this vein between the 
single and double condition was more plainly seen. Just in 
front of the gall-bladder the vessel communicates with the 
gastric portal vein ; from this point to two inches behind the 
gall-bladder it is single. For a distance of 4^ inches it is 
formed of two tubes lying side by side ; these then reunite and 
finally again separate to form two tubes. This example 
shows that the double character of the vein is not only due 
to the elongation of the body, and as a consequence the 
equivalent of the posterior double region of the same vein in 
Lacertilia, where it emerges from the two posteriorly situated 
fat-bodies. 



XXV. — Description of a new Genus of Spatangoids. 
By F. Jeffrey Bell, M.A. 

Among the Prymnodesmid Spatangoids (or those with a 
subanal fasciole) the genera known as Brissus, Aleoma, and 
Metalia are ordinarily recognized as forming a compact 
group. I have lately received from a valued correspondent, 
Mr. F. W. Townsendj some specimens from the coast of 
Oman which have a striking resemblance to these three, but 
are at once distinguished from all of them by the position of 
the apex, which is hardly, if at all, excentric. This sub- 
central position of the apex suggests that this new form is 
ph}logenetically older than the three genera to which it seems 
to be allied ; and I suggest for it, therefore, the name of 
Eohrissus. 

The genus may be diagnosed in the following terms : — A 
Prymnodesmid Spatangoid with the apex almost central and 
the anterior ambulacrum flush with the test ; the antero- 
lateral ambulacra directed forwards and not at right angles 
to the long axis of the test; an open circumanal fasciole, as 
in Metalia. 

The possession of a circumanal fasciole has generally been 
regarded as a recent acquisition, so that it is of importance to 
note its coexistence with the archaic position of the apex. 

Specific characters and name. — As there is but a single 
form known, the specific characters must be guessed at. In 
general appearance like a small Brissus unicolor, with light- 
coloured Brissine spines, none of much greater length than 
the rest ; those on the abactinal side longer and sharper than 
those on the actinal. Larger tubercles scattered among the 
smaller on the actinal surface, more regularly larger below ; 
the lateral ambulacra moderately wide and slightly sunken. 
Four })airs of pores on each side ^^ ithin the subanal fasciole. 



On a new Barbus/row Cameroon. 



237 



JIab. Indian Sea, off Oman. 

The species may well be called, after its finder, Eobrissus 
Toinnsendi. 

The following measurements may be of some service : — 



Test. 


Length of Ambulacra. 


Length. 


Greatest 
breadth. 


Height at ' Anterior, 
apex. 


Ant. lat. 


Post. lat. 


04 
54 

38 


49 
44 
30 


32 

28 
21 


22o 

15 


21-5 
14 


21-5 
14 



XXVf. — Descrip'ion of a neio Rarbas from Cameroon. 
By G. A.BouLENGER, F.'R.S. 

The number of recently discovered African Barbels of the 
group of Barhus Bynni is really surprising. Until a year 
ago the group was unrepresented in West Africa ; then I 
described a species, B. Balesii *, allied to the East- African 
B. tanensis, Gthr., discovered in Cameroon by Mr. G. L. 
Bates, whilst the description of a second closely allied species, 
likewise from Cameroon, B. Linnelli, Lonnberg, appeared in 
the last number of these * Annals ' f. Thanks to the exer- 
tions of Mr. Bates, I am now able to add a third Cameroon 
species to the list, 

Barhus micronema. 
Depth of body 3 times in total length, length of head 4 to 
4^ times. Snout rounded-subtruncate, 2^ to 3 times in 
length of head, projecting beyond the mouth, with small 
pearl-like granules on the sides ; diameter of eye 4^ to 5^ 
times in length of head, interorbital width twice to twice and 
one third ; mouth inferior, forming a broken arch, a feebly 
curved transverse line in front, its width 3 times in length of 
liead ; lips feebly developed, lower restricted to tli3 sides ; 
edge of lower jaw forming a blunt keel ; l)arbels one or two 
on each side, the anterior, if present, quite minute, the poste- 
rior 4 diameter of eye. Dorsal III 10, last simple ray strong, 
bony, not serrated, its rigid part § to p. length of head, free 
edge of the fin strongly emarginate ; its distance from the 
occiput a little less than its distance from the caudal fin. 

« Vrnc. Zool. Soo. 1003, i. p. i'", pi. iii. {'v': 2. 
t P. 1--56. 



238 Structure of the Teeth of some Poisonous SnaJces. 

Anal III 5, longest ray | length of head, reaching root of 
caudal. Pectoral as long as or a little shorter than head, not 
reaching ventral ; latter below middle of base of dorsal. 
Caudal fin deeply forked, upper lobe pointed and much longer 
than lower. Caudal peduncle slightly longer than deep. 
Scales 27 4, 2 between lateral line and ventral, 12 round 
caudal peduncle. Olive-brown above, golden below, the 
scales darker at the base ; fins dark. 

Total length 340 mm. 

Two specimens from the Kribi River. 

This species must be placed near B. perplexicans, Blgr., 
from the Tana River, E. Africa; like that species and the 
Abyssinian B. lylagiostomus, Blgr., the shape of the mouth 
approximates it to the species of Varicorhinus or Capoeta ; 
whilst in the condition of its barbels it serves to connect the 
species with two pairs of barbels with those with a single pair. 



XXVII. — Notes on the Structure of the Teeth of some 
Poisonous Snakes found in Travancore. By R. ShuNKARA 
Naeayana Pillay. 

In offering the following notes on the structure of the teeth 
of the poisonous Colubrine snakes I do not aspire to lay claim 
to originality, as my observations have been based on the 
lines of those already made by eminent men, and refer to a 
few snakes found in Travancore. 

Since April 1901 I have been supplying snake-venom to 
the Pasteur Institute or India, Kasauli, and to Messrs. Bur- 
roughs, Wellcome, & Co.'s Research Laboratory. I had a 
fancy for the study of snakes, and as Preparator to the 
Museum I availed myself of the opportunity to make a com- 
parative study of the poisonous and non-poisonous snakes, in 
the course of which, while examining the skull of a hamadryad 
(JSaia hungarus) 14 feet long, the skeleton of which was 
being articulated for the museum, I noticed a certain pecu- 
liarity in the structure of the teeth which, to my mind, 
appeared to be abnormal — namely, the presence of grooved 
posterior maxillary teeth. 

According to Mr. G. A. Boulenger *, the genus Naia is 
defined as having the poison-fang followed by one or more solid 
teeth ; and in Sir Joseph Fayrer's ' Thanatophidia of India ' 
mention is made of "a second simple tooth at some distance 
behind the fang." Later on I examined a spirit-specimen of 
Naia bungarus, and in this, too, I found the posterior maxillary 
teeth were grooved, the grooving being shallow or ill-defined 
* ' The Fauna of British India,' Reptilia and Batrachia (1890). 



Obituary Xotice. 2)59 

and invisible to the naked eye. I communicated this to 
Mr. H. S. Ferguson, the Director of the Museum, and he 
informed Mr. G. A. Boulenger, who, while verifying and 
confirming the faintly grooved posterior maxillary teeth in the 
genus Nm'a, a discovery * made by liim since the publication 
of the ' Fauna of British India,' does not seem to liave been 
aware of the more or less grooved palatine series of teeth as well. 
At his instance I was led to a series of observations on the teeth 
of various poisonous Colubrine snakes of the subfamily 
Elapinse so far as they are represented in Travancore, and, in 
addition, to the grooved functiional and reserve fangs. 

Posterior 

maxillary. Palatine. Pter^-goid. 

Naia bnngm'us has 3 17 12 

tripudinns has 1 5 14 

Bunganis cceruleus has .... 3 10 13 

In the above not only are the posterior maxillary and palatine 
teeth more or less grooved, but all the pterygoid and man- 
dibular scries are likewise marked with faintly depressed 
lines resembling grooves. Furthermore, in connexion with 
an examination of two skulls of Hemihungarus nigrescens. a 
small poisonous Culubrine snake fairly common on the hills, 
I found the palatine teeth indistinctly grooved. 

Government Museum, Trevandrum, 
October 26, 1903. 



OUtuary Notice : Ue. William Francis. 

Dk. William Francis was born in London on the 16th of 
February, 1817. He was educated at University College School 
and St. Omer. He left St. Omer in 1834 and proceeded to 
Crefelt, but in the autumn of the same year went to Gera, where 
he remained for about two years. In 1836 he returned to England 
and spent a year at the London University (University College), 
afterwards devoting some time to learning the printing business 
under Mr. Hichard Taylor, to whom he had been apprenticed some 
time previously. He then went to Berlin, and thence to Giessen, 
where he studied under Liebig, and did much original work, chiefly 
on the salts of molybdenum. He took his degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy at Giessen in 1842. 

He early developed a taste for Natural History, and during 
his stay at Gera he devoted much of his time to entomological study 
and pursuits. While in England, in 1837, "fresh from the teach- 
ings of Ehrenberg, and profoundly influenced by the spirit of 
scientific research which then, as now, prevailed in Germany," he 
" suggested to Mr. Eichard Taylor the establishment of a journal 
in which, while its pages were freely open to the original contri- 
* ' Catalogue of Snaka^* iii. p. 373 (1896). 



2 to Ohituarij Nolice. 

butions of English naturalists, special attention should be paid to 
the researches of Continental obser^^ers ; and the result was the 
starting of the 'Annals of Natural History,' with which, sub- 
sequently, the well-known 'Magazine of Natural History' of 
Loudon and Charlesworth was amalgamated." His name first 
appears on the wrapper as co-editor in 18o9. As Editor of the 
'Annals' he became acquainted with most of the leading natu- 
ralists, and made many life-long friends, his indebtedness to whom 
he warmly acknowledges in the Preface to the Sixth Series. 

AVhile in Berlin and Giessen, Dr. Erancis, in conjunction with his 
friend and fellow-student Henry Croft, forwarded every month a 
series of reports to the 'Philosophical Magazine' on the prvOgress of 
chemical science on the Continent ; but the space available in that 
Journal being limited, they, on their return to England, started 
the 'Chemical Gazette' in 1842. Croft was compelled to re- 
linquish the editorship before the fourth number appeared, being 
appointed Professor of Chemistry at King's College, Toronto ; 
and the ' Gazette' was carried on by Dr. Erancis alone until 1859, 
when the pressure of other work compelled him to relinquish the 
task, and the 'Gazette' was incorporated with the then newly 
founded 'Chemical News.' 

In addition to furnishing translations of foreign scientific 
papers to the ' Philosophical Magazine,' he also translated many 
papers for Taylor's ' Scientific Memoirs,' in the conducting of 
which, moreover, he had a very large share, although his name 
did not appear on the titlepage. He also translated Beckmann's 
'History of Inventions' for Bohn's Scientific Series. 

In 1851 his services to the 'Philosophical Magazine' over 
many vears, both in furnishing translations and in conducting 
the Journal, were acknowledged by the appearance of his name 
on the wrapper as co-editor, whei'e it remained until his death. 
During the uhole period of fifty-three years he took an active 
part in the management of the Magazine. His acquaintance 
and, in many cases, warm personal friendship with scientific 
men both in Great Britain and on the Continent, his sound 
judgment, and tact made his services in this capacity invaluable. 

In 1841 be was elected Associate of the Chemical Society, 
becoming a Fellow in the following year. He was also a Eel low 
of the Linnean Society (1844), of the Eoval Astronomical (1851), 
of the Geological (1859), and of the Physical (1876). 

In 1852 he joined Mr. Richard Taylor as partner in the firm of 
Taylor and Erancis, printers and publishers. He was one of the 
oldest members of the Stationers' Company, having taken the 
Livery in 1841. 

In 1862 he married Isabella Gray, daughter of Mr. Taunton, 
M.E.C.S., of Hatton Garden, but became a widower in 1899, 
Eor some few years previous to his marriage Dr. Erancis had lived 
at Eichmond, and for the rest of his life continued to reside 
there — for the last thirty-one years at the Manor House, where 
he (lied on the 19th of January last. 



THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTOEY. 

[SEVENTH SERIES.] 
No. 76. APRIL 190^. 



XXVIIT. — Descriptiotis of some new Species of Lepidoptera 
Ileterocera from Tropical South America. By HERBERT 
DuuCE, F.L.S. &c. 

Fam. SyntomidsB. 
Ctenucha alholineata, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antenngs, collar, tecpulfe, underside of the 
thorax, and legs black ; thorax and abdomen metallic blue, 
the anal tul't black. Primaries black, a white line from tho 
base through the middle of the cell almost to the outer margin 
below the apex ; above the end of the white line is a small 
round white spot; the base and inner margin of the wing are 
sfreaked with metallic blue : secondaries black, with a wide 
white band along the costal margin, not quite reaching the 
apex ; the fringes o£ both wings black. 

Expanse If inch. 

Ilab. N. Peru, Huancabamba, 6000-10,000 feet [Mas. 
Druce). 

This species is allied to Ctenucha clavia, Druce, from 
Ecuador. 

Fam. Arctiidae. 
Automolis doleyiSj sp. n. 
Female. — Head, antennae, thorax, abdomen, and legs 
Ann. (& Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. 16 



242 Mr. H. Druce on some 

black; collar, tegulse, and base of the abdomen yellowish 
white. Primaries black ; a wide yellowish-white band 
crosses the wing near the base from the costal to the inner 
margin, the band is slightly widest on the inner margin ; a 
yellowish-white narrow band crosses from the costal margin 
near the apex to the outer margin, then curves down along the 
outer margin to the anal angle ; tiie fringe yellowish white : 
secondaries black, the basal third of the wing yellowish 
white. The underside the same as above. 

Expanse If inch. 

Hah. Paraguay (^Mus. Druce). 

This species is allied to AutomoHs rectiradia, Hampson, 
from the Upper Amazons, also to Automolis tegyra^ Druce. 

Anaxlta Liysandva^ sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antenna?, and legs black, collar brown ; 
tegulse brown, edged witii long black hairs; thorax and 
abdomen black, the sides bright red, the underside of the 
abdomen with four yellow spots near the base. Primaries 
brown, thickly irrorated with yellow scales ; three yellow 
spots edged with black on the costal margin, the first and 
third small, the second long ; veins all black, edged with 
pale yellowish brown, between each vein a long red line 
edged with black ; fringe black : secondaries dark brown, 
veins black, with bright red streaks between them; the fringe 
black. Underside very similar to the upperside ; secondaries 
with more red and with a yellowish streak along the costal 
margin. 

Expanse 3 inches. 

Hah. N. Peru, Huancabamba. 6000-10,000 feet (J/«5. 
Druce) . 

A very fine species, very distinct. 

Fam. Ceratocampidae. 
Adelocephala nisa, sp. n. 

Male. — Head and palpi pink, antenna and tegulas yellowish 
brown, the latter edged with pink, the thorax and upperside 
of the abdomen yellowish brown, the underside of the abdo- 
men and legs bright pink. Primaries pink, crossed by a wide 
dark yellowish-brown band extending from the apex to the 
middle of the inner margin ; a white dot at the end of the 
cell, edged with pink ; the fringe yellowish brown : second- 
aries pinkish brown, darkest along the inner margin ; the 
fringe pink. The underside whitish pink, the costal half of 



■new Species of Lepidoptera. 243 

the primaries yellowish ; a rather faint black line extends 
from the apex almost to the inner marg-iii ; a black spot at 
the end of the cell ; the costal margin of the secondaries 
slightly blackish. 

Expanse 3^ inclies. 

Hah. Peru, Santo Domingo, G003 feet [Mas. Bruce). 

Adelocephala hodeva^ sp. n. 

Male, — Head and antenna3 dark brown ; tegulie pinkish 
brown ; thorax and abdomen above dark brown, the sides 
of the abdomen banded witli white, the underside pinkish 
grey; legs greyish brown. Primaries dark brown, the outer 
margin greyish brown, in some lights pinkish brown ; a very 
distinct white spot at the end of tiie cell ; the fringe dark 
brown : secondaries dark red, shading to brown along the 
inner margin ; the fringe greyish brown. Underside : pri- 
maries, the costal half of the wing dark brown, the inner 
half red, the outer margin greyish ; a dark brown line 
extends from the apex almost to the middle of the wing : 
secondaries pinkish grey, irrorated with small black spots ; a 
short brown line extending from the anal angle to about the 
middle of the wing, 

I^xpaiise \\ inches. 

Uab. Jiritisii Guiana {Mus. Druce). 

Adelocephala Eugenia, sp. n. 

Female. — Head, antennae, collar, and tegulre brown ; thorax 
and base of the abdomen citron-yellow, the upperside of the 
abdomen brownish yellow ; the anal segment, underside, and 
legs dark brown. Primaries dark brown, with a greyish 
shade at the base across the middle of the wing and partly 
along the outer margin ; a small white spot at tiie end of the 
cell : secondaries dark brown, with sotne yellow hairs at the 
base ; the fringe pale brown. The underside of both wings 
pale greyish brown. 

Expanse 4 inches. 

Ilab. French Guiana (^Mus. Druce). 

Adelocephala Smith i, sp. n. 

j\fale. — Head, antenna3, collar, and tegulaj pale yellowish 
brown ; thorax yellow, speckled with brown ; abdomen i)ale 
yellow, whitish on the underside. Primaries pale yellow, 
thickly irrorated with small brown spots, thickest at the base 
of the wing : secondaries pale yellow, with rather a large 



214 Mr, H. Druce on some 

tuft of red liairs on the inner margin. Underside : primaries 
pale greyish brown, irrorated with small brown spots ; the 
base of the wing red ; a black spot at the end of the cell : 
secondaries cream-colour, irrorated with minute brown dots. 

Expanse 3 inches. 

Ilab. Colombia, Cacagualito, 1500 feet (H. H. Smith, 
Mus. Druce). 

Adelocephala yucatana, sp. n. 

Female. — Head, collar, tegular, thorax, and abdomen 
yellowisli brown, antennse and legs brown. Primaries pale 
yellowish brown, thickly irrorated with dark brown scales ; 
two faint brown lines cross the wing from the costal to the 
inner margin, the first nearest to the base, the second beyond 
the middle ; an ill-defined brown spot at the end of the cell : 
secondaries pink, edged with yellow round the outer margin ; 
the fringe of both wings yellow. Underside very similar to 
the upperside, but without the lines crossing the primaries 
and with a large black spot at the end of the cell ; the costal 
margin of the secondaries is also black. 

Expanse 3^ inches. 

IJab. Yucatan {Mus. Druce). 

Adelocephala lineata, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antennee, collar, tegula3, thorax, and abdo- 
men pale yellow, the underside of the abdomen and legs 
yellowish white. Primaries pale yellow, the base of tlie 
wing greyish brown ; a white dot at the end of the cell, 
beyond which a greyish-brown line crosses the wing from 
just below the apex to the inner margin close to the base : 
secondaries pale chrome-yellow; the fringe of both wings 
yellow. The underside of the primaries and secondaries 
pale yellowish white. 

Expanse 2j inches. 

Uab. Paraguay {Mus. Druce). 

Fam. Saturniidae. 

Attacus vihidia, sp. n. 

Male. — Head dark brown ; collar white, edged with black ; 
teguloe and thorax brown ; abdomen black, each segment 
edged with white ; underside of the abdomen and legs brown. 
Primaries pale brown, irrorated with black scales ; a curved 
white line near the base, edged with black on the outer side ; 
a wide hyaline >-shaped mark at the end of the cell, edged 



new Species of Lepidoptera, 2'45 

with black on both sides ; a waved black line extending fi-om 
the costal margin, beyond which the wing is shaded with 
white, brown, and yellow ; two large black spots edged with 
white on the inner side close to the apex : secondaries pale 
brown ; an indistinct greyish line close to the base ; a large 
hyaline angular-shaped spot edged witii black at end of cell, 
below which a waved black line, edged with white on the 
outer side, extends from the costal margin near the apex to 
the inner margin above the anal angle ; beyond the black 
line the wing is pinkish, then yellowish brown to the outer 
margin ; a submarginal row of small black dots extends from 
tiie apex to the inner margin. Underside very similar to the 
upperside, but paler in colour. 

Ex|)anse 3^ inclies. 

J fab. Argentine Republic, Tucuman {Mus. Druce). 

A small species, very distinct from any known to me. 

Fam. Lasiocampidse. 
Ormiscodes radama, sp. n. 

Male. — Head and underside of the thorax and legs reddish 
brown ; antennee, collar, and tegulai chrome-yellow ; thorax 
reddish brown ; abdomen black, each segment edged with 
white, the anal tuft yellowish brown. Primaries, the costal 
half of the wing yellow, the inner half clouded with brown, 
the veins black; a < -shaped white mark at the end of the 
cell and a white spot beyond ; an indistinct slightly waved 
band crosses the wing from near the apex to the middle of 
the inner margin ; the fringe alternately white and brown : 
secondaries yellow ish brown, palest at the base and along the 
iimer margin ; a curved brown line crosses the wing beyond 
the middle; the veins all black. Underside very similar to 
the upperside, except that the white markings on the pri- 
maries are much smaller and that the costal margin of the 
secondaries is bordered with white. 

Expanse 31 inches. 

Uab. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet {Mus. Druce). 

Ormiscodes (?) clioha^ sp. n. 

Male. — Head, collar, tegulse, thorax, abdomen, and legs 
pale pink; antenna? yellow. Primaries pink, slightly yellowish 
about the middle of the costal margin, and a yellowish line 
crossing the wing beyond the cell from the costal to the inner 
margin ; two waved black lines extending from the costal to 
the inner margin, the iirst near the base, the second sub- 



246 Mr. II. Diuce on some 

marginal ; a black dot at the end of the cell ; the fringe 
yellowish pink : secondaries bright pink, darkest on the inner 
half of the wing. The underside of both wings pale pink, 
both wings crossed by two narrow dark pink lines. 

Expanse 3 inches. 

JJab. SS.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet (Mus. Druce). 

Megalopyge gamelia, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, thorax, and abdomen white; collar and tegulae 
black ; antenna yellowish. Primaries white, the costal margin 
from tlie base nearly to the apex dark grey ; a black dot close 
to the base of the wing ; a double row of small black spots 
crosses the wing from the apex to the middle of the inner 
margin ; the fringe alternately black and white : secondaries 
white, with a submarginal row of black spots extending from 
the apex to the anal angle; the fringe black and white. The 
underside of both wings dusky white, without any markings. 

Expanse If inch. 

llab. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet {Mus. Druce). 

Apatelodes mehida, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antenria3, tegulai, and abdomen pale greyish 
brown ; the palpi and thorax black. Primaries greyish brown, 
the veins darker brow^n ; a large brown spot, edged with 
white, on the outer side close to the apex ; a dark brown 
elongated spot on the inner margin near tlie base ; a straight 
brown line crosses the wing from the apex to the anal angle, 
between it and the base are two narrow curved lines ex- 
tending from the costal to the inner margin : secondaries 
reddish brown, crossed about the middle from the costal to 
the inner margin by a pale greyisli-brown waved band, 
darkest on the inner margin. Underside : primaries pale 
brown, the dark brown patch at the apex considerably larger, 
the lines crossing the wing very indistinct ; secondaries dark 
reddish brown, with a very pale brown submarginal line 
extending from the costal margin to the anal angle ; the 
underside of the abdomen dark brown. 

Expanse 2\ inches. 

Hub. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet {Mus. Druce). 

Apatelodes signata^ sp. n. 

Male. — Head, collar, tegula3, thorax, and abdomen brown ; 
antennai yellowish brown ; legs and underside of the abdo- 
men dark brown. Primaries dark brown, irrorated with 



new Species of Leindoptera. 217 

minute greyish scales; a pale brown spot at the end of the 
cell ; a dark brown curved line crosses the wing beyond the 
middle from the costal to the inner margin ; a submarginal 
greyish curved line extends from the apex to the anal angle : 
secondaries dark fawn-colour, crossed below the middle from 
the apex to the inner margin by two faint brown lines ; the 
fringes of both wings brown. Underside : both wings pale 
brown, with the dark lines more distinct than on the upper- 
side ; a black spot at the end of the cell of the primaries and 
secondaries. — Female very similar to the male, but darker in 
colour. 

Expanse, cJ 2^, ? 3 inches. 

IJab. S.E. Peru, ISanto Domingo, 6000 feet {Mas. Druce). 

Apatelodes banepa, sp. n, 

Male. — Head and thorax black ; antennae, collar, and 
tegulae pale greyish brown ; abdomen and legs brown. Pri- 
maries greyish brown, two small white spots close to the 
apex, edged with black on the inner side ; a large elongated 
dark brown spot close to the base on the inner margin, and 
three zigzag indistinct black lines cross the wing from the 
costal to the iimer margin ; fringe brown : secondaries pale 
reddish brown, crossed about the middle^ by an indistinct 
whitish line. 

Expanse 2 inches. 

IJab. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet (Mus. Druce). 

Lonomia bethuUa, sp. n. 

Male. — Head and antennae black ; collar, tegulae, thorax, 
and abdomen reddish brown ; legs black. Primaries pale 
yellowish brown, crossed near the base from the costal to the 
inner margin by two waved, curved, dark brown lines ; three 
small black dots at the end of the cell, beyond which a 
straight, rather wide, dark brown line crosses the wing from 
the costal to the inner margin ; a submarginal, zigzag, fine 
brown line extends from the apex to the anal angle : second- 
aries pale reddish brown, with a very fine line crossing the 
wing about the middle; the fringes of both wings brown. 
Underside very similar to the upperside, but paler in colour 
and with all the lines very indistinct. 

Expanse 2j inches. 

IJab. N. Peru, Huancabamba, 6000-10,000 feet {Mas. 
Druce) . 

This species is allied to L. monacharia, Mssn. ; some 
specimens are much darker in colour than others. 



24:8 Mr. 11. Druce on some 

Fani. BombycidaB. 
Hygrochroa intricata, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antennaj, collar, tegulse, thorax, and abdomen 
pale olive-brown. Primaries pale olive-brown, crossed from 
the costal to the inner margin by two rather wide dark olive- 
brown bands, which are united just below the coll ; the base 
and the apex of the wing olive-brown ; a greyish-white 
marking on the outer margin above the anal angle and a 
black dot at the end of the cell ; the fringe yellowish brown : 
secondaries pale yellowish fawn-colour, with some dark 
markings on the inner margin. 

Expanse If inch. 

Hah. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet {Mus. Druce). 

Fam. Notodontidae. 
Marthula aurea, sp. n. 

il/a/e. — Head, palpi, and thorax dark brown ; tegulse and 
abdomen pale fawn-colour ; legs and underside of the abdo- 
men brown ; antenna} yellowish brown. Primaries pinkish 
brown, becoming golden red along the costal margin ; four 
indistinct angular brown lines cross the wing from the costal 
to the inner margin ; two black lines close to the anal angle : 
secondaries white, clouded with black at the anal angle and 
round the outer margin ; the fringe greyish. Underside : 
primaries uniformly blackish brown; secondaries white, the 
costal margin pale yellow. 

Expanse 2 inches. 

Hab. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet [Mus. Druce), 

Eustema caramay sp. n. 

Male. — Head, collar, tegulse, thorax, and abdomen black, 
the thorax clothed with long yellowish hairs, underside of the 
thorax and legs black ; the antenna?, anal tuft, and the under- 
side of the abdomen yellowish brown. Primaries and second- 
aries pale greyish brown, the veins all black ; fringes of both 
wino-s blackish brown. Underside the same as above. 

Expanse 2^ inches. 

Hah. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet {Mus. Druce). 

This species is allied to E. dora^ Druce, from Mexico. 

TIeterocampa dolens^ sp. n. 
Male. — Head, antenme, collar, teguUe, thorax, abdomen. 



new Species of Lepuloptera. 249 

and legs black. Primaries black, thickly irrorated with 
white scales ; a white zigzag line crosses the wing close to 
the base; a large white patch beyond the cell and curved 
white line extending from the costal to the inner margin 
nearest the anal angle ; the fringe alternately black and 
white : secondaries white, the costal margin clouded with 
black, the marginal line black; the fringe white. Underside 
similar to the upperside, but the primaries not so distinctly 
marked. 

Expanse 2 inches. 

Ilah. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet {Mus. Bruce). 

Ilelerocampa longula^ sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antenna?, collar, and tegulse reddish brown; 
thorax grey, abdomen dark grey, anal tuft white. Primaries 
silvery white, thickly irrorated with reddish-brown scales; a 
series of reddish-brown spots close to the apex ; a brown spot 
at the end of the cell, edged with black ; fringe grey : 
secondaries white. Underside of the thorax, abdomen, and 
legs white; primaries and secondaries white; the costal 
margin and apex of the primaries reddish brown. 

Expanse 1| inch. 

llah, S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet {Mus. Druct), 

Heterocampa luteUinea, sp. n. 

]\Iale. — Head, collar, tegulee, and thorax dark brown ; the 
abdomen brown, the base clothed with greenish-yellow hairs, 
the underside of the abdomen yellowish white; the legs dark 
brown. Primaries dark purplish brown, the costal maro-in, 
apex, outer and inner margin edged with greenish yellow; a 
pale greyish double line crosses the wing from the costal to 
the inner margin near the base; a large elongated black spot 
at the end of the cell and three black spots close to the apex ; 
two small white dots just above the anal angle : secondaries 
creamy white, the veins dark brown ; a large black spot at 
the anal angle ; the fringe greenish yellow. Underside : 
primaries brownish black, whitish on tiie outer margin near 
the anal angle ; secondaries creamy white, the costal margin 
brownish black. 

Expanse If inch. 

llab. S.E. Peru, Santo Domingo, 6000 feet (^Mus. Druce). 

Maschane Leechi, sp. n. 
Female. — Head, antenna}, collar, and tcguUe reddish fawn- 



250 Mr. 0. Thomas on new 

colour ; thorax, abdomen, and legs pale fawn-colour. Pri- 
maries and secondaries pale reddish fawn-colour; primaries 
crossed from the apex to the inner margin close to the base by 
a dark brown line, lightest on the outer edge. Underside 
the same as above, but without any line on the primaries. 

Expanse li incli. 

Hab. Amazons {Leech, Mas. Druce). 

Maschane neobule, sp. n. 

Male. — Head, antennae, and collar yellowish brown ; tegulae, 
thorax, and abdomen greyish. Primaries yellowish fawn- 
colour, almost yellow along the costal margin; a very fine 
brown line crosses the wing close to the base ; a brown line 
extends from the apex to the middle of the inner margin ; 
two round dots in the cell and a submarginal row of very 
minute brown dots extends from the apex to the anal angle ; 
the fringe brown : secondaries reddish brown, palest at the 
base. Underside of both wings reddish cream-colour. 

Expanse If inch. 

Hab. Costa Rica [Mus. Druce). 



XXIX. — 'New Z^orwso/Saimiri, Saccopteryx, Balantiopteryx, 
and Thrichomys from the Neotropical Region. ]^y 
Oldfield Thomas. 

Saimiri Oerstedi citrinellus, subsp. n. 

The Costa Bica form of the Panama 8. Oerstedi — the 
head less blackened, and the limbs less yellow. 

General characters as in true Oerstedi. Back of the same 
vivid orange or orange-ochraceous, or slightly paler, but ante- 
riorly that colour narrows between the shoulders, leaving the 
region of the shoulder-blades greyish, like the arms. Below, 
the belly is scarcely, instead of being strongly, more yellowish 
than the white throat and axillse, and the groins and inner 
sides of the thighs are whitish instead of yellow. Crown of 
head either altogether grey, as in S. sciurus, or with the tips 
of the hairs blackish, as in 8. boliviensis, not deeply black as in 
S. Oerstedi. Arms to wrists and legs from thighs downwards 
grizzled greyish, with but little yellowish suffusion, these 
parts being in Oerstedi strongly suffused with orange-yellow. 
Hands orange, of rather a paler shade than in Oerstedi, the 
orange running up the outer side of the forearms to the 



Forms o/ Saimiri, Saccopteiyx, &c. 251 

elbow. Feet edged on each side with orange, and the toes 
are also the same colour, but the middle line of the meta- 
tarsus is grizzled greyish, continuous with the greyish of 
the legs. Proximal part of tail grizzled grey like the limbs, 
less yellowish than in Oerstedi; end of tail black as usual. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in skin) : — 

Head and body 350 mm. ; tail 415 ; hind foot 90. 

Skull : greatest length 65 ; breadth of brain-case 36. 

Hah. Costa Rica. Type from Pozo Azul, Pirris. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 4. 2. 7. 2. Collected 31 May, 
1902, by Mr. C. F. Underwood. Six specimens. 

The Squirrel-Monkey of Costa Rica has long been known, 
and this very locality, Pirris, is mentioned in Dr. von 
Frantzius's account * of the distribution of what he called 
" Chrysotlirix sciureaj' identified by Alston with 8. Oerstedi. 
But a comparison of the series sent by Mr. Underwood with 
those representing the true Oerstedi^, collected in Panama 
and Veragua by Messrs. Watson, Batty, and Arce, shows 
that the northern form differs constantly from the southern 
in certain characters. Of these the most tangible are the 
lessened black of the head, the greyer and less orange suffused 
limbs (especially the thighs), and the restriction of the orange 
of the feet to their edges, the whole of their upper surfaces 
being uniform *' orange-ochraceous " in the true S. Oerstedi. 

Saccopteryx hilineata centralis, subsp. n. 

Similar in all essential respects to tlie true S. hilineata of 
northern South America, but the size is rather less and the 
build more delicate, as indicated by tlie skull. Colour as in 
hilineata, but the dorsal lines usually more brownish white, so 
that they do not contrast so conspicuously with the general 
body-colour. 

Skull, as compared with that of true hilineata, smaller 
(total length 15-5 mm. as against 17) and more lightly built. 
Crests and ridges less developed, postorbital processes smaller 
and weaker. J3rain-case more inflated at its antero-external- 
superior corners, the convexity markedly stronger and more 
projecting than in the larger form. Teeth smaller throughout. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in spirit) : — 

Forearm 47 mm. 

* Arch. f. Nat. xxxv. p. 260 (1860). 

t The type locality of S. Oerstedi is not, as stated by Miller and Ivelin 
Cartage, Costa Kica, but Chiriqiii, whence Oersted's specimen had been 
brought alive to Cartage. The original tigure and description agree 
with Chiriqui specimens in all the characters distinguishing the latter 
from the Costa ftican form. 



252 Mr. O. Thomas on new 

Head and body 50 ; tail 14 ; lower leg and foot (s. u.) 30'5 ; 
calcar 18'5. 

Skull : greatest length 15'6 ; basal length in middle line 
12 ; greatest breadth 10-4 ; interorbital breadth 4*2 ; breadth 
of brain-case 8 ; palate length 5*4 ; front of upper canine to 
back of m' 6*5 ; front of lower canine to back of m^ 6*8. 

Flab, (of type). Teapa, Tabasco, S.E. Mexico. Other 
specimens from Guatemala and Costa Rica. 

Ti/pe. Female. B.M. no. 88. 8. 8. 20. Collected by 
II. H. Smith, and presented by Messrs. O. Salvin and F. D, 
Godman. About a dozen specimens examined. 

The large members (forearms 45-50 mm.) of the restricted 
genus Saccopteryx are remarkably uniform in character over 
a wide geographical area, series from Ecuador and Peru on 
the west to Pernambuco on the east and Trinidad and Guiana 
in the north presenting no differences not covered by indi- 
vidual variation at single localities. I am therefore quite 
unable to distinguish Mr. Miller's S. persjncillifer (forearm 
45-50) of Trinidad from the original S. bilineata (forearm 
45 mm.) of Surinam. The large skull with heavy postorbital 
processes, as described by Miller, is equally to be found in 
specimens from Guiana, Para, and Pernambuco, which must 
among tliem include the true bilineata of Surinam. Examples 
with the typical length of forearm (45 mm.) occur both 
among our Trinidad and Guianan series, without any cranial 
indication that they belong to a different form from those 
whose forearms attain to 48 or 50 mm. 

In Central America, liovvever, the representative of S. bi- 
lineata seems sufficiently modified to bear a subspecific 
name, being distinguished by its lighter skull, more cube- 
shaped brain-case, smaller teeth, and rather duller coloration. 
But even then the difference is but slight. 

The still smaller species of this group are two in number — 
S. leptura, Schr., browner in colour, with a skull of about 
13*5-14 mm,, and a forearm averaging about 38-40 mm. ; and 
S. canescens, Thos., grey, skull only 12*5-13 mm., and length 
of forearm about 36-38 mm. Of the last-named, besides the 
type from the Lower Amazon, the Museum contains examples 
from the Orinoco {Cherrie), Surinam {Bartlett), and Cayenne 
{Che7'rie)j in each of which places S. leptura also occurs. 

Balaniiopteryx io, sp. n. 
A slenderly built species allied to B. infasca *. 
Size very small, the trunk and forearm lengths markedly 

* Saccopleryx infusca, Thos. Auu. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (6; xx. p. 546 
(1897). 



Forms of Saimlrl, Saccopteryx, (&c. 253 

less than In B. infusca, though tlie skull is as large as in that 
animal. General characters very much as in B. infusca ; 
ears as in that species, the inner margin more evidently 
concave just below the tip. Tragus slender, its tip rounded, 
a marked lobule opposite to base of its inner margin, and 
another slight projection higher up. Wing- and leg-bones 
remarkably slender, much more so than in B. infusca. Wing- 
sacs in the centre of the membrane, as usual in Balantio- 
pteryx, about a quarter of an inch internal to a line drawn 
directly forwards from the elbow. Feet quite free of mem- 
brane, the wings attached to the distal end of the tibiae. 
Calcars slender, not reaching upwards to the knee. Base of 
interfemoral membrane hairy as far as the exsertion of the 
tail. 

Colour of body above and below, and of membranes, dark 
brown (in alcohol) ; no white line along hinder edge of wings. 

Skull agreeing in size witli that of B. infusca^ therefore 
much larger in proportion to the size of the animal than in 
that species. Muzzle flatter than in that species, and the 
inflations smaller, though equally prominent ; in B. infusca 
the two inflations meet in the middle line for about 2 mm., 
while in B. to they are quite separate from one another, the 
nasal region having a marked concavity between tlieni, 
bordered In front by an upturned edge above the centre of 
the nostrils. Zygomata abruptly and widely expanded. 
Front edge of palate with a well-marked median spine. 
Posterior narial fossa widely open, its outline broadly 
U-shaped. Basisphenoid pit large, more extended longi- 
tudinally than in B. infusca, longer than broad, without trace 
of median septum. Teeth apparently as in the allied species. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in spirit) : — - 

Forearm 36 mm. 

Head and body 40; tail 12 ; tail free of membrane 4 ; 
ear 12 ; tragus on inner edge 3 ; thumb 5'6 ; third finger, 
metacarpal 31'5, first phalanx 11, second phalanx 15 ; fifth 
finger 36 ; tibia 14 ; lower leg and foot (c. u.) '2'2) calcar 10' 5. 

Skull : greatest length 12*3 ; upper length in middle line 
11"4; basal length in middle line 8'7; zygomatic breadth 
8*8; breadth across muzzle 6 ; mastoid breadth 7"6; palate 
length 3"3 ; basisphenoid pit 3 1 x 2'7. 

Ilah. K. Dolores, near Coban, Guatemala. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 80. 9. 3. 1. Collected by 
Mr. F. C. Sarg. Two specimens. 

These are the Guatemalan specimens referred by me to 
B. infusca when describing that species, but there can be no 
doubt as to their distinctness both in proportions and skull- 
characters. 



254 On new Forms of Saimiri, Saccopteryx, &c. 

Thrichomys laurentiuSy sp. n. 

Closely allied to T, apereoides, but greyer and with less 
tufted tail. 

Fur close and straight, rather shorter than in T. apereoides; 
hairs of back about 18-20 mm. in length. General colour 
above approximately " broccoli-brown," the individual hairs 
slaty grey below, paler at base, darkening outwards, with a bufFy 
subterminal band and a black tip. Sides, especially shoulders 
and hips, paler and greyer. Under surface, except for a 
greyish collar, pure sharply defined white, the hairs white to 
their bases. Head dark grey, a whitish spot above eye, 
another below it, and a third at outer base of ear. Long 
hairs o£ ear black. Arms and legs greyish, like sides ex- 
ternally, white on their inner aspects ; hands and feet mixed 
grey and white along the metapodials, pure wiiite laterally and 
on the digits. Tail with about an inch at its base clothed 
with hair of the texture and colour of that on the rump ; the 
remainder cylindrical, well-haired, but not markedly crested 
above, and the hairs scarcely increasing in length terminally, 
the longest hairs barely attaining 8 mm. In T. apereoides the 
upper surface is crested with hairs which increase in length 
to the end, where they attain 15-18 mm. Colour of tail 
black above and at the end, dull whitish proximally below. 

Skull on the whole as in T. apereoides, but the nasals are 
longer and the palatal foramina are more widely open, in 
this respect approaching those of T. Fosteri. Last molars 
similar to those of T. apereoides, less complicated than is 
usually the case in T. Fosteri. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and body 215 mm. ; tail 195 ; hind foot (s. u.) 45 ; 
ear 21. 

Skull : greatest length 56*7 ; basilar length 41 ; greatest 
breadth 26; nasals 20"5x6'5; interorbital breadth 11*3; 
breadth across postorbital projections 17*2 ; palate length 
19-8 ; diastema 11 ; palatal foramina 5*8 x 4*4 ; length of 
upper molar series 8' 6. 

Ilab. Sao Louren^o, near Pernarabuco. Alt. 50 m. 

Ti/pe. Old male. B.M. no. 3. 10. 1. 68. Original number 
1721. Collected 16 August, 1903, by Alphonse Robert. 

By the discovery of the present animal the range of the 
genus Thrichomys is very considerably extended. Till 
recently only recorded from Lagoa Santa (Lund and Rein- 
hardt), it was found in Paraguay by Mr. W. Foster, who 
has now sent a considerable series of the local species to 
the British iMuseum. In that country it is found only "in 



On Fishes from Mexico and British Honduras. 255 

a small area of tumbled rock, a few acres in extent," and 
]\Ir. Kobert informs me that T. Jaurentius is similarly very 
local in its distribution. He never met with it in any of the 
other places where he has collected. 

Thrichomys laurentius has four mammae, one pair placed 
high up on the flank behind the axillae, and a second pair 
4-5 cm. further back in front of the hips. No doubt the 
other species are similar in this respect. 

2\ laurentius is most nearly allied to T. apereoides, but may 
be distinguished by its darker colour and less bushy and 
crested tail. T. Fosteri, with a tail like that of T. apereoides, 
has a rather more greyish belly, wider palatal foramina, and 
more complicated third molars. 



XXX. — Descriptions of neio or little-hnoion Fishes from 
Mexico and British Honduras. By C Tate Regan, 13. A. 

Clupea {Opisthonema) Bulleri, sp. n. 

Depth of body 3i-3f times in the total length, length of 
head 4 times. Snout as long as or a little longer than eye, 
the diameter of which is 4 times in the length of head. 
Maxillary extending to below anterior ^ of eye ; lower jaw 
projecting. Sc. 48-50/16. 1). 17. A. 20-21. Last dorsal 
ray elongate. Origin of dorsal in advance of ventral, a 
little behind the vertical from the tip of pectoral. Pectoral 
I the length of head, extending back a little more than § the 
distance from its base to the anal. Silvery below, darker 
above ; a more or less distinct dark spot on the shoulder ; 
dorsal and caudal dusky. 

Total length 127 mm. 

Two specimens from Las Penas, Jalisco, Mexico, collected 
by Dr. Buller. 

This species is closely allied to C. thrissa, Brouss., but is 
distinguished by the smaller eye, lower jaw somewhat pro- 
jecting, and no rows of dark spots on the upper part of tlie 
body. 

Evgraidis [Stolephorus] argentivittatus, sp. n. 

Depth of body about 6 times in the total length, length of 
head 'd'j times. Snout nearly as long as eye, tlie diameter of 
wiiich is 4^-4^ times in the length of head. Maxillary ex- 
tending about to posterior edge of prasoperculuui. D. 12-13, 



256 Mr. C. T. Hegan on neio or litth-hnown 

its origin midway between nostril and base of caudal. 
A. lG-17, commencing a little behind the end of dorsal. 
Pectoral less than ^ the lengtli of head. Scales deciduous. 
A well-defined silvery lateral band as broad as the eye. 

Total length 75 mm. 

Three specimens from Las Peiias, Jalisco, Mexico, collected 
by Dr. Buller. 

Allied to E. perfasciatus, Poey, but with longer head, 
smaller eye, and shorter pectoral. 

r seudoxiphopTiorus pauciradiatus, sp. n. 

Xiphophorus himaculatus (part.), Heck. Sitzb. Ak, Wien, 1848, p. 297, 

pi. ix. fig. 2. 
Pseudoxiphophorus himaculatus (part.), Woolm. Bull. U.S. Fish. Oomm. 

xiv. 1894, p. 65 ; Jord. & Everm. Fish. N. Am. p. 678 (1896). 

Depth of body 3^-4 times in the total length, length of 
head 3|-4^ times. Snout not longer than eye, the diameter 
of which is 3^-4 times in the length of head, and 2-2^ times 
in the interorbital width. 29-30 scales in a longitudinal 
series. D. 11-13, its origin nearer to base of caudal than to 
tip of snout, the length of its base about 4 times in the total 
length. A. 9-10, commencing in advance of the dorsal in 
the male, and slightly behind the dorsal in the female. 
Pectoral |-f the length of head. Brownish, each scale with 
a darker intramarginal crescent ; a black spot on the shoulder 
and another on the upper part of the base of caudal ; dorsal 
with 2 series of small blackish spots. 

Total length 76 mm. 

Eight specimens from Orizaba, Mexico, collected by Mr. A. 
J. Woolman. 

Two species have been confounded under the name of 
P. himaculatus, and it seems probable that tlie specimens 
described and figured by Heller as females belong to the one 
described above. P. himaculatus (of which P. reticulatus, 
Trosch., is a synonym) must be restricted to the species of 
which Ileckel described and figured a male specimen and 
which has been redescribed by Steindachner. It differs 
from P. pauciradiatus in having a longer head and longer 
snout, and in the dorsal fin with 14-16 rays commencing 
midway between tip of snout and base of caudal, its base about 
^ of the total length. 

Zoogoneticus maculatus, sp. n. 

Depth of body 3^-3| times in the total length, lengtli of 
head 3 times. Snout as long as eye, the diameter of which 



Fishes from Mexico and British Honduras. 257 

is 4-4^ times in the length of head, interovbital width 2|-2f 
times. Mouth moderate, oblique, the lower jaw prominent. 
So. 36-38. D. 13-14, its origin about equidistant from 
posterior edge of preeoperculum and base of caudal, its longest 
ray (the fourth or fifth) a little longer than the base of the 
fin, which is ^ the length of head or less. A. 15, commencing 
a little behind the dorsal, the first six ra3's, in the male, short, 
stiff, and of equal length. Pectoral §-| tlie length of head. 
Ventrals extending to the vent. Caudal truncate. Caudal 
peduncle If -2 times as long as deep. Brownish above, 
silvery below, with dark spots which are most conspicuous 
posteriorly ; fins immaculate. 
Total length 84 mm. 

Three specimens from the E.io Santiago, Mexico, collected 
by Dr. A.C. Buller. 

Z. pachi/cep/iahis, Gthr., and the very closely allied 
Z. quitzeoensis and Z. rohustus of Bean, agree with this species 
in the number of dorsal and anal rays, but have a shorter 
and broader head and the caudal peduncle about as long 
as deep. 

Dr. Meek includes Fundulus guatemalensis, Gthr., and 
F. Jahialis, Gthr., in Zoogoneticus, but in neither of them is 
there any differentiation of the anterior anal rays in the male. 
In the former the anal fin is similar in both sexes, in the 
latter it is larger in the female, and from the specimens in 
the British Museum one would judge that these species are 
not viviparous. 

Characodon Qeddesi^ sp. u. 

Depth of body 2§-3 (males) or about 2^ (pregnant females) 
times in the total length, length of head 3|-4 times. Snout 
as long as eye, the diameter of which is 4-4^ times in the 
length of head, interorbital width about 2^ times. About 
17 rather short gill-rakers on anterior arch. Sc. 39-42. 
D. 18-20, its origin nearly equidistant from posterior margin 
of operculum and base of caudal. A. 21-23, commencing a 
little behind the dorsal, not modified in the male. Pectoral 
nearly | length of head. Ventrals extending to the vent. 
Caudal .truncate. Caudal peduncle 1^-lf times as long as 
deep. Olivaceous, silvery below, with several darker narrow 
vertical bands on the upper half of the body. 

Total length 70 mm. 

Numerous examples of this viviparous species from Lake 
Tezcoco, Southern Mexico^ collected by Mr. P. Geddes. 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. 17 



258 On Fishes from Mexico and British Honduras. 

Fleros {Cichlasoma) octofasciatus. 

Heros octofasciattis, Began, Revue Suisse Zool. xi. 1903, p. 417, pi. xiii, 
fig-1. 

Depth of body 2-2| times in the total length, length of 
head 2|-3 times. Snout nearly as long as or a little longer 
than the eye, the diameter of which is 3^—4^ times in the 
length of head, interorbital width about 3 times. Maxillary 
extending to vertical from anterior margin of eye ; breadth 
of prseorbital \~^ diameter of eye ; cheek with 5 or 6 series 
of scales ; fold of lower lip interrupted in the middle. Sc. 
28-31 ll^. 3|-4 scales between the upper lateral line and 
the scaly sheath at the base of the soft dorsal. D. XVII- 
XIX 8-10. A, VII I-X 7-8. Dorsal commencing above 
or a little before the axil of pectoral, the spines increasing in 
length to the sixth or seventh, which is 2§-3^ times in the 
length of head, thence subequal ; soft dorsal and anal pointed; 
pectoral |-4 length of head ; ventrals extending to the base 
of fourth or tifth anal spine ; caudal rounded ; caudal peduncle 
l|-2j times as long as deep. In tlie young dark cross-bands 
on the body, which become indistinct in the adult; a dark 
blotch on the middle of the side below the lateral line and 
another on the upper half of the base of the caudal, this latter 
often ocellated; in the adult a dark band running from the 
eye to the blotch on the side ; usually some light blue spots 
on the head and one on each scale of the side of the body ; 
vertical fins with small dark spots. 

Total length 130 mm. 

Several examples from British Honduras, collected by the 
Rev. J. Robertson. 

I am glad to be able to give a more complete account of 
this species, which was originally described from a little 
example of 50 mm. It is closely allied to //. multispinosus, 
Gthr., which has much stronger and longer dorsal spines, 
and to H. nigrofasciatus, Gthr., which has a broader pra;- 
orbital and only 2^ scales between the upper lateral line and 
the sheath at the base of the soft dorsal fin. 

Heros {Heros) callolepis^ sp. n. 

Depth of body a,bout 2f times in the total length, length 
of head 3 times. Eye nearer to posterior edge of operculum 
tlian to end of snout, its diameter 3^ times in the length of 
head and equal to the interorbital width. Maxillary not 
extending to below the eye; breadth of preeorbital equal to 
the diameter of eye ; cheek with 4 or 5 series of scales ; lower 



On Holocentrum osculiim, Poey. 2J9 

lip witli a strong continuous fold. Sc. 28-29 jf, 1^-2 between 
upper lateral line and base of soft dorsal. L. lat. 18-20 + 10. 
D. XV 9-10. A. VI-VII 7-8. Dorsal commencing behind 
axil of pectoral, the spines rather weak, the last 2^-2f times 
in the length of head and not longer than the last of the 
anal ; soft dorsal and anal pointed ; pectoral about | the 
length of head ; ventral extending beyond origin of anal ; 
caudal weakly emarginate; caudal peduncle as long as deep. 
Brownish, with small light blue spots on the head and one 
at the base of each scale on the body ; a dark blotch on the 
lateral line below the 13th-] 5th dorsal spines. 

Total length 100 mm. 

Two specimens from Santo Domingo de Guzman, Mexico, 
collected by Dr. A. (J. Buller, 

IJeros aureus, Gthr., is distinguished by the deeper body 
(depth 2\-2l in the total length), smaller scales (33 ^), and 
longer dorsal spines (the last ^ the length of head). 



XXXI. — Descriptions of Holocentrum osculum, Poey, and of 
a neio Fish of the Genus Centropomus, By C. Tate 
Regan, B.A. 

Amongst the fishes collected by Dr. R. Bowdler Sharpe in 
the West Indies are several examples of a Holocentruni which 
I have no doubt is the little-known H. osculum of Poey, and 
as such I describe it below. I also take the opportunity to 
describe a new Centropomus from the West Indies. 

Holocentrum osculum. 

Holocentrum osculum, Poey, Memorias, ii. p. 156 (1860). 
Holocentrum per latum, Poey, t. c. p. 157. 

Depth of body 3-3| times in the total length (without 
caudal) and nearly equal to the length of head (opercular 
spine included). Snout equal in length to the interorbital 
^vidth, g-| the diameter of eye, which is 3 times in the length 
of iiead. Maxillary extending to below anterior edge of 
pupil, the -width of its distal extremity | the diameter of 
eye. Opercular spine strong, with 1 or 2 more or less dis- 
tinct much shorter spines below; prajopercular spine extending 
back far beyond the subopercular margin; prseorbital strongly 
serrated and with an anterior downwardly directed spine. 
15-16 gill-rakers on the lower part of anterior arch. 

17* 



260 On a new Fish of the Genus Centroponius. 

Sc. 53-57, \. D. XI, I 14-15, the fourth, fifth and sixth 
spines the longest, about ^ tlie length of head, the soft tin 
elevated and pointed, extending beyond the base of caudal 
when laid back, A. IV 10-11, the third spine the strongest 
and longest, §-§ the length of head. Pectoral about | the 
length of head. Upper lobe of caudal the longest. Caudal 
peduncle 2|-3 times as long as deep. Purplish, with bronze 
longitudinal stripes between the series of scales j fins pale. 

Total length 210 mm. 

Eight examples from St. Thomas and St. Croix; (thespecies 
originally recorded from Cuba). 

This species is closely allied to H. sogo^ Bl. [H. longi- 
jnnnBj C. & V.), from which it differs notably in the smaller 
mouth, more slender caudal peduncle, and the shape of the 
spinous dorsal fin. 

Centropomus argenteus, sp. n. 
Centroponius pa7-allelus (part.), Bouleng, Cat. Fish. i. p. 369 (1895). 

Depth of body o|-4 times in the total length, length of 
head (excluding the subopcrcular flap) 2| times. Snout 
much longer than the eye, the diameter of which is about 
4f times in the length of head, and equal to its distance from 
the posterior edge of pra^operculum. Maxillar}' extending to 
below middle of eye ; lower jaw strongly projecting. Sub- 
opcrcular flap extending to below origin of dorsal. Cheeks 
and opercles scaly. Praiorbital and supraclavicle serrated ; 
prseoperculum serrated, with stronger spines at the angle, 
anterior ridge with two spines. 7-9 gill-rakers and 4-6 
rudiments on lower part of anterior arch. 67—70 scales in a 
longitudinal series, 8 or 9 in a transverse series from origin 
of second dorsal to lateral line. D. VIII, I 10, originating 
behind the axil of pectoral, the third and fourth spines the 
longest, about | the length of head. A. Ill, 6, second anal 
spine stronger and a little longer than the third, as long as 
or a little longer than the caudal peduncle, |-^ the length of 
head. Pectoral f the length of head. Ventrals inserted 
well behind pectorals, extending back a little beyond the 
vent, which is situated at | the distance from base of ventral 
spine to origin of anal. Silvery, back darker; lateral line 
not blackish ; spinous dorsal slightly dusky, fins otherwise 
pale. 

Total length 135 mm. 

Three specimens, two from Barbadoes (presented by 
Mr. F. G. Beckford in 1872) and one from British Guiana. 

C. parallehis is easily distinguished by the shorter snout. 



On Tioo neio Frogs from Cameroon. 261 

larger eye (diameter 4 times in length of head, equal to length 
of snout, and considerably greater than the distance from 
posterior edge of prseoperculum in specimens of this size), the 
smaller scales (75-90^^^), and the much more anterior vent. 
C. argenteus is quite as closely allied to C. ensiferus, Poey, 
which has larger scales (50-60) and a longer pectoral, and 
also differs in many other characters. There can be no 
doubt as to the identity of C. mexicanus^ Bocourt, with 
C. parallelus. The British Museum possesses several ex- 
amples from Mexico, in some of which the lateral line is 
more or less pigmented. C. constantinus, Jord. & Everm., 
appears to me to be at least very closely allied to C. un- 
decimalis, Bl., a species with which they do not compare it. 



XXXII. — Descriptions of Two new Genera of Frogs of the 
Family Ranidse from Cameroon, Bv Gr. A. BOULENGEK^ 
F.R.S. 

Nyctibates. 

Pupil vertical. Tongue cordiform, free and notched 
behind. Vomerine teeth. Tympanum distinct. Fingers 
free^ toes webbed. Outer metatarsals bound together. Omo- 
sternum and sternum cartilaginous. Terminal phalanges 
simple, obtuse. 

Closely related to Trichohatrachus, Blgr. 

Nyctihates corrugatus. 

Vomerine teeth in two small rounded groups between the 
large choanfe. Head large, as long as broad ; snout as long 
as the orbit, obliquely truncate and slanting forwards from 
the nostrils to the mouth ; canthus rostralis strong ; loreal 
region concave ; nostril equally distant from the eye and 
from the end of the snout ; eye large ; interorbital space as 
broad as the upper eyelid ; tympanum three fifths the diameter 
of the eye. Limbs rather slender ; tips of fingers and toes 
slightly swollen ; first finger a little longer than second ; toes 
half-webbed ; subarticular tubercles strong ; a small, oval, 
inner metatarsal tubercle. The tibio-tarsal articulation reaches 
the eye. Upper parts with small granular asperities ; back 
with fine oblique folds converging posteriorly, forming more 



262 On Two neic Frogs from Cameroon. 

or less regular chevrons ; lower parts smooth. Purplish 
brown above ; a triangular dark marking with a fine light 
edge between the eyes, the base turned forwards ; upper lip 
white-edged; limbs with narrow, oblique, dark cross-bars; 
sides of thigh and inner side of leg blackish, speckled with 
whitish ; lower parts whitish^ with the exception of a con- 
siderable part o£ the thigh, the tarsus, and the foot, which 
are blackish brown. 

From snout to vent 5o mm. 

Two female specimens were obtained at Efulen, Bulu 
Country, Southern Cameroon, by Mr. G. L. Bates. 

BULUA. 

Pupil horizontal. Tongue cordiform, free and notched 
behind. Vomerine teeth formino- lono' transverse series 
behind the choanas. Tympanum distinct. Fingers and toes 
free. Outer metatarsals bound together. Omosternum and 
sternum cartilaginous. Terminal phalanges simple, obtuse. 

A very distinct genus, to be placed near Petropedetes, 
Keichen. 

Bulua ventrimarmorata. 

Vomerine teeth in two curved series narrowly separated 
from each other and extending outwards beyond the choanfe. 
Head moderate, rather strongly depressed, a little broader 
than long ; snout short, broadly rounded ; no canthus ros- 
tralis ; eye small ; interorbital region twice as broad as the 
upper eyelid ; tympanum a little smaller than the eye, its 
diameter equal to its distance from the orbit. Fingers rather 
short, blunt, first much longer than second ; toes moderate, 
with swollen tips ; subarticular and inner metatarsal tubercles 
feebly prominent. The tibio-tarsal articulation reaches the 
tympanum. Skin smooth. Dark purplish brown above, 
with indistinct darker markings ; a pink spot on each side 
of the vent j sides of head and of thighs black, speckled 
"with white ; limbs with interrupted dark cross-bars ; throat 
black ; belly and lower surface of limbs marbled black and 
W'hite. Breeding male with two groups of rather large, 
conicalj black, horny spines on the inner side of the inner 
finger. 

From snout to vent 40 mm. 

A single male specimen from Efulen, Bulu Country, 
collected by Mr. G . L. Bates. 



On Ileleroptera from NortJi Queensland. 2G3 

'X.XX.lll.—lihjnchotal Notes.— ^Xll. By W. L. Distant. 

IIeteroptera from North Queensland. 

The British Museum has recently acquired a collection of 
Rhynchota made by Mr. F. F. Dodd at Townsville, North 
Queensland. Although tins order of insects is at present 
very imperfectly known from the continent of Australia, 
a sufficient number of genera and species have been described 
to establish by their comparison that, so far as the Rhynchota 
are concerned, Northern Queensland represents or belongs to 
a separate province in the zoo-geographical divisions of 
Australia. The Heteroptera are alone dealt with in this 
paper, the Homoptera being reserved for some future occasion. 
The types are all in the National Collection. 

Fam. Pentatouiidae. 
Theseus nigrescens, sp. n. 

Ochraceous or stramineous, blackly punctate, the punctures 
arranged in longitudinal series on head and on anterior area 
of pronotum, those at lateral margins being continuous ; 
antennae, sometimes a large spot on basal area of pronotum, 
scutellum, membrane, body beneath, and legs black ; basal 
half of fourth, extreme base of fifth, and inner margin of first 
joint of anteniiie, basal lateral margins, apex, and sometimes 
a small basal spot to scutellum, cox^, trochanters, longi- 
tudinal sireaks to femora, a broad subbasal aniiulation to 
tibise, tarsi (excluding apices), lateral margins of body 
beneath, and discal spots to abdomen pale ochraceous. 

Allied to T. modestus, Stal ; scutellum black, more thickly, 
less confluently, and more finely punctate, and with a very 
distinct central longitudinal ridge on its posterior area. 

Long. 12^ mm. 

Eumecopus ahdominalis, sp. n. 

Above reddish brown, irrorated with ochraceous, much 
more strongly so on corium ; head with the lateral margins, 
a central longitudinal fascia, margined on each side by a 
shorter fascia on anterior area, and a slender curved line on 
posterior area, narrow lateral and posterior margins, a central 
linear spot at anterior margin, and two small discal spots on 
anterior area of pronotum, a large spot at each basal angle 
and the apex of scutellum, and marginal and venal lines to 



264 Mr. W. L. Distant on 

corium very pale ochraceous or stramineous ; membrane 
black ; connexivum above and beneath flavous ; abdomen 
beneath and apex of rostrum castaneous; sternum, legs, 
antenna?, and a spot on apical abdominal segment reddish 
ochraceous ; outer streaks to femora, basal areas of tibise, and 
the tarsi fiavescent; apical segmental abdominal angles 
flavescent ; rostrum reaching, but not passing, the third 
abdominal segment ; antennas five-jointed, second joint 
scarcely more than half the length of third ; lateral posterior 
angles of pronotum spinously produced, spines distinctly 
recurved. 

Long. 18 ; exp. pronot. angl. 9| mm. 

Eumecopus pallescens, sp. n. 

Above pale stramineous, thickly piceously punctate, the 
punctures more confluent at lateral areas of pronotum and 
scutellum and in a central longitudinal streak to corium ; 
head with the punctures in longitudinal series, the ocelli 
bright carmine-red; lateral margins of pronotum, scutellum 
and corium, a central longitudinal fascia to pronotum and 
scutellum, and apex of the last pale stramineous, impunctate ; 
connexivum flavescent, inwardly darkly punctate ; membrane 
piceous, its apical area paler ; body beneath and legs pale 
ochraceous ; apex of rostrum and stigmatal spots black ; 
linear streaks to femora and tibijB, apices of posterior femora 
and tibise, and apices of the tarsi brownish castaneous ; 
antennai pale brownish, bases of the second, third, and fourth 
joints a little paler in hue; apical segmental abdominal 
angles flavescent ; rostrum reaching the fourth abdominal 
segment ; antennae four-jointed, second and third joints 
longest, second a little longer than third; lateral posterior 
angles of pronotum spinously straightly produced. 

Long. 19-20; exp. pronot. angl. 8-8i mm. 

Dandinus, gen. nov. 

Elongately ovate ; head broad and elongate, almost as 
long as the pronotum, its lateral margins a little sinuate, its 
apex slightly widened and rounded, lateral lobes a little 
longer than the central lobe, their apices inwardly angulated 
but not meeting ; eyes small, touching the anterior margin 
of the pronotum ; antennae five-jointed, almost as long as 
head and pronotum together, first joint almost hidden 
beneath head, a little incrassate, second and third more 
slender, second longer than third, fourth and h'fth thickened, 



Ileteroiitera from North Queensland. 265 

Kubpyriform, about subequal in lengtli ; rostrum reaching 
posterior coxse (imperfectly seen on carded specimen) ; pro- 
notum about twice as broad between posterior lateral angles 
as at anterior margin, anterior lateral angles obtusely acute, 
very strongly transversely impressed near middle, the anterior 
area possessing a broad central carination with a tuberculous 
callosity on each side, the whole surface rugosely punctate ; 
scutellum long, broad, passing apex of corium, very broad at 
base, obliquely narrowed to about middle, the lateral margins 
ihen parallel to apex, which is broadly rounded, basal area 
rugosely gibbous ; corium moderately small and narrow, not 
reaching apex of scutellum ; membrane short, with coarse 
reticulate venation ; connexivum broadly exposed beyond 
middle ; legs short, femora a little thickened. 

Dandinus may be placed near the Ethiopian genus 
jEschrus, Spin. 

Dandinus crassus^ sp. n. 

Irregularly greyish brown, thickly coarsely punctate; first, 
second, and third joints of antenna?, central discal fascia and 
some oblique discal lines on posterior area of pronotum, 
connexivum, and legs ochraceous • fourth and fifth joints of 
antenna?, annulations to femora and tibia^, and basal area of 
scutellum piceous ; an oblique linear stramineous spot at each 
basal angle of scutellum, its subapical area and inner area of 
corium greyish punctured with piceous ; connexivum spotted 
witii piceous ; body beneath piceous, the lateral areas more 
or less brownish ochraceous; head somewhat obscurely punc- 
tate; pronotum thickly, coarsely, rugosely punctate; scutellum 
thickly, coarsely, rugosely punctate on basal area, coarsely and 
more sparingly punctate on posterior area, which has a distinct 
central carination extending for about half its length; corium 
sparingly and a little more finely punctate ; connexivum 
inwardly coarsely punctate. 

Long. 5^5 exp. pronot. angl. 3| mm. 

Fam. Coreidae. 

Subfam. CojtEiN^. 

POMPONATI US, gen. nov. 

Body elongate, narrowed posteriorly ; head broad not 
produced beyond the antenniferous tubercles, a deep central 
longitudinal incision on disk, and a distinct transverse conical 
lidge at base ; eyes longer than broad, compressed at lateral 



2GG Mr. W. L. Distant on 

margins of head ; antenriEe with the first, seond, and third 
joints subequal in length, fourth shortest, first and second 
regularly moderately incrassate, third and fourth pyriform ; 
rostrum reaching the middle of mesonotum ; pronotum about 
as long as broad at base, anterior margin concavely sinuate, 
the anterior angles acute, lateral margins carinate, slightly 
upwardly reflected, posterior lateral angles nodulose, base 
obliquely deflected, truncate In front of scutellum and then 
obliquely directed to the lateral angles ; scutellutn small, 
trlano'ular ; corlum long, reaching the base of the sixth 
abdominal segment ; membrane very small, with reticulate 
venation ; lateral margins of abdomen beyond middle am- 
pliately produced and moderately directed upward, the 
posterior ajucal angles of the fifth and sixth segments acute, 
the apex of the anal appendage in ? angularly bifurcate ; 
legs short, femora aplcally incrassate, with a distinct tooth 
beneath near apex, posterior femora only extending to about 
half the length of abdomen ; abdominal spiracles at about 
equal distance from anterior and lateral segmental margins. 
Allied to Ghoerommatus. 

Povqwnatius typicus, sp. n. 

$ . Testaceous, base of pronotum and corium with piceous 
and flavous suffusions ; head with two central fuscous fasciae ; 
scutellum with a black central line at base; membrane 
bronzy black ; body beneath reddish ochraceous, two black 
fascia extending from anterior to posterior coxa3, and two 
black spots on basal abdominal segment behind inner margins 
of coxse, on mesonotum the fascise have a broad outer greyish 
margin, outwardly speckled with black ; legs stramineous, 
finely speckled with black, a little darker at bases and apices 
of tiblffi ; above finely and obscurely j)unctate, beneath a little 
more distinctly punctate ; membrane not quite reaching apex 
of abdomen. 
Long. 15^ ram. 

Fam. Lygaeidae. 

Subfam. Geocorinje. 

Germalus lineolosusj sp. n. 

Ochraceous, with dark punctures, fuscous or piceous lines, 
and piceous suffusions to hemelytra. Head pule ochraceous, 
impunctate, a central longitudinal line and a shorter line at 
each ocellus piceous ; antennge ochraceous, apices of apical 
joints, and eyes reddish; pronotum pale ochraceous, darkly 



IJetercptera from North Queensland. 267 

punctate, except on anterior transverse callosities and basal 
margin^ tlie first of which have a central piceous spot and the 
second has six spots of the same colour, the disk with four 
fuscous lines, two central and one on each lateral area ; scu- 
tellum ochraceous, with two central piceous spots, a transverse 
line of dark punctures near base, and the apical area darkly 
punctate; coriurn pale ochraceous, subhyaline, the claval 
suture and longitudinal veins punctate, apical area more or 
less suffused w^ith piceous; membrane pale fuscous hyaline; 
connexivum ochraceous, spotted with rosy red ; body beneath 
and legs ochraceous ; lateral areas of sternum thickly darkly 
punctate ; abdomen with a submarginal rosy-red, sometimes 
piceous, fascia. 
Long. 4^-5 mm. 

Geocoris elegantulus, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, and sternum ochraceous ; scutellum, 
hemelytra, and abdomen beneath black ; anterior and pos- 
terior margins of pronotum, clavus, claval suture, lateral 
margins of corium, and narrow lateral margins of abdomen 
beneath creamy white ; legs pale ochraceous, apices of tarsi 
fuscous ; antennte piceous, first joint (excluding apex) and 
the whole of the apical joint pale ochraceous, second and 
fourth joints subequal in length ; eyes carmine-red, directed 
backward to about one third the length of pronotum ; pro- 
notum coarsely punctate behind the anterior and before the 
posterior margin ; scutellum finely punctate ; clavus and a 
submarginal line to corium coarsely punctate; body above 
sparingly, finely, longly pilose. 

Long. '6 mm. 

Subfam. ApHANiNM, 
Pamera picturatus, sp. n. 

Black; first and second joints of antenna?, femora, a sub- 
apical annulation to anterior and intermediate tibiae, and 
basal margin of pronotum testaceous red ; corium ochraceous 
with the subapical area creamy white, a middle maro-inal 
line, an interior marginal line to the white area, and the 
apical angle indigo-black; membrane indigo-black, the apex 
broadly dull ochraceous ; abdomen beneath with a central 
creamy-white transverse fascia ; second joint of antennaj 
much longer than third and subequal to fourth ; anterior lobe 
of pronotum elongate, globose, slightly shorter than head and 
at least half as long again as posterior lobe ; corium finely 



268 Mr. W. L. Distant o)i 

sparingly punctate ; anterior femora strongly incrassate, 
longly pilose above, tinely spinose beneath ; tibiee moderately 
curved ; body above sparingly longly pilose. 

Long. 6^ mm. 

Allied to P. cephalotes, Dall. 

Pamera apicalis, sp. n. 

Black ; basal joint of anterior and intermediate tarsi and 
a broad apical spot to membrane dull ochraceous ; corium 
creamy whitCj thickly darkly punctate, subclaval margin, a 
transverse central fascia, and the apical margin black ; 
abdomen beneath in female with a central transverse creamy- 
white fascia and the apex dull ochraceous ; head, pronotum, 
and scutellum greyishly pilose, base of pronotum nude ; apex 
of scutellum pale stramineous ; anterior femora strongly 
incrassate, finely spinose beneath, longly pilose above, tibias 
nearly straight ; other characters as described in preceding 
species. 

Long. 6},-Q mm. 

Dieuches scuteUatus, sp. n. 

Black; lateral margins of anterior lobe of pronotum 
creamy white; basal joint of antennae and extreme bases of 
anterior tibiae brownish ochraceous; a central linear spot to 
posterior lobe of pronotum, two small subbasal spots and 
apex to scutellum, base, a central marginal spot, two small 
spots near claval margin, and a large subapical spot to 
corium creamy white ; membrane dark fuliginous, its apex 
paler ; bases of intermediate and posterior femora broadly 
creamy white ; posterior lobe of pronotum very coarsely 
punctate^ its posterior margin concavely sinuate, anterior 
lobe much more finely punctate, its lateral margins very 
slightly convex ; second, third, and fourth joints of antennae 
almost subequal in length ; anterior femora incrassate, some- 
what strongly spinose beneath. 

Long. 6^-7 mm. 

Allied to D. atricornis, Stal. 

Dieuches con sanguineus, sp. n. 

Black; lateral margins of pronotum (excluding base), 
bases of first and fourth joints of antennse (broadly), and bases 
of second and third joints (narrowly), troclianters, bases of 
femora, and the anterior and intermediate tibiae (excluding 
apices) stramineous ; apex of scutellum and the corium strami- 
neous, the last with a broad transverse medial fascia and the 



Ilcteroptera from JVorth Queensland. 269 

apical margin black, the inner basal area and clavus much 
suffused with brownish black ; connexivum stramineous, 
spotted with black; second, third, and fourth joints of 
antennae subequal in length ; lateral margins of pronotum 
almost obliquely straight, very slightly sinuate, transversely 
impressed near middle and concave at base. 

Long. 7^-9 mm. 

Allied to D. hngicolUs, Dall. 

Fam. Eeduviidse. 
Havinthus trochanterus^ sp. n. 

Black, shining; apex of scutellum, venation to corium, 
and the trochanters sanguineous ; corium and clavus sparingly 
greyishly tomentose ; connexivum with large marginal 
sanguineous spots ; head about as long as pronotum and 
scutellum together, its lateral margins behind eyes granulate; 
ocelli castaneous ; antennas with the first joint as long as 
head, second and third short, together about as long as 
fourth ; pronotum strongly constricted near middle, anterior 
lobe glabrous, posterior lobe very finely and obscurely 
punctate ; connexivum robust, erosed at the segmental 
incisures ; femora finely granulate, anterior femora pro- 
minently spinose beneath, intermediate and posterior femora 
more obsoletely spinose. 

Long. 11^-12 mm. 

A distinct species by the greyishly tomentose and san- 
guineously veined corium and the sanguineous trochanters. 

Fam. Capsidge. 

Subfain. MiniNM. 

Division Miraria. 

Megalocercea Doddi, sp. n. 

Elongate, slender; pale ochraceous, with, a slight virescent 
tinge ; antennas, apex of posterior tibiae, and basal joint 
of ])osterior tarsi rosaceous ; eyes black ; pronotum and 
scutellum with a central pale longitudinal line; head with a 
narrow, profound, central, longitudinal incision between eyes ; 
basal joint of antennjB moderately incrassate and about as 
long as head, second joint about as long as posterior tibias, 
slightly longer than third; pronotum very finely and obscurely 
granulate, its posterior margin concavely sinuate, the meso- 
notum exposed ; antennas not pilose ; basal joint of posterior 
tarsi very long. 

Lons". 5 mm. 



27a Mr. W. L. Distant on 

Megacoelum modestum, sp. n. 

Very pale ochraceous, with a slight virescent tint ; basal 
joint of antennae and anterior and intermediate femora dark 
ochraceous, apical areas of posterior femora pale reddish 
castaneousj eyes, apices of rostrum and scutellum, and 
sometimes the central subbasal margin of pronotum piceous ; 
membrane greyish, opaque ; basal joint of antennee a little 
incrassate and slightly longer than head, remaining joints 
much more slender but about equally thick, second joint 
shorter than posterior tibiae ; head with a distinct linear 
incision between the eyes ; rostrum about reaching the 
posterior coxae ; posterior tarsi with the first joint shortest, 
the third longest. 

Long. 65 mm. 

Megacoelum toionsvillensis, sp. n. 

Ochraceous ; legs, anterior callosities, and a large central 
basal spot to pronotum, cuneus, and membrane black ; corium 
slate-black, with the lateral margins widened into an oblong 
spot near apex, ochraceous; lateral margins and apex of 
cuneus pale castaneous ; antennae ochraceous, extreme apex 
of first joint (sometimes concolorous) and apex of second 
joint black, apex of third and the whole of fourth (excluding 
base) fuscous; legs stramineous, femora ochraceous, apices 
of tarsi black ; first joint of antennae a little longer than head, 
second and third subequal in length ; head with a distinct 
central longitudinal impression between eyes; pronotum very 
finely and obsoletely transversely wrinkled ; scutellum 
moderately tumid ; posterior tarsi with the first joint 
shortest, third longest. 

Long. 7^ mm. 

Alegacoelum suffusum, sp. n. 

Dull dark ochraceous ; head, antennas, extreme margins 
of pronotum, scutellum, narrow lateral margins to corium, 
and legs pale ochraceous ; eyes, pronotum (excluding extreme 
margins), a large central spot to scutellum, basal and apical 
streaks to clavus, sublateral basal streak and transverse 
apical fascia to corium, apical halves of posterior femora, the 
posterior tibise, and apices of tarsi black ; first joint of 
antennae and anterior and intermediate legs mottled with 
fuscous; apex of second joint, subapical fascia to third joint, 
and fourth joint of antennae (excluding base) black ; cuneus 
pale castaneous ; second joint of antennte a little longer than 
third ; pronotum coarsely transversely rugulose ; scutellum 



Ileleroptera from North Queensland. 271 

somewli.at foveate at base ; posterior tar.si with the first joint 
shortest, third longest. 
Long. 6 mm. 

Division Cylaparia. 
VOLKELIUS, gen. nov. 

Head short, broad, transverse, abruptly deflected in front 
of eyes, broadly centrally sulcate on basal area, with eyes 
very much broader than anterior margin of pronotum ; 
rostrum reaching the anterior coxfe; antenna strongly pilose, 
with the first joint strongly incrassate, shorter than head, 
second joint about as long as head and pronotum together, 
more slender than first, but distinctly clavate at apex, third 
about as long as pronotum, incrassate, attenuate towards 
base, fourth incrassate, shorter than third, and narrowed at 
base and apex ; pronotum rugosely punctate, with a narrow 
anterior collar and two transverse callosities before middle, 
a little tumid and convex posteriorly, and deflected anteriorly, 
basal margin about three times broader than anterior margin, 
lateral margins almost obliquely straight, lateral angles 
rounded but not prominent, posterior margin slightly con- 
cavely sinuate before scutelluin, which is tumid, subtriangular, 
and profoundly, centrally, longitudinally sulcate ; lateral 
margins of the corium carinately reflexed ; cuneus longer 
than broad; membrane with a single oblique basal cell; 
legs pilose, femora a little thickened, posterior tarsi with the 
first and second joints almost subequal in length, third a 
little longest ; connexivum exposed, with the posterior 
segmental angles prominent. 

Allied to the West African genus Sahlhergella, Haglund. 

Volkelius sulcatus, sp. n. 

Reddish ochraceous ; antennae (excluding extreme base), 
eyes, scutellum, lateral margins (widened posteriorly) and 
inner apical margins of corium, membrane, spots to con- 
nexivum, and legs black ; anterior and intermediate tibiae 
(excluding base) and the tarsi (excluding apex) pale ochra- 
ceous ; a minute pale spot to membrane near apex of cuneus ; 
pronotum rugulosely punctate ; scutellum granulate, pro- 
foundly centrally sulcate. 

Long. 7^-8^ mm. 

Eucerocoris suspectuSy sp. n. 
^ . Pale reddish ochraceous ; antennte, eyes, a central 



272 Mr. W. L. Distant on 

annulation to posterior femora, bases of tibiis, and the tarsi 
black or piceous ; coriuin fuscous, its base, about basal half 
of lateral margin, and a spot near apical inner angle pale 
reddish ochraceous ; membrane pale fuscous; legs (excluding 
black markings) ochraceous. 

? . Reddish or pale sanguineous ; head and antennae black ; 
legs and abdomen beneath pale ochraceous ; apical half of 
abdomen (excluding segmental margins), apical halves of 
femora, basal annulation to posterior femora, basal areas 
of tibiae, and the tarsi black ; corium dull purplish black, its 
base reddish ochraceous; membrane pale fuscous. 

Head broad, deflected in front of ejeSj with a distinct 
angulated tubercle near the inner margin of each antenna, a 
distinct, narrow, central, linear sulcation, eyes projecting con- 
siderably beyond anterior margin of pronotum ; antennae not 
hirsute, with the first joint thickened and clavate at apex, 
about as long as posterior tibiae ; remaining joints slender, 
second a little longer than first; rostrum about reaching the 
latitude of the intermediate coxte ; pronotum with two ante- 
rior transverse impressions^ the first defining a rather broad 
collar, the second enclosing two transverse callosities, an 
impression near each posterior angle which gives it the 
appearance of being subprominent. 

Long., (^ 8^, ? 9^ mm. 

As the species of the allied genus Ilelopeltis are well- 
known destructive pests to tea- and other plantations, it is 
probable that the species of Eucerocoris have similar habits. 

S ubf a m . Cafsinm. 

Division ? 

EsTUiDUS, gen nov. 

Subelongate ; head broad, deflected from shortly in front 
of eyes, which project beyond the anterior margin of pro- 
notum ; antennas with the first joint a little shorter than the 
head but considerably passing its apex, second joint subequal 
in length to posterior tibise and a little thickened at apex, 
third and fourth joints very slender ; rostrum reaching the 
intermediate coxse ; pronotum with the posterior about twice 
as broad as the anterior margin, its lateral margins sinuate, 
provided with a very narrow anterior collar, compressed 
before middle where it is strongly callose, immediately behind 
the constriction is a distinct discal foveation variable in size ; 
scutellum moderately tumid, foveately sulcate at base; corium 
and clavus distinctly punctate, a distinct foveation at suture 



Ilderoptera from North Queensland. 273 

of corium behind claval apex ; cuneus considerably longer 
than broad, its apex acute; membrane with a single elongate 
basal cell ; legs of moderate length, femora very slightly 
thickeried. 

1 place this genus near Malalasfa, Dist., Malacopeplus, 
Kiik., and Guiauerius, Dist., which will probably assist to 
conslitute a distinct division of the subfam. Capsinae. 

Kstuidus foveatuSj sp. n. 

Ochraceous ; scutellum stramineous ; antennae, eyes, clavu^ 
(excluding base), a large subrutundate spot on posterior 
disk of corium, memhrane, upper surfaces of femora and 
anterior tibiae, the intermediate and posterior tibiae, and the 
tarsi black ; extreme base of first joint of antennge ochraceous, 
third and fourth joints fuscous; legs finely setose; body 
above finely pilose, clavus and corium distinctly and some- 
what coarsely punctate, cunens pale with the margins and 
apex slightly fuscous; pronotal discal foveation broad and 
profound; scutellum glabrous, its basal sulcation linear but 
situate in a distinct foveation. 

Var. Clavus wholly black. 

Long. 7 mm. 

EstuiJus 7nar^i?iatus, sp. n. 

Very pale ochraceous or stramineous; eyes, scutellum, 
clavus, inner area of corium, membrane, and first and second 
joints of antennae black or piceous ; third and fourth joints 
and extreme base of first joint of antennae ochraceous ; body 
above shining, membrane opaque with its margins hyaline ; 
})ronotal discal foveation less pronounced than in the pre- 
ceding species; clavus and inner area of corium very finely 
and somewhat obscurely punctate; legs finely and obscurely 
setose. 

Long. 7^ mm. 

Division Capsaria. 
Lj/gus flavoscutellatus, sp. n. 

Dark shining ochraceous, body beneath much paler ; scu- 
tellum and cuneus stramineus, the last with a small dark 
apical spot ; eyes and apices of the tarsi piceous ; antennae 
with the third and fourth joints and the apex of the second 
juint fuscous, first joint a little shorter than head, second sub- 
equal in length to posterior tibiae ; pronotum very finely and 
obscurely granulate ; scutellum glabrous ; corium finely 
obscurely pijose and obsoletely finely granulate ; apical areas 

Ann. & Mag. N. IlisL Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. IB 



274 Mr. W. L. Distant on 

of posterior femora speckled with brigiit pale castaneous ; 
tibiffi darkly setose ; rostrum about reaching tlic posterior 
coxse, its apex black. 
Long. .3^-4 mm. 

roeciloscytus antennatus, sp. n. 

Piceous, thickly greyishly pilose^ disk of pronotum and 
scutellum somewhat castaneous ; cuneus bright pale casta- 
neous, its basal and apical margins very narrowly ochraceous; 
membrane fuscous ; antennse pale ochraceous, the first joint 
and apex of second piceou?, fourth joint fuscous ; legs 
piceous, anterior and intermediate tibiae (excluding base), 
about apical third of posterior tibise, and tarsi (excluding 
apex) pale ochraceous ; pronotum with two small, obscure, 
anterior discal black spots, and its posterior margin very 
narrowly ochraceous ; first joint of antennse shorter than head, 
second about as long as posterior tib'ae, third and fourth 
almost subequal in length; coxa3 dull red. 

Long. 3|-4,^ mm. 

In this species the eyes are very large and constitute a 
rather aberrant feature of the genus. 

Pceciloscytus flavipeSy sp. n. 

Black, shining, finely sparingly greyishly pilose; basal 
margin of head, antennae, rostrum, coxae, and legs very pale 
ochraceous ; apical areas fif posterior femora reddish ochra- 
ceous ; third and fourth joints and apex of second joint of 
antennae, apex of rostrum, and apices of tarsi piceous ; cuneus 
castaneous, its anterior and posterior margins narrowly 
luteous; membrane fuliginous with paler suffusions; first 
joint of antennae shorter than head, second about as long as 
posterior tibiae ; eyes large and prominent, but smaller than 
in the preceding species ; pronotum granulate ; posterior 
femora moderately thickened. 

Long. 2^-3 mm. 

Caviptohrochis signatus, sp. n. 

Ochraceous ; apex of second joint of antennae, eyes, a 
broad central longitudinal fascia to scutellum, and a broad 
fascia at incisural margins of clavus black ; first, third, and 
fourth joints of antennae, inner apical area of corium, central 
and subapical annulations to posterior femora, apices of tarsi, 
lateral areas of sternum, lateral and central areas of abdomen 
(imperfectly seen on carded specimen) fuscous ; membrane 
pale brownish ochraceous, the venation fuscous ; first joint 



Tlcteroiitera from North Queensland. 275 

of aiitennje very slightly thickened and almost as long as 
head, second joint subeqnal in length to posterior tibiae ; pro- 
notnra somewhat coarsely punctate, corium more finely punc- 
tate (except on lateral marginal areas, which are impunctate). 
Long, -i^ mm. 

Division B ii Y c n A u i a. 

FiNGULUS, gen. nov. 

Body short, broad, convex, shining; head somewhat long, 
its base distinctly constricted and transverse; clypeus very 
prominent, con) pressed, subconical above, and convexly de- 
pressed ; eyes of moderate size, situate much nearer to base 
of antennffi than to posterior margin of head, a very distinct 
lateral callosity at their hinder margins ; antennse with the 
basal joint snbglobosely incrassate, a little shorter than head, 
second joint of ordinary thickness, moi'e slender at base, and 
very slightly thickened towards apex, subequal in length to 
])OSterior tibite, third and fourth joints slender, third longer 
tlian fourth ; rostrum imperfectly seen, owing to typical 
specimen being in a carded condition ; pronotum convex, 
coarsely punctate, strongly deflected anteriorly, with a pro- 
minent ridged anterior collar, width between pronotal angles 
(which are subprominent) about four times that of anterior 
margin, lateral margins almost obliquely straight ; scutellum 
subtriangular, sparingly coarsely punctate ; lateral margins 
of the hemelytra a little convexly ampliately depressed, clavus 
and corium somewhat thickly punctate, cuneus opaque, im- 
punctate, about as broad at base as long; membrane with 
two short basal cells ; legs of moderate length, anterior and 
intermediate femora moderately thickened, posterior femora 
more strongly incrassate, apical joint of tarsi moderately 
thickened. 

This genus may be provisionally placed near Fhysetonotus 
of the Neotropical region. 

Fingulus atrocceruleus, sp. n. 

Shining indigo-black; second joint of antennae (excluding 
apex), apical halves of tibiae, and the tarsi pale ochraceous; 
third and fourth joints of the antennse fuscous, the extreme 
base of third pale ochraceous ; cuneus slate-black, opaque ; 
membrane pale hyaline, the basal area fuliginous ; bodv 
beneath black, im[)erfectly seen owing to the typicil specimen 
being "carded." 

Long, o mm. 

.18* 



276 On a neio Fish from the Xem Hebrides. 

Synonymical Notes on Australian Species. 

Fani. Pentatomidae. 
Philia regia. 

Fhilia regia, Bergr. Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, vii. p. 287 (1895). 
Philia Jeucochalcea, Bredd. Societas Entomol. xviii. p. 58 (1903). 

Ihilia ccrea. 

rhilia cerea, Dist. ' Entomologist/ Suppl. xxv. p. 96 (J892). 
Philia coinpacta, Bredd. Societas Entomol. xviii. p. 57 (1903). 

Dr. Bergroth drew my attention to the synonymical aspect 
of these two species. 

Fara. Eeduviidse. 

Genus Ceoscius. 

Croscius melanopterus, Stal, En. Hem. iv. p. 80 (1874). 
C'astruccius insi(/nis, Dist. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) xi. p. 356 
(1903). 

As Stal only gave indications of this genus in his "Con- 
spectus generum " and placed it in a position of the sub- 
family Acanthaspince which I think it should not occupy^ 
I have hitherto failed to recognize it, and, what is worse, 
have redescribed it. Its place seems clearly near Staliastes. 



XXXIV. — Description of a new Fish of the Genus Chcetodou 
from the New Hebrides. By C. Tate Regan, B.A. 

Choitodun Dixoni. 

Depth of body 1^-1| times in the total length (without 
caudal), length of head '6\ times. Snout as long as the eye, 
the diameter of which is h times in the length of head and 
greater than the interorbital width. Scales very large on 
the sides, becoming quite small posteriorly, about 30 in a 
longitudinal series. D. XIII 21-22, the anterior spines 
stout, increasing in length to the fourth or fifth, the soft fin 
rounded. A. Ill 16-17, the third spine slightly longer 
than the second, longer than the longest dorsal spine and 
nearly as long as the head, the soft fin pointed. Pectoral 
nearly as long as the head. Ventral extending to origin of 
anal. Caudal scarcely emarginate. Anterior f of body, 
with spinous dorsal and anterior ^ of anal, greyish ; posterior 
part of body, with soft dorsal, caudal, and posterior \ of anal, 
yellow. A vertical dark brown ocular baud, narrower than 



On new Ilymenoptera from N^ortheni India. 2 77 

the eye, meeting that of the other side above and extending 
to the margin of the suboperculum below ; a brown area 
below the anterior part of spinous dorsal ; some dark stripes 
extending downwards from the spinous dorsal, running some- 
what obliquely backwards below the middle of the side, and 




with a darker spot on each scale ; anterior part of anal 
becoming blackish towards its tip ; soft dorsal, caudal, and 
anal with a blackish intramarginal line; a faint dusky blotch 
on the anterior part of the soft dorsal; a faint dark bar across 
the base of caudal. 

Total length 85 mm. 

Two specimens, collected and presented to the British 
Museum by Lieut. Kenneth Dixon, R.N. 

This species is closely allied to C. aranthurus, Blkr., and 
C. Mertensii, C. & V., from both of which it is distinguished 
by the deeper body and more pointed anal fin, as well as 
by the ocular band without light edges and other details of 
coloration. 



XXXV. — On some new Species of Hymenoptera from 
Northern India. By P. Cameron. 

The species described in this paper arc from the Khasia 
Hills, Assam, and Simla, and are in the collection of Mr. 
G. A. James Rothncv. 



278 Mr. P. Cameron on new 

Ichiieumonidse. 
lludrojoppa fiDHipennis, sp. n. 

Black ; the face, except for an irregular mark in the centre 
(it is joined to the base of the antennae by a narrow Hne, 
and there is a shorter line on either side), the inner orbits 
(narrowly below^ more broadly above, and the line extends 
slightly beyond the top of the eyes), the lower half of the 
outer entirely, with a narroAv line above, a line on the pro- 
notuni, tegulae, two short lines on the centre of the mesonotum 
(obliquely narrowed on the inner side), the scutellums, two 
large triangular marks on the sides of the raetanotuni 
(laterally extending on to the pleurte), a large mark on the 
lower half of the mesopleuiie (broadest at the base), an irre- 
gular mark (narrowest at the base) on the centre of the 
metapleurse, the apical half of the postpetiole, and two large 
irregular marks on the apex of the second segment, pale 
yellow. Legs pale yellow ; the four front femora behind 
and at the base and apex in front, the hind coxte below and 
on the inner side, the base of the femora narrowly, the 
apical third, the base of the hinder tibi?e narrowly (their apex 
more broadly), the apices of the basal three joints of the 
tarsi, and the apical entirely, black. Wings smoky, with a 
violaceoiis tinge ; the nervures and stigma black. ? . 

Length 20-22 mm. 

Antennae ringed with white before the middle, fuscous 
beneath towards the apex. Face and clypeus closely punc- 
tured and thickly covered with white pubescence. Front 
closely punctured. Mesonotum and scutellum closely, the 
} leurje less closely, punctured ; the median segment moi'c 
closely and strongly and more thickly covered with white 
pubescence. Areola twice longer than broad, roundly 
narrowed towards the bace, the apex broadly enrved inwardly ; 
irregularly finely rugose, the apex with a broad, smootii, 
shining border. Postpetiole in the middle closely longitu- 
dinally striated, the second to fourth segments closely punc- 
tured, the apical smooth aiul shining. Gastrocoeli large, 
deep, broad, smooth, except for a lew strife; the space 
between strongly striated. 

The described Khasia species of this genus may be sepa- 
rated by the following table : — 

1 (4). The petiole only marked with yellow. 

2 (3), Large ; the areola di^ti^c•tl^• longer than broad, its 

apex broad, smooth, transverse, the yelloAv line 
on the petiole dilated backwards ; the anteiiniB 
stout. Length '27 mm fur/nonn's, . 



Jhjmenoplera from Nortlievn India. 279 

3(1?). MeJium-sizeJ ; the areola not distinctly longer 
than hroad, its apex not transverse ; the yellow 
line on the petiole not dilated backwards ; the 
antennne not stout. Length 17 mui macuHoeps. 

4 (1). The v«(ecoud or following segments marked with 
yellow. 

6 (6). The second .segment with two yellow marks, the 
others immaculate ; the areola sharpl}' narrowed 
at the base fumipenytis. 

6 {5). The second segment broadly yellow at tlie apex ; 
the third and fourtli segments with two large 
marks on the apex ; the areola broadly rounded 
at the base annulitarsis. 



Mutillidse. 
Mutilla inoa, sp. n. 

Black, densely covered with silvery puljesceuce ; the second 
and third abdominal segments ferruginous ; the scutellum 
pyramidal, its basal slope smooth and shining in the middle ; 
the basal area on the median segment of equal width 
throughout and reaching to the top of the apical slope ; the 
Avings fusco-violaceous, paler at the base. ^ • 

Length 15 ram. 

Antennae black, the scape covered with white hair. Head 
rugosely punctured, with a smooth space on the sides of the 
ocelli ; the front and occiput thickly covered with long white 
hair, the vertex more sparsely with longer black hair. Face 
and elypeus bare, smooth and shining, the apex of the clypeus 
transverse and clearly separated from the sides. Base of 
mandibles thickly covered with silvery pubescence ; the sub- 
apical tooth distinct. The malar space ends in a tubercle or 
blunt rounded tooth on the inner and oiiter side. Pronotum 
thickly covered with silvery pubescence ; on the basal slope 
is a central and two lateral smooth spots ; the propleurai 
rugosely punctured, the apex smooth, the middle depressed 
and obscurely stoutly striated. Mesonotum rugosely punc- 
tured and thickly covered with longish black hair. Scutellum 
pyramidal, rugose, the basal slope smooth and shining ; the 
base and apex of the smooth part longitudinally furrowed ; 
the apical slope is oblique; the basal is also oblique, but 
more rounded than the apical ; the hair is long, on the basal 
slope black, on the apical fuscous. Median segment coarsely 
reticulated, the base thickly covered with depressed silvery 
pubescence ; the central area is of equal width throughout, 
^letapleurse (except in the centre) reticulated. Tlie second 
and third cubital cellules at the top are about equal in length. 
Abdomen black ; the extreme apex of the first and the whole 



280 Mr. r. Cameron on new 

of the second and third segments ferruginous ; thcpubesence 
is white^ on the apical two segments black ; the pygidium 
rugosely punctured, with a smooth space, dilated at the base 
and apex in the middle. The ventral keel wiih a slight 
broad curve. The epipygium is smooth at the base ; the 
rest depressed, irregularly rugose, with the sides smooth and 
raised. The apex of the radius is straight and oblique and 
distinct from the lower part. The second abdominal segment 
is punctured, smooth in the centre; above it is gradually 
rounded. 

Comes near to M. perdita, Cam. 

MutiUa artaxa, sp. n. 

Length 15 mm. 

Hab. Simla. 

This species agrees so closely in form, coloration, and 
structure with M. inoa that it might be considered identical 
Avith it, if it were not for the difference in the form of the 
ventral keel and of the pygidium. The two may be separated 
thus : — 

Tlie ventral keel slightly narrowed in the middle ; the 
smooth space on the pygidium V-shaped (broad at 
the base, becoming gradually wider towards the apex), 
narrow, the sides straight inoa. 

The ventral keel broadly projecting downwards at the 
base, forming a large triangular tooth ; the smooth 
space on pygidium large, broader at the apex than 
at the base : the sides curved inwardly at the base 
and apex artaxa, Cam. 

The form of the scutellum is the same, but in artaxa the 
smooth space is not furrowed ; the basal area on the median 
segment is the same ; the apical abscissa of the radius is 
gradually rounded, and does not form two parts, as in inoa. 

MutiUa trebia, sp. n. 

Black ; the basal segment of the abdomen and the second 
(except at the apex) dark red, the second at the apex covered 
with black, the third, fourth, and fifth with white pubescence. 
Wings fuscous violaceous, the second segment with an oblique 
slope on the basal half. 6 . 

Length 15 mm. 

Head rugosely punctured above the antennae ; the front 
and cheeks thickly covered with long silvery hair ; clypeus 
smooth and bare. Prothorax rugosely punctured ; the apex 



ITymenoplera from Northern India. 281 

of the propleurse smooth ; the mesonotura rugosely punc- 
tured, with two longitudinal furrows, and covered with dark 
fuscous hair. Scutellum more coarsely rugosely punctured, 
thickly covered with long pale hair, and not raised above the 
level of the mesonotum. Median segment coarsely reticu- 
lated ; the central area short and wide, its base not twice its 
length, its apical half narrowed. Propleurse punctured,except 
at the apex ; the mesopleurse punctured, except at the base and 
apex ; the metapleurse with one row of large reticulations 
on the apex, the lower middle part with some large round 
punctures. The basal two abdominal segments are dark red ; 
the apex of the second black and covered with black hair; the 
ventral keel is almost straight and the apex is oblique and 
forms an incision with the obliquely rounded base of the second 
segment. The second segment is obliquely depressed from 
the middle on the basal and apical slopes ; the white pubes- 
cent bands on the third, fourth, and fifth segments are 
broad ; the pubescence on the apical segment is black. 

This species is not unlike pimdara, Cam. ; that is a more 
slenderly built species and is smaller. 

F o s s o R E s. 
TrPHiA. 

i. Median sef/ineiif with three keels. 

A. The first transverse median nervure placed distinctly behind the 
basal, which is curved and thickened before the cubital nervure ; a 
stout keel, broad and square at the base, extends ou to the middle of 
the ventral surftioe of the petiole. 

Tiphia clav'merva, sp. n. 

Nigra ; abdominis apice dense fulvo-piloso ; alis fere I'ulvo-hyalinis, 

nervis fuscis, stigmate nigro. cT . 
Long. 1) mm. 

Scape of antennfe sparsely covered with long fuscous hair; 
aciculated, sparsely punctured, shining ; the flagellum opaque, 
thickly covered with pale down. Front and vertex shining, 
strongly punctured, more sparsely laterally below the ocelli. 
Face and clypeus closely punctured, thickly covered with 
fuscous pubescence ; the apex of the clypeus has a rounded 
incision. Mandibles shining, rufous before the middle, the 
base sparsely covered with pale and golden hair ; palpi rufo- 
testaceous. Pronotum sparsely punctured on the basal half, 
shining; the base thickly covered with long pale fuscous 



282 Mr. P. Cameron on new 

hair. Mesonotum ])nnctured, more sparsely and irregularly 
on the sideSj and tliickly covered Avith short fuscous pubes- 
cence. Scutellora punctured like the mesonotum ; post- 
scntellum more closely and finely punctured. The middle of 
the metanotum hears three parallel keels ; the space enclosed 
by them is strongly irregularly acicnlated ; the sides are 
closely striated ; the apex is strongly acicnlated and thickly 
covered with a pale pubescence ; the top is depressed and 
longitudinally striated. Propleurje smooth and shining ; 
the base below strongly acicnlated. Mesopleurse sparsely 
punctured and thickly covered with pale pubescence. Meta- 
pleurae striated (except at the base, which is strongly acicn- 
lated). Prosternum largely roundly tuberculated laterally 
on the apical half; the middle depressed. Mesopleurae with 
two curved divergent furrows; the space between at the apex 
depressed in the middle. Legs thickly covered with white 
hair ; the fore femora and tibiae and the middle tibiae less 
broadly rufous. Abdomen shining ; the third and following 
segments thickly covered with bright fulvous pubescence; 
before the apex of the petiole is a narrow, longitudinally 
striated, transverse furrow ; on the base of the second 
segment is a deeper, more regularly striated furrow ; the 
apical segments are strongly punctured ; the pygidium is 
smooth down the middle. Beneath, the base of the petiole 
is strongly acicnlated, opaque, sharply keeled at the base 
and less strongly down the sides ; the apex is more strongly 
obliquely raised ; in front of this is a stout strongly acicn- 
lated keel which reaches near to the middle, becoming 
narrower and smoother as it does so ; the middle is sparsely 
punctured ; the apical half very smooth and shining ; the 
second ventral segment is sparsely, the others more closely 
and distinctly, punctured and thickly covered Avith fuscous 
hair. The transverse median nervure is received distinctly 
behind the transverse basal ; the apex of the radius is roundly 
curved ; the second transverse cubital nervure is straight, 
oblique ; the third is rounded outwardly at the top and 
oblique below ; the second recurrent nervure is received in 
the middle of the cellule. 



B. The first transverse median nervure not placed distinctly behinrl the 
basal ; the petiole without a stout keel on its ventral surface. 

Tiphia himalaijensis, sp. n. 

Black, densely covered with longish dark silvery pubes- 
cence ; the pro- and metapleune closely obliquely striated ; 



Jlyinenoptera from Norlltern Lid 'a. 2S?> 

ilic winf;:s fuscous violaceous, the second transverse cuhital 
nervure roundly bisinuate. ? . 

Length 15-16 mm. 

Front and vertex coarsely punctured, more sparsely on the 
ocellar region ; the clypeus closely punctured, its apex 
smootli and broadly rounded. Mandibles broadly piceous. 
Middle of pronotura strongly punctured ; the apex smooth, 
the basal slope closely punctured. 'J'he middle of the meso- 
notum is strongly punctured ; the sides are sparsely punc- 
tured. Scutellum sparsely and deeply punctured on the 
base and apex; the postscutellum is sparsely punctured. 
Median segment 3-keeled, opaque, strongly aciculated, 
smoother, more shining on the sides at the apex, and irregu- 
larly striated near the bordering keel. The apical slope is 
coarsely aciculated. Pro- and metapleurce closely obliquely 
striated, the mesopleurse strongly and closely punctured. 
Wings uniformly fuscous violaceous and highly iridescent ; 
the second transverse cubital nervure is roundly curved out- 
wardly above and below, the upper part more roundly and 
distinctly than the lower. The tibiae and tarsi are thickly 
covered with dark silvery hair ; the spines are rufous. 
Abdomen shining; the apical, dorsal, and the ventral 
segments thickly covered with long silvery hair; the basal 
half of the pygidium is thickly haired; in the middle is a 
longitudinal keel. 

Tipliia robustu, sp. n. 

Black ; the hinder femora bright red ; the wings dark 
fuscous violaceous, the ncrvures and stigma black. $ . 

Length 15 mm. 

Head above the antennae coarsely and strongly punctured ; 
there is a smooth patch behind each of the hinder ocelli and 
a smooth line down the front in the centre ; the apex of the 
clypeus smooth. iMandibles black, dull rufous beyond the 
middle. The apex and the basal slope of the pronotuni 
smooth, the middle strongly but not very closely punctured. 
The centre and sides of the mesonotnm are rather strongly 
but not closely punctured ; the scutellum is similarly punc- 
tured on the sides and apex ; the postscutellum is punctured 
laterally. Median segment 3-keeled, opaque, aciculated ; 
the outer keels couvei'ge slightly near the apex ; the central 
keel becomes thinner towards the apex. Propleune smooth, 
with a few indistinct scattered punctures ; the mesopleurje 
closely and strongly punctured ; the metapleurae closely 
striated, except at the base below. Legs black, the hinder 
femora bright red; the tibia' and tarsi are covered thickly 



284 Mr. P. Cameron on new 

with white hair ; the calcaria black. Wings dark fuscous 
violaceous ; the nervures and stigma black. Abdomen black, 
shining, finely punctured, the apical segment thickly covered 
with long black hair, except on the apex; the ventral seg- 
ments are fringed with white hair. 

Comes near to T. rufofemorala and T. khasiana, but these 
species are both smaller and have the middle femora red. 
The upper half of the second transverse cubital nervure is 
roundly curved outwardly. 

Tip Ilia denticula, sp. n. 

Long. 12 mm. 6 . 

This species comes near to T. canaliculata, but is more 
slenderly built ; the depression on the apex of the median 
segment is not so wide nor so deep, nor is it so regularly 
striated ; the basal abscissa of the radius is distinctly angled 
above the middle, not gradually rounded as in canaliculata ; 
the lower abscissa of the apical part of the radius is longer, 
and there is a more distinct angle formed by it with the 
second recurrent nervure. 

Head opaque, closely rugosely punctured and thickly 
covered with long white soft hair; the front is indistinctly 
keeled in the middle. Clypeus closely rugosely punctured, 
its apex smooth and transverse. Mandibles black, as are 
also the palpi. Pro- and mesonotum shining, closely punc- 
tured (except on the apex of the former) ; the scutellum and 
postscutellum are similarly punctured. Median segment 
irregularly coarsely aciculated ; the three keels extend to the 
apex, but the outer become weaker towards the apex, which 
is broadly depressed, shining, and bears a stout longitudinal 
keel in the centre. The apical slope is coarsely aciculated 
and keeled down the middle. The basal half of the pro- 
pleuraj is aciculated and obscurely striated ; the mesopleurse 
strongly and closely punctured; the metapleura; striolated, 
aciculated at the base. Wings uniformly fuscous, with a 
violaceous tinge ; the nervures and stigma black ; the trans- 
verse basal nervure is thickened near the top, the transverse 
median is received shortly behind it ; both the recurrent 
nervures are received shortly beyond the middle. There is a 
distinct curved broad tooth on the underside of the petiole 
at the base, from which a keel runs to the middle. The 
hair on the apical and on the ventral segments is long and 
white. 



Iltjmenoptcra from Northern India. 285 

Tiphia tuber culuta, sp. n. 

Nigra, mandibulis rufis, tarsis testaceis ; alis fusco-hyalinis, nervis 

fuscis, tegulis rufis ; basi petioli subtus tuberculata. $ . 
Long. 8 mm. 

Antennae black, the apical joints rufous beneath ; the scape 
is finely and closely punctured above, the sides and lower 
side covered with long silvery hair ; the base of the flagellura 
is sparsely covered with white hair ; the rest of it bears a 
Avhite pubescence. The fi'ont is closely punctured below, 
more sparsely above ; the vertex is similarly punctured ; both 
are thickly covered with long fuscous hair; the clypeus 
smooth, shining, punctured closely at the base, its apex 
rounded. Mandibles red, black at the apex ; their underside 
fringed with long golden hair. Palpi testaceous, the apical 
joints paler. Pronotum coarsely punctured, its apex smooth, 
the basal slope finely and closely punctured. The middle of 
the mesonotum is strongly but not closely punctured, its 
base and sides smooth, bare ; the base in the middle slightly 
depressed. Scutellum strongly punctured (except in the 
middle) ; the postscutellum finely punctured. Median seg- 
ment strongly aciculated ; the three keels are almost parallel 
and all reach to the apex ; the space bounded by them has a 
blistered appearance ; the apex at the sides is depressed and 
bears a few striae ; the apical slope is blistered, is thickly 
covered with a white pubescence, and is obscurely keeled 
down the middle. The top of the propleunc is smooth, the 
rest obscurely punctured ; below the middle is an oblique 
keel. Mesopleurse closely punctured, the apical slope strongly 
aciculated ; the pubescence is thick and pale. Metapleurje 
closely striated, much more finely, almost strongly aciculated 
on tlie base below. Mesosternum sparsely punctured, 
shining ; the hair long and fuscous ; the apical area is trian- 
gular at the base ; finely furrowed down the middle, the apex 
in the middle triangularly depressed. Legs black ; the fore 
knees, the apex of the tibise, and the tarsal spines rufous ; 
the tibial spines are pale. The second transverse cubital 
nervure is roundly curved outwardly in the middle ; the first 
recurrent nervure is received shortly, but distinctly, before 
the middle of the cellule and is roundly curved above ; the 
second is received close to the apical third of the cellule. 
Abdomen shining, sparsely punctured, the middle and apical 
segments thickly covered with long white hair; the base of 
the second segment is depressed and marked with longitu- 
dinal keels all over ; the apical half of the pygidium is rufous 



286 ]\Ir. P. Cameron on new 

and smooth. The })etiole beneath is smooth ; the base punc- 
tured closely ; its middle with a l)lunt I'aised tooth ; its basal 
slope is longer, more rounded than the apical, which has an 
oblique slope. 

Comes near to T. spinosa, but is smaller; the median 
segment is not transversely striated in the middle ; the tootli 
on the petiole is blunter and longer ; the under surface of 
the petiole at the apex is smooth and shining ; the top of the 
propleura3 smooth and shining, and the mandibles are 
rufous. 

Tiplda fidv'i nervii , sp. n. 

x^igra, albo hirsuta, proplcuris striolatis ; metauoto opaco, medio 
tres-cariiiato; alls fulvo-hyaliiiis, stigmate nigro, nervis fiilvis. 2 ■ 
Long. 17 mm. 

Scape of the antennae thickly covered with long white 
liair; the second and third joints are smooth and shining, 
sparsely coA^ered with pale hair ; the other joints are opaque 
and thickly covered with a fulvous down. Front and vertex 
bearing large, deep, clearly separated punctures, and with 
long fuscous hair ; there is an elongated smooth space before 
the ocelli ; above and between the antennje is a stout keel. 
Clypeus closely punctured, its apex smooth and depressed. 
INIandibles black, obscure rufous near the middle, their 
lower side fringed with long pale golilen hair. Palpi dark 
testaceous. The basal slope of the pronotum obscnrely 
punctured, smooth below ; the basal half of the npper part 
is strongly punctuicd, the apical smooth. Mesonotuni 
irregularly punctured, sparsely covered wiih fuscous hair; 
the scutellum has a few punctures in the middle ; the apex 
has a row of large deep ones ; the sides are less strongly 
])unctured. Propleurae closely striated ; the basal keel 
smooth and shining; the top with a row of punctures; the 
lower edge is opaque and strongly shagreened. Mesopleurse 
strongly and deeply punctured and covered with long pale 
hair. Metapleurse closely but not very strongly striated ; 
the base opaque, shagreened. The basal half of the meso- 
sternum strongly and deeply punctured, the apical smooth 
and shining ; in its centre at the apex is a V-sliaped area, 
clearly bounded by deep furrows ; it is widely furrowed 
down the middle; the furrow is bordered by one or two 
punctures ; its sides at the apex are triangular. AVings 
f ulvo-hyaline ; the nervures fulvous, the stigma darker ; the 
apex of the radius is obliquely depressed and thickened ; the 
first recurrent ncrvure is broadly rounded outwardlv at the 



Ilymcnopiera from yurlhrm India. 287 

top; tlie second is oblique and is received shortly beyond 
the middle. Legs thickly covered witli silvery hair ; the 
tibial and tarsal spines rufous. Abdomen sinning ; the 
petiole M'ith the punctures large ; the other segments have 
them smaller and closer ; the apical segments are thickly 
covered with long pale hair ; the pygidium has the basal 
half black and strongly rugosely punctured ; the apical half 
is for the greater part rufons ; in its centre is a longitudinal 
keel ; on the sides ai"e a few indistinct keels. The median 
segment is strongly aciculated, opaque, and has in the middle 
three keels ; the central reaches near to the apex, to which 
it is joined by three minute ones ; the apex has an oblique 
«lope, is shagreened, opaque, and thickly covered with white 
pubescence. The ventral segments are fringed with long 
fulvous hair ; the hypopygium is closely and strongly punc- 
tured (except in the middle) at the apex. The clypeus is 
broadly rounded at the apex. 

Comes into Bingham's section B and U^ and 6'\ but is 
different from anything included therein. It might come 
into section '' C. Wings golden yellow," but it is quite 
distinct from T. auripe)tnis, the re])resentative of the section. 

Tiphia siinlae.nais, sp. n. 

Nigra, capite proiiotoque dense punctatis ; inotanoto opaco, dense 
aoiculato, medio bicarinato ; alls fusco-violaceis, norvis sligmateque 
nigris. ? . 

Long. 12 mm. 

Hub. Simla. 

The scape of the antennae is covered with long white hair ; 
the second and third joints are smooth, shining, sparsely 
covered with white hair ; the others are opaque and thickly 
covered with a pale down. l"'ront and vertex closely and 
strongly punctured, more sparsely near the ocelli ; they are 
thickly covered with pale hair. The base of the clypeus is 
closely and strongly punctured, the apex smooth and shining, 
its middle roundly and distinctly incised. AJandibles smooth 
and shining, their middle broadly rufous ; palpi fuscous. 
The lower part of the pronotum at the base is smooth and 
shining, the upper finely and closely punctured; the top is 
Ktrongly and closely punctured (except on the apex). 
Mesonotum shining and marked with widely separated large 
})unctures. The scutcllum is punctured round the edges and 
more sparsely in the middle ; the postscutellum is similarly, 
but more closely, punctured; at its sides is an opaque, coarsely 
aciculated depression. The basal region of the median 



28S Mr. P. Ciimeioii on new 

segment is opaque, coarsely aciculated, tlie sides near the 
base finely striated ; the apex is smoother and more shining ; 
there are two keels which reach to the apex and a less 
distinct one which reaches on to the middle ; the apex has a 
blistered appearance, is sparsely, obscurely punctured, and 
has an indistinct keel down the middle. The upper part of 
the propleurae is aciculated, the lower Hnely and closely longi- 
tudinally striated ; the middle o£ the mesopleurae is closely 
punctured and thickly covered with long white hair ; the 
apical half of the metapleurte is strongly striated ; the striae 
are distinctly separated. The basal half of the mesosternum 
is punctured ; from the middle, on either side, a curved 
furrow runs to the sides at the apex ; the space bounded by 
them is strongly punctured; outside them it is smooth. Legs 
black, the hair white ; the calcaria rufous, as are also the 
tarsal spines. Wings uniformly fuscous violaceous, the 
nervures and stigma black ; the second transverse cubital 
nervure is only slightly oblique and is roundly curved 
above ; the second recurrent nervure is received at the base 
of the basal third of the cellule. Abdomen shining ; the 
segments finely and sparsely punctured in the middle ; the 
apical segments thickly covered with long white hair ; the 
pygidium strongly punctured, the apex smooth, keeled in the 
middle, depressed laterally. 

ii. 3Jedi(in ser/ntoit ivith fve keeh. 

Tiph'ia quimjuecarinata, sp. n. 

Nigra, flagt'llo antennarum, maudibulis, tarsis abJomiiiisquc apice 

rufis ; alls fulvo-hyalinis, nervis rufis, stigmate uigro. $ . 
Long. 11 mm. 

Antennae rufous, theflagellum black above, thickly covered 
with a pale down ; the scape black, shining, sparsely covered 
with long white hair. Head shining ; the front and vertex 
punctured, but not very closely, and sparsely covered with 
fuscous hair. Clypeus projecting ; its apex rounded. 
Mandibles rufous, black at the base, their underside fringed 
with long golden hair; palpi testaceous. Thorax shining; 
the pronotum marked, but not closely, with large punctures, 
its apex smooth. Mesonotura strongly and closely punctured 
in the middle, more s|)arsely on the sides, and thickly covered 
with fuscous hairs. Scutellum with a row of large punctures 
round the apex, and there is a more scattered and irregular 
row on the sides ; postscutellum smooth, without punctures. 
The three central keels on the median segment are parallel; 



Ilymenoptera from Northern India. 289 

the outer pair converge slightly towards the apex ; the central 
hardly reaches to the apexj the two bordering it are dis- 
tinctly separated from it ; the space enclosed by the keels 
is coarsely aciculated (except at the apex) ; the apex has a 
sharp oblique slope^ is strongly aciculated^ and covered with 
a pale down. Propleurse shining ; the upper part smooth, 
the lower very finely longitudinally striated ; the raised basal 
edge is impunctate, very smooth, and shining. Mesopleurse 
shining, sparsely punctured in the middle, and covered with 
white pubescence. The base of the metapleurse smooth at 
the base, the rest closely striated. Mesosteruum shining, 
the basal two thirds sparsely, but distinctly, punctured ; the 
apex smooth ; the apical area is triangularly narrowed at the 
base, becoming gradually wider towards the apex ; it is 
almost opaque, sparsely punctured, and thickly covered with 
short white hair ; the middle furrow becomes triangularly 
widened at the apex. The four anterior tarsi and the front 
tibiae beneath are rufous ; the hair on the four hinder tibiae 
is silvery ; the spines are rufous ; the calcaria reddish tes- 
taceous. Wings hyaline, with a fuscous tinge ; the nervures 
testaceous, the stigma black ; the second transverse cubital 
nervure is roundly curved outwardly on the upper half; the 
lower part is straight, oblique. Petiole shining; the sides 
and apex punctured ; the punctured band on the apex 
bounded at the base by a furrow ; the apices of the segments 
are finely punctured and covered with pale hair; the pygidium 
has the apical half rufous; the middle has a band of long 
pale hair; the triangular apical part of the basal ventral 
segment is very smooth, glabrous, and shining; the apex of 
the hypopygium is testaceous and is covered with long fulvous 
hair. 

In Bingham's table this species comes into^'B. a^. Median 
segment with five longitudinal keels. ^' T. lyrata may be 
separated from it by the apex of tlie petiole being longitudi- 
nally striated ; the other species of the section {T. flavipennis) 
is easily known from it by the clypeus having two blunt 
teeth on tlie apex. 

Salius trichiosoma, sp. n. 

Niger, dense longe nigro pilosus ; alls fusco-hyalinis, basi flavo- 

hyalinis ; pedibus ferrugineis, basi late nigris. J . 
Long. 22 mm. 

Claws with one tooth. Antennie long, black, bare, mode- 
rately stout. Head opaque, black, densely covered with 
long black hair ; there is a narrow furrow on the front. 

Ann. & Mag, N. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. 19 



290 Mr. P. Cameron on neio 

Apex of clypeus transverse ; the labrum slightly projecting 
laterally and to a less extent in the centre ; it is fringed with 
long bright rufous hair. Mandibles and palpi black. Thorax 
opaque, alutaceous, densely covered with long black hair ; 
the pleurse obscurely punctured and with a distinct oblique 
furrow near the middle. The apex of the median segment is 
bare, smooth, and shining. Wings fulvous hyaline, the apex 
with the fulvous tinge less well marked and with a violaceous 
tinge. The stigma and costa are black; the nervures are 
testaceous ; the second cubital cellule is distinctly shorter 
than the third above and below ; the third transverse cubital 
nervure has the upper half straight and oblique, the lower is 
not so oblique and broadly rounded. Legs rufo-testaceous, 
the tarsi paler, the coxse, trochanters, and basal half of the 
femora black. Abdomen smooth and shining. 

A distinct species. Characteristic is the long, dense, black 
hair on the head and thorax. 

Salius Frederici, sp. n. 

Black; the antennse (except at the base and apex) fulvous; 
the tibiae (except at the apex and the hinder tarsi) rufous ; 
the apices of the joints of the hinder tarsi black; the wings 
flavo-hyaline, the base of the anterior dark smoky to the 
transverse basal nervure, the hinder pair with the basal half 
dark fuscous, the apical yellow, d . 

Long. 23 mm. 

Claws "with one stout tooth. Antennae as long as the body, 
distinctly tapering towards the apex.. Head black, sparsely 
covered with long black hair ; the inner orbits narrowly, the 
face, clypeus, and labrum dark rufo-testaceous. A distinct, 
deep, narrow^ furrow extends from the ocelli to the middle of 
the front. Clypeus roundly convex ; its middle at the apex 
transverse, the sides rounded. Mandibles black, the upper 
part testaceous. The head is obliquely narrowed behind the 
eyes and is well developed there ; there is a testaceous line 
on the outer orbits above. Thorax opaque, sparsely covered 
with long black hair; the median segment is longish, has a 
gradually rounded slope, and is obscurely transversely striated. 
Wings yellowish hyaline ; the base above is dark fuscous, 
with a violaceous cloud to the transverse basal nervure, below 
the cloud extends to the submedian nervure ; the second and 
third cubital cellules are almost equal in length at the top 
and bottom ; the third transverse cubital nervure has the 
upper half straight and oblique ; the lower half is more 



ITymenoptera from Northern India. 291 

rounded. The four front tibise are darker coloured than the 
hinder pair; the four front tarsi are almost entirely black. 

Resembles in coloration S. anthracinus, Sm., but that 
belongs to the group with bidentate claws. 

Salius lugubrinus, sp. n. 

Niger, pruinosus ; alls hyaliiiis, fusco-bifasciatis. 2 . 
Long. 7 mm. 

Antennae slightly pruinose ; the underside of the scape 
thickly covered with short white hair. Front and vertex 
almost bare ; the face and clypeus thickly covered with silvery 
pubescence ; the apex of the clypeus transverse^ smooth, and 
shining ; in the centre of the front is a narrow longitudinal 
furrow. Apex of the mandibles reddish ; the palpi black, 
thickly covered with white pubescence. Thorax alutaceous, 
shining; metanotum smooth; on its apex are two longish 
depressions. Legs black, pruinose, more thickly at the base. 
Wings hyaline ; a large conical cloud extends from the base 
of the cubital nervure along the transverse basal nervure to 
the opposite side ; there is a large cloud occupying the 
greater part of the radial cellule, the middle cubital cellules, 
and the middle of the discoidal cellules on either side of the 
second recurrent nervure to near the edge of the wing ; the 
third cubital cellule is much narrowed above, being there 
scarcely half the length of the second ; below it is slightly 
longer; the first recurrent nei'vure is received near the base 
of the apical third, the second shortly, but distinctly, before 
the middle. Abdomen smooth and shining, pruinose ; the 
hypopygiura is thickly covered with long fuscous hair. 

Pseudagenia lepcha, sp. n. 

Blue, the hinder femora for the greater part red ; the head 
and thorax punctured and thickly covered with white pubes- 
cence; the scutellum (except in the centre) closely longitu- 
dinally striated; the median segment coarsely, irregularly 
striated ; the wings fuscous hyaline, with a violaceous tinge ; 
the nervures and stigma fuscous. $ d" . 

Long. 13-15 mm. 

Hab. Simla and Khasia. 

Antcnnse black, the scape with a blue tint and covered 
with a white pile. Front and vertex closely and distinctly 
punctured ; the clypeus, on the sides, bears some shallow 
scattered punctures ; the raised centre is closely and distinctlv 

19* 



292 Mr. P. (jameron on nexo 

punctured ; tlie parts above the antennae and behind the eyes 
are thinly covered with long white haii'. Mandibles black, 
the base thickly covered with white pubescence. Palpi black. 
Thorax blue, with purple and brassy tints; above it is closely, 
but not very strongly, punctured ; the sides of the scutellum are 
closely, irregularly, longitudinally striated ; the postscutellum 
towards the apex is irregularly transv^crsely striated. Median 
segment coarsely, irregularly, transversely striated ; there is 
a broad shallow furrow down the middle. The hollowed part 
of the propleurse bears a few striae ; the mesopleurae coarsely 
rugose, the punctures running into oblique strise towards the 
apex ; the metapleurse above closely, strongly, obliquely 
striated, the base below is minutely punctured, the apex 
coarsely closely reticulated. The four anterior legs are blue ; 
the tibise and tarsi darker coloured : the hinder femora red, 
narrowly purple at the base and apex. Wings uniformly 
fuscous hyaline, highly iridescent and with a violaceous tint ; 
the stigma and nervures are fuscous. Abdomen bright 
metallic blue, very smooth, and shining. 

Allied to P. blanda and P. prophet ica, from both of which 
it may be known by the strongly and closely punctured head 
and thorax, by the punctured and longitudinally striated 
scutellum, and by the wings being not clear hyaline. The 
head and thorax may have dark purple and brassy tints. 
With the male the anterior femora and tibige may be testa- 
ceous in front. 

Cerceris violaceipennis, sp. n. 

■ Black ; the lower half of the inner orbits broadly, the an tenn al 
keel, a reversed crown-shaped mark below it, a broad line on 
the pronotum, the sides of the scutellum, the postscutellum, 
the base of the petiole, the apical two thirds of the third 
segment, and the apices of the following three segments 
narrowly, rufous ; the legs black, the apices of the four front 
femora and the four anterior tibife in front yellow ; the wings 
smoky, darker in front, the nervures and stigma black. 6 . 
Long. 8 mm. 

Scape of antennae for the greater part yellow ; the base of 
the flagellum broadly, the apex narrowly beneath, brownish. 
Head closely and distinctly punctured ; the face and clypeus 
thickly covered with silvery pubescence. Clypeus broadly 
roundly projecting, the lower inner orbits, a large mark, 
transverse at the base, becoming obliquely narrowed below 
and ending in the middle in a rounded point, and the antennal 
keel are yellow. Thorax black ; a broad band on the pro- 
notum behind, the tegulre, the .sides of the scutellum, and 



Ilymenoptera from Northern India. 293 

the postscutellum reddish. The area on the median segment 
is closely and uniformly punctured ; the rest of the segment 
more strongly and deeply punctured all over. The segment 
is more thickly and uniformly covered with fuscous pubes- 
cence than the rest of the thorax. Abdomen closely punc- 
tured ; the base of the first segment broadly, a small mark 
in the centre of the second segment on the apex, the apical 
two thirds or so of the third, and the apices of the three fol- 
lowing segments narrowly red. Pygidiura coarsely, but not 
very closely, punctured. There is an elongated mark on the 
sides of the second ventral segment and a small one on the 
sides of the fifth. 

The wings have a distinct violaceous tinge and are highly 
iridescent. The fovese on the median segment are large ; the 
metapleurae are shining and only slightly punctured compared 
with the mesopleurse ; the propleuras are stoutlv obliquely 
striated. In coloration the species agrees closely with C. bi~ 
maculata, Cam., but is abundantly distinct otherwise. 

Cerceris Jatibalteata, sp. n. 

Black ; a broad line, obliquely narrowed above, on the 
lower inner orbits, the antcnnal keel, the basal half of the 
mandibles, a line on the hinder part of the pronotum, the 
scutellum, postscutellum, the greater part uf the third abdo- 
minal segment, and a line on the apex of the fifth yellow ; 
the wings fuscous, the radial and the front of the cubital 
cellules smoky ; the stigma and nervures black. $ . 

Long. 7 ram. 

Antennae black ; the flagellum broadly brownish beneath. 
Head entirely black ; above the antennae closely punctured ; 
the apex of the clypeus projects broadly, is transverse, and is 
more shining than the face. The thorax is not strongly or 
very distinctly punctured ; an irregular line on the apex of 
the pronotum, the base of the tegulae, and the scutelluras are 
yellow. The area on the median segment is shining, is 
indistinctly finely punctured, and has a narrow farrow down 
the centre. Propleurae obscurely striated ; the mesopleurte 
punctured, and with a wide and deep longitudinal furrow in 
the centre. Metapleurce shining, obsoletely punctured, and 
obscurely striated under the wings. Legs black ; the front 
tibiae anteriorly and the tarsi yellowish. The greater part 
of the third and the apex of the fifth segments are I'eddish ; 
the pygidium irregularly shagreeued and punctured. 



294 Mr. P. Cameron on new 



Larra hicolorata, sp. n. 

Nigra, nitida, pruinosa ; femoribus posticis rufis ; alls fusco-violaceis, 

stigtuate nigro, nervis fuscis. 5 . 
Long. 12 mm. 

Scape of antennae and pedicle bare^ smooth, and shining ; 
the flagellum opaque, covered with a microscopic pubescence. 
Head shining ; the front and vertex bare, sparsely minutely 
punctured ; the ocellar region is depressed ; the raised part 
in front of the ocelli is furrowed down the middle ; the 
middle of the front is deeply furrowed ; the sides are more 
broadly and not so deeply furrowed. Face and clypeus 
closely punctured and thickly covered with ])ale pubescence ; 
the labrnm is fringed with long rufous hair. The base of 
the mandibles closely punctured and covered with white 
pubescence, the middle broadly rufous ; the palpi black, 
fuscous towards the apex, and thickly covered with white 
pubescence. Pro- and mesonotum closely and distinctly 
punctured and covered with a short down, having a fulvous 
hue on the latter, which is broadly depressed in the middle 
at the base and on the sides towards the apex. Median 
segment closely and distinctly punctured on the sides, which 
are slightly depressed ; the central part closely, transversely, 
irregularly striated ; the middle is slightly furrowed and 
keeled down the centre of the furrow ; the keel is fainter 
towards the apex ; the apical part has an oblique slope, is 
closely punctured, the sides above transversely striated ; on 
the apex are a few longitudinal striae ; the central furrow is 
deep and extends to the top of the a])ical fourth of the seg- 
ment. Propleura3 closely punctured, obscurely striated in the 
middle below; the mesopleurae are more distinctly punctured ; 
the tubercles are large and depressed at the base ; behind 
they are bordered by a thick band of white pubescence ; the 
basal perpendicular and the upper longitudinal furrows are 
deep and obscurely striated. Metapleurse closely punctured. 
Mesosternum closely and distinctly punctured, furrowed 
down the middle, and there is a transverse furrow before the 
middle coxse ; the metasternum is opaque, alutaceous, keeled 
round the sides, the base and apex are rounded, there is a 
distinct furrow down the middle. Wings fuscous violaceous ; 
the first cubital cellule at the top is half the length of the 
second j both the recurrent nervures are received behind the 
middle of the cellule. Legs thickly pruinose ; the hinder 
femora bright red ; the tibiae and tarsi thickly spinose; the 
tarsal spines and the claws rufous. Abdomen very smooth 



Tlymenoptera from NortJiern India, 295 

and shiniug ; the apices of the segments pruinose ; the pygi- 
dium has a few scattered punctures and hairs; theepipygiura 
is more closely and distinctly punctured and has a shallow 
furrow on either side at the apex. 

Larra pygidialis, sp. n. 

Nigra, fcmoribus posticis nifis ; alis fusco-violaceis, cellula cubitali 

2" dui>lo longiore quam l""*. $ . 
Long. 17-18 mm. 

The scape of the antennte sparsely, the flagellum thickly, 
covered with white hair; the second joint shining, sparsely 
haired. Head shining, the front sparsely punctured and 
covered with white hair. The face and clypeus closely punc- 
tured (except on the apex of the latter) and thickly covered 
with white pubescence. The tooth of the mandibles and a 
large space before their apex rufous, and fringed below with 
long pale golden hair. The palpi brownish and thickly 
covered with white hair. Pro- and mesonotum minutely 
punctured; the mesonotum thickly covered Avith fuscous 
pubescence. Median segment minutely punctured ; its 
middle from the base to the top of the apical furrow closely 
transversely striated. Pleura3 shining ; the furrows on the 
mesopleurse distinct, the basal perpendicular one striated. 
The metasternal area is thickly pilose ; there is a central keel 
which reaches to the apex and is much stouter at the base ; 
there is a narrower lateral keel which reaches to the middle 
only. Legs thickly covered with white pubescence ; the 
tarsal spines are rufous, as is also the base of the hinder 
calcaria; the hinder femora are red, black at the extreme 
apex. The costa and stigma are black ; the nervures are 
fuscous ; the apical abscissa of the radius is very slightly 
oblique ; the first cubital cellule is half the length of the 
second ; the second recurrent nervure is roundly curved and 
is received in the middle. Abdomen shining, pruinose; 
the apices of the middle three segments depressed ; the 
pygidium sparsely haired ; strongly irregularly punctured, the 
basal punctures smaller, those on the middle and apex almost 
running into striae ; the sides arc furrowed; the outer edge 
is sharply raised ; the sides of the segments are punctured 
(except below) and are sparsely covered with brownish hairs. 

This is a larger species than L. bicolorata, with which it 
agrees in coloration ; it may be known from it by the furrow 
on the apex of the median segment not reaching to the ajjcx, 
nor originating at the top, by the middle of the basal part 



296 Mr. P. Cameron on new 

not havlug a keel, by the mesopleuraj not being so strongly- 
punctured, and by the abdomeu being shoi'ter compared with 
the head and thorax — it being shorter than these united, 
whereas in L. pygidiahs it is distinctly longer. 

Tachyles rufipalpis, sp. n. 

Nigra, facie tibiisqiio dense aureo pilosis ; abdomine argcnteo 

lineato ; alia flavo-hyalinis, nervis flavis. 5 . 
Long. 17 mm. 

Scape of antennae densely covered with pale golden pubes- 
cence ; beneath aciculated and thickly covered with long 
pale hair ; the flagellum, especially at the base, thickly 
covered with silvery pile. The vertex is closely and dis- 
tinctly punctured and covered with long, soft, fuscous hair ; 
behind the ocelli is a large semicircular, almost triangular, 
deep depression ; round the inner side of the hinder ocelli 
is a smooth shining keel, which is continued halfway down 
the outer side of the ocellar region ; the ocelli are placed 
thus ••• ; the face below the ocelli is thickly covered with 
bright golden pubescence; the ch'peus is closely and dis- 
tinctly punctured, its upper part thickly covered with 
golden hair, its apex depressed, smooth, and shining. The 
mandibles closely punctured at the base, opaque, the rest 
smooth and shining; the palpi are rufo-testaceous. The 
base of the pronotum bears a pale golden pile ; mesonotum 
alutaceous and thickly covered with fuscous pubescence ; 
the scutellum is more strongly and distinctly punctured. 
Median segment thickly covered with long fuscous pubes- 
cence, alutaceous. Pleurae alutaceous ; the mesopleurse 
thickly covered with golden pile and less thickly with 
fuscous pubescence. Mesosternum closely punctured and 
thickly covered with long pale pubescence ; the area between 
the middle coxae is keeled laterally and down the middle. 
Legs densely pruinose; the tibiae thickly covered on the 
outer side with bright golden pubescence ; the tibial and 
tarsal spines are bright rufous ; the calcaria are dark 
rufous, darker at the base. Wings yellowish, more hyaline 
and without a yellow tint at the apex ; the nervures are 
bright yellow ; the upper two thirds of the first transverse 
cubital nervure is roundly curved, the lower part is straight, 
oblique ; the first recurrent nervure is received at slightly 
less than the length of the top of the second cubital cellule 
from the first transverse cubital nervure, the second dis- 
tinctly before the middle. Abdomen black, the basal four 
segments broadly banded with silvery pubescence ; the 



Hymenoptera from Northern India. 237 

pygidium is densely covered with bright golden stiff pubes- 
cence ; the hypopygiura is sparsely punctured near the apex; 
the sides at the apex are stoutly keeled. 

Comes near to T. Saundersi in Bingham's work, but is 
abundantly distinct. 



Tachytes assamensis , sp. n, 

Xigra, palpis, femoribus dimidio apicali, tibiis tarsisque rufis ; alis 

fulvo-hyalinis, nervis stigmateque rulis. § . 
Long. 17 mm. 

Antennae black; the scape beneath thickly covered with 
long pale fulvous hair. The front, face, and clypeus 
thickly covered with bright rufous pubescence and long 
fulvous hair; the vertex alutaceous and covered with long 
dark fulvous hair. Apex of clypeus bare, smooth. Man- 
dibles with the basal half rufous above ; the base thickly 
covered with golden pubescence. Palpi rufo-testaceous. 
Thorax thickly covered with longish bright rufous pubes- 
cence, the pubescence on the pleurae and breast sparser, 
not hiding the colour of the skin ; the hair on the scutellum 
and median segment is longer. Legs rufous ; the coxae, 
trochauters_, and base of femora black. The apex of the 
wings want the yellowish tint ; the radial cellule is infus- 
cated ; the first cubital cellule is slightly shorter than the 
second; the first transverse cubital nervure is roundly 
curved; the first recurrent nervure is received near the 
basal third, the second shortly beyond the middle. 
Abdomen black, shining ; the basal segment covered with 
long dark fulvous hair; the apical and basal segments are 
sparsely covered with long black hair; the pygidiuno, thickly 
covered with stift' rufous hair ; the hypopygium has the 
sides and apex punctured ; the middle bare, smooth, and 
shining. 

Tachytes fidvo-pilosa, sp. n. 

Nigra, dense aureo hirta ; alis tlavo-hyalinis, nervis stigmateque- 

flavis ; scapo autennarum dense aureo piloso. $ . 
Long. 20 mm. 

Scape of antennae densely covered with golden pubes,. 
cence; the flagellum opaque, covered closely with a micro- 
scopic pile. Head densely covered with bright golden, 
pubescence. Eyes converging above, where they are 
separated by the length of the fourth antennal joint. 
Clypeus (except at the base) closely punctured, the apex 



298 Mr. 1*. (-cinieron on neio 

smooth and bare ; the base of the mandibles covered with 
golden pubescence; the palpi are covered with a pale pile. 
Pro- and mesothorax thickly covered with bright golden 
depressed pubescence ; the median segment with pale 
fulvous hair. The basal portion of the median segment 
is closely transversely striated ; the transverse strise are 
irregularly intersected by longitudinal ones ; on the basal 
half in the centre is a longitudinal one ; the apex has an 
oblique slope, is irregularly transversely striated, in the 
middle is a deep furrow. Propleurse shagreened, covered 
with pale fulvous pubescence ; the mesopleurse closely punc- 
tured and thickly covered witli rufo-fulvous pubescence, 
intermixed with long pale fuscous hair, as are also the 
raetapleurre and the raesosternum. The mesosternal furrow 
is narrow and shallow ; the transverse farrow at the middle 
coxaj is deeper and wider; the metasternal process is nar- 
rowly, but distinctly, furrowed down the middle; the apex 
is divided into two somewhat triangular processes. Legs 
densely covered with a golden pile ; the hinder tibiae are 
distinctly keeled in the middle behind ; the calcaria black ; 
the tibial and tarsal spines bright rufous. Wings yel- 
lowish hyaline, the apex slightly infuscated ; the nervures 
and stigma yellow; the first cubital cellule at the top is 
hardly one third of the length of the second ; the first 
transverse cubital nervure is broadly curved ; the two 
recurrent nervures are united near the top, shortly appen- 
diculated, and are received near the apex of the basal third. 
The basal three abdominal segments are covered with 
depressed golden pubescence; the pygidial area black, 
sparsely covered with golden hair ; the hypopygium is 
closely and distinctly, the penultimate segment sparsely, 
punctured. The lateral folds on the inner orbits are promi- 
nent ; the sculpture of the front and vertex is hid by the 
dense pubescence ; the frontal furrow appears to be wide 
and shallow. 

Allied to T. Saundersi and T. Ruthneyi, but is quite 
distinct. 

Tuchytes fulvo-vestita, sp. n. 

Long. 15 mm. 

Scape of antennae (except above) thickly covered with pale 
fulvous pubescence and more sparsely with pale fulvous 
hairs; the fiagellum with a pale down. Vertex alutaceous, 
sparsely covered with long fuscous hair ; the front, face, 
and clypeus thickly with long golden pubescence; the apex 



llymenoptera from yorthem India. 209 

of tlie clypeus almost bare, sparsely punctured. Mandibles 
black, broadly rufous in the middle aiul above to near the 
base; the latter is thickly covered with golden pubescence; 
palpi rufo-testaceous ; the basal joint black at the base. 
The eyes at the top are separated by the length of the third 
antennal joint ; the ocellus is round, not dilated before or 
behind. Thorax thickly covered with long bright hair, 
which is thickest on the mesonotum. The metasternal area 
is flat at the base and narrowly keeled in the middle ; the 
apex has the sides raised, the raised part becoming higher 
towards the apex, which has a slightly oblique slope; the 
middle is narrow and deep at the bottom. Legs rufo- 
testaceous ; the coxae, trochanters, and base of femora are 
black, which is broadest on the anterior, narrowest on the 
posterior pair ; the spines are few, stout, and rufous ; there 
are none on the metatarsus. Wings yellowish hyaline, the 
apex fuscous ; the first cubital cellule above is about one 
fourth longer than the second ; the second recurrent nervure 
is received shortly, but distinctly, beyond the middle ; the 
second is received the length of the top of the second 
cubital cellule from the base, the space between the two 
is a little greater than the length of the first cubital cellule 
above. Abdomen shining ; the petiole covered with long 
pale hairs, the pygidium Avith stiff rufous hairs. 

Comes near to T. fulvopilosa ; may be known from it by 
the hinder tibise not being so stout, by the metatarsus being 
more slender and without spines, by the eyes at the top not 
being so widely separated^ and by the diflcreut form of the 
metasternal area. 

Tachytes maculipennis , sp. n. 

Nigra, femoribus late, tibiis tarsisque rufo-testaceis ; capite 
thoraceque pallide fulvo-pilosis ; alls hyalinis, fusco macu- 
la tis. S ' 

Loug. 12-13 mm. 

Antennae black, the scape broadly testaceous below ; the 
scape beneath thickly covered with pale fulvous hair ; 
the flagellum with a pale dow^n; the front, face, and clypeus 
thickly covered with golden pubescence; the ocellar region 
and vertex alutaceous, covered with long pale fulvous hair; 
the hinder ocelli are more distinct than usual and are placed 
near each other ; there is a narrow furrow in the middle of 
the vertex. The basal third of the mandibles pallid yellow ; 
the middle rufous, the apex black ; the base is covered with 
pale g(^ldcn pubescence; the palpi rufo-tcstaccous. The 



3C0 Mr. P. Canieion on new 

thorax is thickly covered with gohlen pubescence and with 
long pale fulvous hair. The prouotum is deeply and dis- 
tinctly separated from the mesonotum, which is closely 
punctured. The hair on the postscutellum and the median 
segment is long and thick ; on the apex of the basal region 
of the latter is a small, smooth, triangular space. The pro- 
pleurse are rather bare ; in the middle is a curved, smooth 
and shining, narrow furrow. The pubescence on the meso- 
and metapleurse is dense ; the hair is long and paler. Legs 
rufous; the coxae, trochanters, the four anterior femora 
broadly behind to near the apex, and the hinder at the base 
above and more broadly below, black ; the front femora 
behind are covered with golden, the posterior four with 
pale, pubescence. Wings hyaline ; along the nervures suf- 
fused with fulvous clouds ; the lower third of the first 
transverse cubital nervure is straight, the upper part is 
oblique ; the first recurrent nervure is received nearly the 
length of the second cubital cellule from the base of the 
cellule, the second shortly beyond the middle. Abdomen 
shining, smooth ; the segments banded with silvery pubes- 
cence ; the pygidium is densely covered with silvery 
pubescence ; the hypopygium is roundly and deeply incised 
pn the apex. 

Liris violaceipennis , sp. n. 

Niger, dense argenteo pilosus ; alis fusco-violaceis. $ . 
liOng. 13 mm. 

The middle of the scape brownish beneath, thickly covered 
with silvery pubescence ; the flagellum with a pale pile. 
Front and vertex alutaceous, opaque ; the ocellus has a 
triangular process in front ; behind the ocellar region is 
a deep triangular depression ; there is a longitudinal shallow 
furrow behind the ocellus. The cheeks and clypeus are 
thickly covered with silvery pubescence ; palpi thickly 
covered with white pubescence. Pro- and mesonotum 
thickly covered \^ith a pale down ; on the centre the down 
has a fulvous tint. Median segment opaque, alutaceous ; 
the apical slope has a narrow shallow furrow in the middle ; 
the sides are obscurely transversely striated. Metapleurse 
obscurely irregularly striated. Sternal process large, dis- 
tinctly keeled doMn the middle ; its apical lobes rounded. 
"Wings with a distinct violaceous tint ; the second cubital 
cellule at the top is nearly four times longer than the first ; 
the upper half of the first transverse cubital nervure has, 
above the middle, a different slope from the lower half; the 



Ilymenoptera from JSurthern India. 301 

second recurrent nervure is received near the apex of the 
basal third of the cellule; the two recurrent nervures are 
separated by the length of the top of the first cubital cellule 
from each other. Legs pruinose; the spines and calcaria 
black. Abdomen with the segments banded with silvery 
pubescence ; the pile on the pygidium is dark golden in 
certain lights ; the hypopygium is slightly triangularly 
depressed at the apex. 

Comes near to L. nigripennis, Cam. ; that may be known 
from it by the head and thorax having a golden pile, by the 
pile on the pygidium being golden, by the apex of the 
median segment being more closely and uniformly trans- 
versely striated, by the femora having golden hair, and 
it is altogether a larger and stouter insect. 

Tachysphex linctipennis, sp. n. 

Niger, eapite thoraceqiie dense albo pilosis ; alis hyalinis, cellula 

cubitali 1" duplo lougiore quam 2"". 2 , 
Long, fero 10 mm. 

Scape of an tenure shining, densely covered with silvery 
pubescence, the flagellum with a pale pile : the pedicle 
densely pilose. Front and vertex closely punctured, the 
vertex less closely behind the ocelli, the front densely 
covered with white pubescence, the ocellar region raised, a 
shallow furrow down the middle; the depression behind 
them is deep in the middle. The apex of the clypeus is 
shining, bare, slightly wrinkled. The mandibles behind 
the tooth are finely rugose, pilose; palpi dark testaceous. 
Mesonotum densely punctured and thickly covered with 
fuscous pubescence. Scutellum shining, less closely punc- 
tured; postscutellum finely rugose. The basal part of the 
median segment is irregularly longitudinally striated, the 
apical closely finely reticulated ; the apex has an almost 
perpendicular slope and is transversely striated. Propleurae 
shining; mesopleura? closely and distiuctly punctured, the 
tubercles behind thickly banded with silvery pubescence, 
the perpendicular furrow is crcnulated ; the metapleurae 
closely, slightly obliquely, striated. Mesosternum closely 
punctured, thickly covered with white pubescence ; the 
metasternal process is depressed at the base, raised at the 
apex ; there is a stout keel in the middle at the base. 
The first cubital cellule is double the length of the second 
on the top, the first transverse cubital nervure has an 
oblique slope near the middle ; the second recurrent ner- 
vure is received shortly behind the middle. Legs thickly 



302 On new Ilymenoptera from Northern India. 

covered with a silvery pile ; the tibial and tarsal spines are 
silvery white. Abdominal segments with silvery bands; 
the pygidium bare^ shining, and bearing a few scattered 
punctures. 

This species comes close to T. bengalensis ; it has not 
the wings clear hyaline, they having a distinct fuscous 
tinge. In T. bengalensis the second recurrent nervure is 
received distinctly beyond the middle, in the present species 
distinctly behind it ; the median segment is not so distinctly 
reticulated; the basal half is more distinctly longitudinally 
striated ; and it is a smaller and more slenderly built 
species. 

Larva apicepennis, sp. n. 

Nigra, mandibulis late rufis, basi metanoti reticulata, apice striolato ; 

alis hyaliuis, apice fumatis. $ . 
Long. 7 mm. 

Head above the antennse coarsely aciculated, the furrow 
below the single ocellus deep ; the clypeus shining at the 
apex, semicircularly depressed above and closely punc- 
tured ; pro- and mesothorax closely punctured ; scutellum 
more shining and with the punctures more widely separated. 
The basal part of the metanotum is closely and finely 
reticulated, the reticulations becoming finer and closer 
towards the apex ; the apex has an oblique slope and is 
finely and closely transversely striated, the striae being much 
stronger on the apical half ; the middle furrow is deep. 
Legs black, pruinose, the tibise and tarsi strongly spined. 
Wings hyaline and iridescent to the base of the stigma, the 
rest slightly, but distinctly, smoky; the apical abscissa of 
the radius is oblique and is as long as the top of the first 
cubital cellule, which is above nearly twice the length of 
the second ; the upper and middle parts of the third trans- 
verse cubital nervure have oblique slopes, the lower part 
is roundly curved. Abdomen pruinose, shining ; the basal 
third of the pygidial area is smooth, bare, and shining, the 
rest is closely punctured and covered Avith a rufous pile; 
the hypopygium is strongly, but not very closely, punctured. 
The metapleurse are obscurely obliquely striated. 

The wings have a steel-blue reflection in certain lights. 

Apidse. 
Halictus carinifrons, sp. n. 
Black, the flagellum of the antennse brownish beneath ; 



On an undescribed Genus of Coreidio. 303 

tlie hair is white, on the underside of the tarsi fulvous ; the 
wings hyaline, the nervures and stigma black. ? . 

Long. 6-7 mm. 

Head smooth and shining, sparsely haired, the mouth 
fringed with longish rufous hair ; there is a distinct longi- 
tudinal keel on the lower half of the front. Mandibles 
piceous towards the apex. The area on the median segment 
is closely irregularly reticulated ; at the sides it bears some 
longitudinal keels ; its ajiical slope is straight and slightly 
oblique ; on the apical half is a large, somewhat oval, deep 
fovea; its sides and top are keeled, but not strongly. The 
spines on the calcaria are as long as the thickness of the 
spur; they extend to near the apex and become gradually 
shorter from the base to the apex. Abdomen smooth and 
impunctate, above it is almost bare; below the hair-fringes 
on the basal five segments are broad, long, and white ; the 
apices of the segments are brownish, the anal fimbria is 
distinct, rounded behind, and rufous iu colour. The labrum 
is entire, rounded, and slightly narrowed towards the apex. 
The pleural tubercle is broadly fringed behind with white 
hair. 



XXXVI. — An undescribed Genus 0/ Coreidge/yow Borneo. 
By W. L. Distant. 

HETEROPTERA. 

Fam. Coreidte. 

Subfam. CoEEiNJU. 

Division M I C T A R i A. 

Kennj:tus, gen. nov. 

^. Body elongate, somewhat slender; head longer than 
broad, cleft between the apices of the lateral lobes, eyes well 
separated from tlie anterior margin of the pronotum ; antennae 
long, first joint a little shorter than fourth and about as long as 
anterior femora, second and third joints shortest, second a little 
longer than third ; rostrum reaching anterior coxae, first joint 
extending to base of head ; pronotum with lateral angles very 
longly produced in elongate processes which are a little 
convex above and concave beneath, directed niocleratelv 



304 On an undescrihed Genus 0/ Coreidte. 

upward and forward, but their apices barely attaining to the 
latitude of the head, their anterior and posterior margins 
serrate, the latter more strongly so, their apices broad and 
medially angulate, lateral pronotal margins in front of pro- 
cesses and lateral abdominal margins finely serrate; scutellum 
of moderate size, subtriangular ; membrane as long as lateral 
margin of corium, veins strong and obliquely longitudinal ; 
second abdominal segment with a tuberculous spine on each 
side near its posterior margin ; anterior and intermediate 
femora moderately thickened, toothed beneath near apex, 
posterior femora incrassate, moderately curved, strongly 
spinous on their under surface, the strongest spine being near 
apex, and with about three strong curved spines on their 
upper surface ; trochanters with an apical spine ; anterior and 
intermediate tibiaj slender, moderately thickened at apices, and 
longitudinally furrowed ; posterior tibiae dilated on each side, 
the inner margin toothed beyond middle, the upper margin 
with a small upright spine at apex ; tarsi with the first joint 
robust and about as long as the remaining joints together. 
Allied to Frionolomia and Prioptychomia. 

Kennetus alces, sp. n. 

(J. Brownish testaceous, finely pilose, head greyishly 
pilose ; sternum with a broad obUque greyish fascia extending 
from anterior to posterior coxjb ; abdomen beneath dark 
ochraceous, its lateral margins and apex greyishly pilose ; 
apical joint of antennae fuscous ; apical areas of produced 
pronotal jjrocesses, the tibise, and tarsi castaneous; mem- 
brane shining cupreous ; scutellum with an elongate spot at 
each basal angle and the apex ochraceous; pronotum finely 
lugulose ; scutellum transversely striate; apices of pronotal 
process centrally angulately produced. 

c?. Long. 31 mm.; exp. pronot, angl. 23 mm. ; abdomen 
at base 8 mm. 

Hah. Borneo: Matang (Coll. Dist. and Sarawak Mus.). 

This fine Heleropteron was sent to me for identification by 
Mr. R. Shelford. 

Mercennus, nom. n. 
Melania, Dist. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1901, i. p. 326 (uom. praeocc.). 
Type, M. gracilis, Westw. — Singapore, Java, Borneo. 



On Ltindopicra Uhopalocera froia Brazil. 305 



XXXV 1 1. — The Collections oj William John Burchelljl). C.L.y 
in the Hope Depa7-tmentj Oxford University Museum. 

IV. On the Lepidoptera Rhopalocera collected hi/ W. J. 
Burchell in Brazil, 1825-1830. By CoPvA B. Sandcus, 
ot" Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. 

[Plato VI.] 

Jn tlie course ot" the ideiititlcation and arrangement of tlie 
large collection ot" buttertlies in the Hope Department the 
Buichell specimens fell into their places in the various groups. 
Every fragment has been retained, even when the series of 
individuals was a very long one, because of the historic 
interest which attaches to the carefully preserved data. The 
identification and arrangement are the careful work of 
Mr. W. Holland, and in cases of special difficulty I have taken 
the specimens to London for comparison with those in the 
Godman-Salvin Collection and the British Museum. In 
making out many of the most puzzling species of that difficult 
subfamily the Ithoraiin^ the late Mr. Osbert Salvin, F.R.S., 
very kindly gave me the invaluable help of his intimate 
knowledge and long experience. Dr. F. D. Godman, F.R.S., 
has similarly come to my aid with the most ditficult of the 
Satyrinze, and has also promised to name the whole of the 
Burchell specimens in the group upon which he is so distin- 
guistied an authority — the Hesperiidse. Kind help has also 
been afforded by Mr. F. A. Heron, of the British Museum. 
When the arrangement of the Bhopalocera was sutficiently 
advanced I suggested to Miss Sanders that it would be of much 
inteiest to prepare an account of the Burchell specimens, incor- 
porating all the data and observationsrecorded on the specimens 
and in the note-books. As I have explained above, Miss 
Sanders is not responsible for the identification of the species, 
although she has taken specimens to London to compare them 
afresh when it appeared possible tliat there might be some 
slight difference between them and the individuals captured 
in more recent years. For such possible differences Miss 
Sanders has kept the keenest outlook, aided in the search by 
Mr. Holland and myself; and it will be seen that the quest 
has not been altogether fruitless. The explanation of any 
recognizable differences, as due to a genuine change of form 
in three quarters of a century or to alteration in the distribu- 
tion of forms, will be considered in each case as it arises. It 
may be said, however, that the evidence of some change is 
Ann. ^- M(i<j. N. Hist. Scr. 7. Vol. xiii. 20 



306 Miss Cora B. Sanders on the IihopaIoc(ra 

greater than we ventured to hope for at the outset of the 
enquiry. 

I have claimed that the Burchell Collection, with its 
numberless accurate data, is of the highest historic importance 
in enabling us to carry back " the detailed record of the occur- 
rence of many thousands of species in two most interesting 
parts of the world, and to construct a trustworthy standard by 
which to measure the rate of future change" (Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist., Jan. 1904, p. 46). The trustworthiness of the 
standard depends upon the persistence of the data unaltered 
from Burchell's time to this. There is, fortunately, the means 
ofchecking these data by comparison with a list of the Brazilian 
Arthropoda made under Professor Westvvood's direction 
during the years which immediately followed the gift of the 
collection in 1866. A second list of the dates of every indi- 
vidual of a species in Professor Westwood's handwriting is 
found on one specimen of many species, and this has often 
been a valuable check upon the complete list when errors 
were suspected. 

The first section of the butterflies is written in Professor 
Westwood's own handwriting, and deals with the Heliconiidse 
in the old broad sense, comprising the Ithomiinse, the genera 
Lycorea and Ituna of the Danainse, and the Heliconiinae. 
Although in the form of rough notes and very difficult to 
disentangle, it is a model of accuraicy. It records the whole 
of BurchelPs notes written on the labels accompanying the 
specimens, but apparently none of the facts to be found in 
his manuscript note-books. Beyond the Heliconiidaa the list 
of butterflies is continued in an extremely clear handwriting, 
with great neatness of arrangement, but containing occasional 
slips and mistakes which can be detected by careful comparison 
with the existing data. It is evident that Professor Westwood 
arranged the vast mass of material into groups and sub- 
groups, and in each of these separated the forms into what he 
believed were distinct species. An assistant employed under 
his direction then copied the notes written by Burchell on the 
labels attached to each specimen. In some cases Westwood 
himself added names to the forms thus grouped together in 
the list ; but in the vast majority of cases the list remains 
as it was written by his assistant. My inference from the 
handwriting has been kindly confirmed by my friend Miss 
Swann, who tells me that her uncle, Professor Westwood, 
employed an assistant to write for him about the time at 
which these lists were copied. The backs of old University 
Notices were employed for this purpose, and a rather valuable 
lecord of the acts of the University during some of the years 



collected hy W. J. Burchell in Brazil. 307 

before the appearance of the * Gazette ' is to be found on the 
reverse sides of the sheets ! 

A few Notices of the years 1864-, 1865, and 1867 are tlius 
employed, together with large numbers issued in 1866 and 
1869. A single paper with the date 1871 is made use of. 
It is therefore almost certain that the list was begun at once 
and finished within about six years of the gift. My first 
experience of the Department was in the summer of 1873, 
and I feel sure that the work was not going on then and was 
not resumed at a later date. Professor Westwood was keenly 
interested in the collection and appreciated it at its true 
worth. About six months after its arrival in Oxford he had 
already made a preliminary survey, and, on Nov. 26th, 1866, 
gave an account of it to the Ashmolean Society. The 
* Proceedings ' of this Society are very rare, and I have 
thought it well to reprint the passages in which the collection 
is described and its great significance demonstrated. 

" On the Data afforded hy the Burchellian Collection as to 
the Geographical and Modificational Ranges of certain 
Brazilian Insects. By J. O. WesTWOOD, M.A.', F.L.S., 
Hope Professor of Zoology. 

[' Proceedings of the Ashmolean Society,' New Series, No. I, 
Read Monday, Nov. 26th, 1866.] 

" Professor Westwood gave an account of the very exten- 
sive collections in various branches of zoology formed in 
South Africa and Brazil by the late Dr. W. J. Burchell, and 
presented to the University of Oxford by his surviving sister, 
in recognition of the honour conferred on her brother by the 
degree of D.C.L. some years previously. The collection was 
extremely rich, both in the number of species and also of 
individuals, and was especially valuable from the great care 
which had been taken in attaching the date of capture to every 
specimen, whereby, in conjunction with the journal kept by 
Dr. Buichell, the amount of geographical range and modifica- 
tional change of each species could be accurately determined. 
Tlie Brazilian portion of the collection had been made during 
a visit extending over three years [in reality nearly five 
years], in which period Dr. Burchell investigated the natural 
history of Bio Janeiro and its neighbourhood, thence pro- 
ceeding southwards to Santos and San Paulo, thence north- 
westwards to Goyaz, and thence due north by the Tocantins 
to Para and its neighbourhood. Copious note-books were 
kept, and entries made daily, so that it may safely be affirmed 
that in respect to its geograpliical data no collection equal to 
this has ever reached Europe. The donation of the collection 

20* 



308 Miss Cora B. Sanders 07i the Eliopalocera 

to the University was also very opportune at tlie present 
moment, Avlien the question of the existence of species, and 
the extent of variation to which they are subject, are especially 
attracting the attention of zoologists." 

After giving an account of the views of various writers on 
these questions and expressing his own belief " in the inde- 
pendent and original creation of species," Professor Westwood 
concluded as follows : — 

" A careful study of the Burchellian collection required to 
be made, and it could not be doubted that it would afford 
satisfactory data for ascertaining the specific status of many 
of the insects which had fallen under Dr. Burchell's notice." 

It is a keen pleasure to me to realize that in gradually 
publishing an account of the Burchell Collection I am carrying 
on a work to wliich n)y great predecessor devoted so much 
time and thought. 

A search through Burchell's manuscript brought to light a 
scrap of paper covered with figures which tell us much of the 
man and his work. It is a memorandum of the dates at 
which he unpacked each section of his immense collection of 
insects and relaxed and set out the specimens. The majority 
of the dates refer to the " Lepidoptera &c.," and these are 
reproduced below :— 

" Lepidoptera &c. relaxed and put out. 

[Specimens captured between Relaxed and set out 

following dates.] [between following dates]. 

7. 9.38 to 28. 2.29 [Set] 2G. 12. .39 to 8. 1. 40^ 



28. 2.29 


n 


29. 4. 29 


1) 


9. 1. 40 


„ 3. 2. 40 


30. 4. 29 


t> 


5. 2.30 


}> 


4. 2.40 


„ 9. 4. 40 


Lepidoptera &c, 


, relaxed and put 


out from the Cedarwood Box 


containing [captures] from 20. 7. 27 to 16. 4 


.28. 


25. 8.27 


to A 


.[5r.]29. 8. 27 


[Set] 


12. 2.44 






6. 8. 27 


J) 


26. 8. 27 


jj 


6. 4. 46 


to 30. 4. 46 


11. 2.26 


» 


14. 2.26 


}) 


30. 4.46 


„ 20, 6. 46 


27. 1.26 


}) 


9. 2. 26 


n 


29. 6. 46 


„ 22. 7. 46 


Lepidoptera of Rio de J 


aneiro 


, Minas, &c,, 


&c. 


27. 1.26 


to 


8. 2. 26 


[Set] 


24. 7. 46 


to 28. 7. 46 




>) 


27. L26 


» 


28. 7. 46 


„ 31. 7. 46 


14. 1.26 


)t 




>! 


[31. 7.46] 


„ 1. 8. 46 




81.12.25 


t) 


14. 1.26 


)} 


1. 8.46 


„ 5. 8. 46 


6. 12. 25 


)) 


31. 12. 25 


)> 


6. 8. 46 


„ 10. 8. 46 


7.11.25 


J) 


6. 12. 25 


» 


11. 8. 46 


„ 14. 8. 46 


4. 11. 25 


}) 


6. 11. 25 


n 


15. 8. 46 


„ 19. 8. 46 


7.11.25 


»» 


G. 12. 25 


)> 


20. 8.46 


„ 21. 8. 46 


29. 10. 25 


)) 


4.11.25 


>) 


21. 8.46 


„ 22. 8. 46 


999] 27. 10. 25 
819] 23. 10. 25 


jj 


29. 10. 25 


J) 


22. 8. 46 


„ 8. 9. 46 


>) 


998] 27. 10.25 


« 


8. 9. 46 


„ 23. 9. 46 


N.B. — Finished putting out and unpacking the wLole 


of my Brazilian 






Insects on 


26. 9. 


46.'' 





collected by W. J. Burchell in Brazil. 309 

This niecliaiiical labour was therefore completed when 
Burchell was about 63 years o£ age, IG^ years after the 
Brazilian journey came to an end in February 1830, 

It is hard!}' necessary to add that the specimens were set 
in our old insular style, sloping and low upon the pin. 
Nearly all the butterflies have now been reset in accordance 
Avitli modern requirements. 

Burchell's method of keeping his notes on the Arthropoda 
was changed as time went on. At first he sorted out tlie 
captures of each day into what lie believed to be species, and 
gave a list of these, and, in another column, the number of 
individuals belonging to each. Opposite these numbers 
observations of habits were sometimes recorded. During his 
journey to Rio, between April 2 and July 6, 1825, he had 
captured 97 kinds, distinguished by the numbers 1-91 (in 
Portugal, at Madeira, at TenerifFe, and on the ship). Be- 
tween July 26 and Oct. 27, 1825, he had similarly distin- 
guished species g§-1022 (during the earlier months of his 
residence at Rio and the greater part of his excursion into 
Minas Geraes). '^fhe labour was probably excessive and in 
the majority of cases served no specially valuable purpose ; 
for the same work could be done better after his return home. 
Accordingly we find tiiat he employed this method for the 
last time on Oct. 27, 1825, explaining a new meaning for all 
the numbers beyond 1022 in these words: — -" N.B. The 
following Numbers are of such Insects only as require special 
and particular remark : of all the others their locality and 
seasoyi can be known only by referring to that same date in 
the Journal, or in the Catalogus Geographicus of the Botanical 
Collection : or to the following list of dates.^' The Journal 
is unfortunately lost, but the other two books are in the Hope 
Department, the second (" the following list of dates ") being 
what I have called the " Brazilian note-book." In this 
latter the numbers 1023 to 13^5 (Jan. 1, 1826, to March 18, 
182i<) occur among other entries wliich are distinguished by 
dates alone, and not by numbers. All the numbers beyond 
1022 and some of the dates refer to observations made upon 
tiie living forms. The numbers of individuals are not given, 
but can sometimes be inferred from the descriptions. The 
last number 13Jf5 refers to an observation made at Porto 
Real (Na^ionale) on March 18th, 1829 3 so that all the 
observations made during the descent of the Tocantins and at 
Pal a, in fact from March 19, 1829, to Feb. 10, 1830, are lost, 
having been contained in tlie missing volume alluded to on 
p. 98 (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., Feb. 1904). 

It is much to be hoped that an opportunity may be found 
fur publishing the two Oxford note-books, both on account of 



310 Miss Cora B. Sanders on the Rhopalocera 

their high intrinsic interest and because of the irreparable 
injury which their loss or destruction would inflict upon this 
historic collection. In order to render this and the following 
papers of greater permanent value, and to bring them into 
relation with such a publication whenever it may be issued, 
I propose to reproduce any of Burchell's reference numbers 
which are still to be found attached to the specimens. The 
vast majority of these are, however, distinguished by their 
dates, and have no such numbers. The following example 
will serve clearly to distinguish between Barchell's reference 
numbers and those which are now added to bring the speci- 
mens into relation with these papers : — 

Bz. 907. 1II.+ 25. 10. 25. 2 ? = 37, 38. 

Burchell's reference number will be printed be/ore the date 
of capture and in italics, while the numbers now added will 
always appear after the date and printed in heavy type. 
J3z, indicates that the date or number immediately following 
is an original label, written in Brazil. ///. refers to the 
number of individuals recorded in Burchell's note-book as far 
as the number 1022. In this case two are accounted for by 
specimens 37 and 38, while the third is to be found upon 40 
under an allied species. The + indicates that the specimens 
also bear labels which were carefully written and added after 
Burchell's return to England. Examples are seen in the 
labels to the right of tigs. 9 and 10 on PI. VI., where the 
Brazilian number is lowest. When Bz. is wanting, Burchell 
had copied the reference number and removed the original, as 
in the label accompanying fig. 11. Bz. without the + is 
used when the specimen bears only a Brazilian label (as in 
fig. 6). In all such cases as this the dates have been recovered 
irom the Brazilian note-book. All the other figures on 
Plate VI. are without Brazilian labels, and bear dates, some- 
times accompanied by notes (figs. 5 and 8), carefully written 
after the return home ; and this is true of the great majority of 
the specimens hereafter recorded, all, indeed, of wliich the 
dates are not preceded by italicized letters or numbers. lu 
many cases the original Brazilian date was never copied and 
remains as the only label. Such dates are preceded by Bz. 

1 trust that these directions will enable the reader to 
ascertain at a glance exactly what records of the great natu- 
ralist accompany or refer to each specimen in the collection to 
which he devoted so large a part of his life. 

E. B. POULTON. 

Oxford, Jan. 25, 1904. 



collected hj W. J. Barchell in Brazil. 311 

I. IrROMIINJE, 

Ileterosais edessa, Hew. 

16. 9. 26. 2 ^ = 1, 2. Santos. " Close above the Monastery 

of Sao Bento." " Ad marginem Sylva?." 
23. 9. 26. 4 c? = 3-6, 1 ? = 7. Santos. 3 and 7 bear Bra- 
zilian labels. 
26. 11. 26. c? = 8. Santos. " In tlie chjicara (where I 
resided) near the Monastery of Sao Bento." 
It has already been stated that the list of Ithomiinse is iii 
Professor Westwood's handwriting. 

The determination and sexing of specimens 1-8 agree with 
Westwood's. His notes show that there were two more 
specimens which cannot now be found. Both were males 
and dated 12. 1. 26 (Rio) and 23. 9. 26 (Santos). 

ITymenitis adasa, Hew. 

Bz. 693. I. 22. 10. 25. ? = 9. Minas Geraes. " In a Ro^a 
(about 4 miles S.S.VV. of the house of Discoberto), on 
the road towards San Joao de Nepomucena." " Pa- 
pilio.^^ 
8. 2. 26. 3 ? = 10-12. Organ Mountains. Near head of 
R. Pacaqud. " In a ride to the Cattle Pounds and tiie 
Milho Ro9a." 
Agrees with Westwood's notes except as regards 12. 
Concerning this specimen he had written " Very like adasa, 
but with difft. veins," and " Not in Hewitson Coll. or book." 
Cn 11 he had written in pencil '^ ? agrees with adasa ? Hew. 
in its veins of h. w. but not with ^^ 

Hymenitis erruca, Hew. 

23. 9. 26. 2 (? = 13, 14. Santos. 

Determined by Westwood as polissena cJ . On 13 he wrote 
"seems identical with PoUssena from Quito." 

Pseudoscada sp. near utilla, Hew. 

8. 2. 26. S = 15. Organ Mountains. (As 10-12.) 

Compared with Hevvitson's specimens of utilla In the 

British Museum 15 appears to be a less heavily marked 

form of the same species. 

Dotermincd by Westwood as <^ acilla. 



312 ^liss Cora B, >Sanders on the Tlhopalocera 

Pseudoscada Jessica, Hew. 

11. 2. 26. 2 c? = 16, 17. Organ Mountains. " By tlie 

River Pacaqne," " In a walk to the Ip^ trees." 
14. 2. 26. cJ = 18. Organ Mountains. Near R. Pacaqne. 

Agrees in all respects with Westvvood's notes. Burcliell'.s 
manuscript label was missing from 18. The date was re- 
covered from Westwood's list. 

Pseudoscada acilla, Ilew. 

4. 11. 25. cJ = 19. Minas Geraes. Francisco ]\Ianoel^s 
Rancho. Near Nepomucenn. 

8. 2. 26. S = 20. Organ Mountains. (As 10-12.) 

9. 2. 26. cT = 21. „ „ "By the River Pa- 

caqne." 
Agrees in all resjjects Avith Westwood, except that 15 was 
also included under acilla. 

Ithomia agnosia, Hew. 

JO. 11. 2.5. 3 J = 22-24. Minas Geraes. 

These three specimens were carefully comp:u-ed with twenty- 
three in the Hope Department, one in tiie British ]\luseuni, and 
a series in the Godnian-Salvin Collection, none, however, being 
from Brazil. A very few examples (one from Colombia) in 
the Godman-Salvin Collection occur approaching the Burchell 
form. The Burchell specimens vary from the usual form in 
having no extension of the black diagonal band on the fore 
wing into the interspace between the second and third median 
nervules, and a narrower marginal band on the hind wing. 
The general effect of the difference between these in the 
specimens mentioned above is that the transparent part of the 
wings is much more prominent in the Burchell examples. 
In fact the difference resembles that between jjhenomoe and 
Burchelli (compare figs. 3 and 4 with 1 and 2 on Pi. VI.), 
described on p. 315. In both cases South-East Jirazil is 
characterized by a form in which the transparent area of tiie 
wings is increased at the expense of the black markings. 

Agrees with Westwood''s notes. He had written the words 
" agnosia, var./' on 22. 

Ithoinia 2^hono,l\\xh\\. 

No data. $ = 25. 

Bz. 196. I. 8. 9. 25. ? = 26. Rio Janeiro (along the Aque- 
duct). '' Pajn'do (flelicouius) In Sylva.^^ 



Collected hi/'lV. J. BnrcJidl in Brazil. 31.3 

$52.1.-^ 24.10.25. $=27. MinasGeraes. " About Jouo 
Pedro's at Discobcrto : at the margin of the forest." 
''Papilio:' 

10. 1. 26. ? = 28. Rio de Janeiro, Praia Grande, and 

vicinity. 
14. 1. 26. ? = 29. Rio de Janeiro. Valley of Laran- 
jeiros and about Silo Joao de Garahy at Laranjeiros. 

11. 2. 26. 2 c? = 30, 31. Organ Mountains. (As 16, 17.) 
Bz. 1«. 3. iQ. 2 S = 32, 33. Rio de Janeiro. Along the 

Carioca Aqueduct. 
16. 9. 26. 2 c? = 34, 35. Santos. (As 1, 2.) Brazilian 

label on 34. 
Agrees in all respects with Westwood, save that as regards 
either 32 or 33 he had written " 1 cJ with v[ein] of H. W. 
abnormal." 

Pteronymia heviixanthe, Feld. 

Bz.335. II. 15. 10. 25. ? = 36. Minas Geraes. "rrt/>[«7/o]. 

At the Discobcrto do Antonio Velho. In floribus Lia- 

trideie albifiora?." 
901.IIL+ 25.10.25. 2 ? = 37, 38. Minas Geraes. 

" F\apiJiu\. At Discobcrto, near Joao Pedru^s house." 
Specimens not sexed by Westwood. His dt-termiiuition 
agrees. 

rteronymla euritea, Gram. 

Bz.Sn.I. 14.10.25. c? = 39. MinasGeraes. Discobcrto. 

"Horta." 
Bz. (JOI. IIL-V 25.10.25. ? =40. MinasGeraes. (As 

37, 38.) 
8. 11. 25. c? = 41. Minas Geraes. " Sylvatica." 

8. 2. 26. '1 S = 42, 43. Organ Mountains. (As 10-12.) 

9. 2. 26. 2 c? ? = 44, 45. „ „ (As 21.) 

11. 2. 26. 2 c? ? = 46, 47. ,; „ (As 16, 17.) 

14. 2. 26. ? = 48. „ „ (As 18.) 

21. 2. 26. S = 49. „ „ Near the R. Pa- 

caqr.e, '' along the road by the Rancho for H mile from 

the house." 
18. 3. 26. 2 (? = 50, 51. Rio de Janeiro. (As 32, 33.) 
Bz. 26. 11. 26. ? = 52. Santos. (As 8.) 

[The fact that the two closely similar species, hemixanlhe 
and euritea, are to be found Hying together is of much interest. 
Their remarkable resemblance in the fresh state is well shown 
by the inability of this acute observer to discriminate between 
them. Thus no. 907 was found upon two specimens of the 



314 Miss Cora B. Sanders on the Rhopalocera 

first-named species (37 and 38) and upon one of the last- 
named (40). But the group also includes another less nearly 
related species which Burchell failed to separate. The 
number 335 is found upon P. hermxanthe (38) and Hetero- 
scada yanetta (130), indicating that they were taken for the 
same species on the same day visiting the same flowers, 
accompanied by Pteronymia sao (53) and Dircenna dero (67, 
68), both of which were recognized as distinct. Furthermore, 
in the note-book we find the numbers "5^5 . . . (5^7)," indi- 
cating a second time that the latter, P. euritea (39), was 
considered to be the same as hemixanthe^ and, in thiscase, the 
same as //. yanetta also. 

Burchell was able to penetrate the disguise of other ex- 
amples of mimicry, such as the resemblance of certain Hemi- 
ptera for the Hymenoptera ; but in the remarkable synapo- 
sematic likeness between the nearly allied species of Ithomiina3 
there was nothing to arrest his attention. — E. B. P.] 

Specimens not sexed by Westwood. His determination 
agrees. He gives the dates of six additional specimens of 
euritea which cannot now be found. One of these bore the 
same date as 42, 43, two the same as 44, 45, one the same as 
48. One was dated 4. 11. 25 (Minas Geraes, near Nepo- 
mucena, Francisco Manoel's. The notes show that the 
specimen might have been captured by *' some tropeiros from 
tlie rancho "). One was dated 31. 12. 25 (Rio; on the 
Corcov^do Mountain, and in the Valley of Laranj^iros). 

Pteronymia sao, Hiibn. 

Bz. 338.1. 15.10.25. ?=53. Minas Geraes. '' Pap[ilio'] 
cum 555." (As 36. The whole note applies to 53.) 
Agrees in all respects with Westwood's notes. 

Pteronymia nr. artena. Hew. 

8. 2. 26. ? = 54. Organ Mountains. (As 10-12.) 
14. 2. 26. S = 55. ,, „ (As 18.) 

Compared with Hewitson's type of artena in the British 
Museum, 54 and 55 appear to be a less heavily marked form 
of the same species. 

On 55 Westwood had written " artena but with only a 
minute white stigma instead of a larger 4-patch," and as 
regards 54 a difference in venation is alluded to and explained 
by reference to a rough diagram. The sexing agrees. 

Pteronymia sy/vo, Hiibn. 
12. 11. 25. ,S = 56. Minas Geraes. " At Mandioc.i." 



collected by W. J. Burcliell in Brazil. 315 

10. 3. 26. ? = 57. Rio de Janeiro. 

20. 3. 26. ? = 58. „ „ " Along the Carioca 

Aqueduct." 
Specimens not sexed by Westwood. His determination 
agi'ees. 

Leucothyris nr. makrena. 

4. 11. 25. S = 59. Minas Geraes. (As 19.) 

Westwood had written ^^ Makrena var. absq[ue] fascia in 
cellula al. ant.," but the fascia here alluded to appears to vary- 
considerably. The sexing agrees. 

Leucothyris phenomoCf Dbl. & Hew. 

11. 2. 26. c? = 60 (PI. VI. fig. 3). Organ Mountains. (As 

16, 17.) 
14. 2. 26. c? = 61 (PI. VI. fig. 4). Organ Mountains. (As 

18.) 
JBz. 19. 3. 26. rS = 62. Rio de Jan. " In the Valley of 

Catombi." 
23. 9. 26. ^ = 63. Santos. 

Burchell's labels, written in England, are reproduced to 
the right of the figures to which they respectively refer. 

Specimens not sexed by Westwood, except 61 c^ . His 
determination agrees. 

Leucothyris j/henomoe, Dbl & Hew., n. subsp. Burchelli. 
(PI. VI. figs. 1 & 2.) 

19.5. 29. 2 J = 64 (PL ^VI. fig. 1), 65 (PI. VI. fig. 2). 

Descent of the Rio Tocantins, between S. Antonio and 

Itaboca. Araguay. 
Burchell's labels, written in England, are reproduced to 
the right of the figures to which they resj)ectively refer. 

[The form Burchelli is at once distinguished from typical 
jjhenomoe by the greater development of the black markings 
in general, giving the insect an entirely different aspect, 
which will be appreciated when figures 1 and 2 on PI. VI. 
are compared with 3 and 4. The black borders of both wings, 
including the inner margin of the fore wing, are broader in 
Burchelli^ as is the black band which obliquely crosses the 
middle of the cell in the fore wing. But the chief difference 
is seen in the principal marking, which descends obliquely 
from the costa of the fore wing across the apical boundary of 
the cell. This broad black band is, in Burchelli, prolonged 
beyond the cell in the interspace between the second and third 
median nervules so far that its total length is about 50 per 



31G Miss Cora B. Sanders on tlie RJioprilocera 

cent, greater than \n pltenoinoe. Furthermore, iii the former, 
but not in the latter, the band is continued in a mucli 
narrower form along- the second median nervule until it joins 
the black hind marginal border near the anal angle of the 
wing. Tlie development of this important marking gives it a 
different shape, the proximal border being markedly concave 
in phenomoe, straight or slightly convex in Burchelli, the 
concavity of the distal border being more pronounced in 
SurcheUi. 

The type of Bia-chelli, specimen 64 from the junction of ^ 
the Rio Araguay with the Rio Tocantins, is represented in 
PI. VL fig. 1. 

Distribution (based on the specimens in the Godman-Salvin 
Collection and the Hope Department). — BurcheUi occurs in 
the northern part of Eastern Brazil, jihenomoe in the southern 
part, in Argentina, and Venezuela. — E. B. P.] 

On specimen no. 65 there is a scrap of paper on which 
Professor Westvvood had written in pencil " lAke phenomoe, 
but larger black band. [? is it a] black var." There is un- 
certainty as to tlie correct interpretation of the letters enclosed 
in square brackets. On 63 he had written a list of the dates 
of specimens 60-65, and opposite 19. 5. 29 are the words 
" 2 ind'. fascia longiori." In his list of Heliconiidse the words 
are " 2 ind. fascia ad apicem cellular magis elongata." There 
is also a statement that he submitted a specimen to Hewitsoii, 
who probably suggested the name ^^ flora black var,," which 
has been added in pencil. These butterflies were carefully 
compared with others in the Hope Department and the 
Godman-Salvin Collection, and it was found that this heavy 
type of marking is probably characteristic of a large section 
of the northern part of Eastern Brazil, for two similar forms 
captured by the late '[\ Belt in Maranhao exist at Oxford, 
while the Godman-Siilvin Collection contains one similar 
form from Pernambuco and one from Bahia. The latter 
collection also contains eight specimens from Argentina, one 
from Rio, and a series from Venezuela. All these, together 
with the Burchell specimens from South-East Brazil (nos. 60- 
63) and two Miers specimens (probably Rio) at Oxford, are of 
the ordinary form, with lighter markings, as also are six 
s])ecimens in the British Museum, which, however, are without 
localities. 

Dircenna Jiulda, Feld. 

31. 1. 2G. ? = 66. Rio de Janeiro. " Valh-y of Catombf 
ai\d a high UMMUitaiu on the N.W. side of the Aqueduct." 



colhclcd Inj W. J. Burchell in Brazil. 317 

" All of tbis date were from off plants, mostly u}) the 
Valley of Catiuubl." 
The specimea was named by Westwood epidero. 

Dircenna dero, Iliibn. 

Bz. 31,0. II. 15. 10. 25. 2 ? = 67, 68 (PI. VI. fig. 6). Mi- 
nus Geraes. " P\apiUo] cum 335." (As 36, and taken 
with it " in floribus Liatiidefe albiflorfe.") 
Bz. ^15. II. 16. 10. 25. 2 ? = 69,70. MinasGeraes. Dis- 
coberto. " Papilio.''^ 
Burchell wrote " <^7o . . . [SJ^O] " in his Brazilian note-book, 
indicating his recognition that the four specimens 67-70 
belonged to the same species. 
Bz. 51,6. 1. 18. 10. 25. ? = 71. Minas Geraes. Discoberto. 

" Papilio:' 
28. 10. 25. ? = 72 (PI. VI. fig. 7). Minas Geraes. '' In 
the Forest on the West and on the East side of S. Joiio 
de Nepomucena." 
29.10.25. ? = 73. Minas Geraes. '^u the Forest on 

the S.E. side of S. Joiio de Nepomucena." 
1. 8. 27. c? = 74 (PI. VI. fig. 5). Near S. Paulo : on road 
between Jnndiahy and Capivary. '' Iter faciendo." 
Burchell's manuscript labels are reproduced to the right of 
the three figures on PI. VI. (5-7) to whicli they respectively 
refer. That accompanying fig. G was written in Brazil, the 
others in England. 

Westwood, in his complete list, mentions two individuals 
captured on 28. 10. 25. He also gave a list of captures on a 
label attached to 70, and this agrees with the numbers and 
dates here recorded. It is therefore probable that the former 
is erroneous and that there were not more than eight indi- 
viduals. On 68 Westwood had written " This is the only 
individual with the veins of H. W. suffused with black." 
The specimen is shown on PI. VI. fig. 6, where the feature 
mentioned by Westwood can bo clearly seen when comparison 
is made with figs. 5 and 7. Westwojd does not note the 
sexes. He employs the name dero only. 

[I have followed II. W. Bates in regarding D. rJioeo, Feld., 
as a form of dero^ differing '^ only in the greater breadth and 
irregularity of the dusky black border of the hind wing, 
especially in the female, and in the nervures which traverse 
the disk of the same wing being of a yellowish colour instead 
of black. In the female the discocellulars and the terminal 
parts of the median branches are accompanied by dusky 
streaks." I), dero, on the other hand, " has the hyalijiQ 



318 Miss Cora B. Sanders on the Rhopalocera 

disks of the wings always clearer and the black borders more 
sharply defined than D. rhoeo. J), dero is peculiar to Soutli- 
East Brazil, and is not found in the Amazon region, where 
the local form D. rhoeo takes its place. I have seen speci- 
mens of D. rhoeo also from the neighbourhood of Bogota, 
New Granada. It flies in thinned parts of the forest in 
Ygapo, or flooded districts, in the dry season." (Trans. Linn. 
Soc. Lond. vol. xxiii., 1862, pp. 520, 521.) 

I have quoted from Bates in full because, if his information 
be correct, we have here certain evidence of change in a local 
subspecific form within the narrow limits of five-and-twenty 
years. All Burchell's specimens come from South-East 
Brazil, and only two of them, viz. nos. 67 and 74 (PI. VI. 
fig. 5), can be regarded, as de7'0. All the rest are examples 
of the heavily marked yellowish hind-winged rhoeo (compare 
figs. 6 and 7 with 5). It would be unwise to build too mucli 
on the conclusion that a change has occurred, especially as 
the interval cannot be more than about twenty-five years, 
inasmuch as Bates, when he wrote in 1861, was dealing 
with experiences which went back many years. But if 
his statements that " dero is peculiar to South-East Brazil " 
and that rhceo takes its place to the north be confirmed, we 
are compelled to admit tliat a rapid change has occurred in 
the former area and that in 1825 rhoeo was dominant there. 
We should be obliged to regard the biological history as 
traversing the history laid down by systematics ; for dei-o, 
with the older name, would then be but a very modern local 
form of the more ancestral although more recently named 
rhoeo. Should further enquiry support Bates's statement, it 
seems probable that synaposematic grouping has directed the 
trend of evolution — that resemblance to more heavily 
marked transparent Ithomiine associates in the north has 
been an advantage which has caused the persistence of the 
pronounced black markings of rhoeo, while dero has been 
selected as an approach towards less heavily marked members 
of Ithomiine groups in the south. 

Ithomiine butterflies with a general resemblance to one 
another have a marked tendency to fly together, as Bates 
points out in this very species [l. c. p. 521). It has already 
been found in the case of Leucothyris phenomoe that the 
northern part of Eastern Brazil is characterized by a more 
heavily marked form [Burchelli) than the southern part (see 
p. '-^15). In many other cases the tendency towards a 
1 eduction of the black markings of transparent and black 
Ithomiinas in South-Eastern Brazil has been shown in this 
memoir. It was apparent in Pseudoscada ep. nr. utiUa (15), 



collected hy W. J. Burchell in Brazil. 319 

Ithomta agnosia (22-24), and Pteronymia nr. artena (54, 55). 
This reduction of black and increase of transparency occurring 
independently in many genera is probably due to selection in 
the direction of synaposematic or Miillerian resemblance. — 
E. B. P.] 

Ceratinia eupompe^ Hiibn. 

29. 10. 25. $ = 75. Minas Geraes. (As 73.) 
4. 11. 25. S = 76. Minas Geraes. (As 19.) 

8. 2. 26. S = 77. Organ Mountains. (As 10-12.) 

9. 2, 26. 3 ? = 78-80. „ „ (As 21.) 
11.2.26. ? = 81. „ „ (Asia, 17.) 
12.2.26. 2 ? = 82, 83. Organ Mountains. "By the 

River Pacaqu^." 
No data. ? = 84. 

Westvvood's notes and label agree in including an addi- 
tional specimen dated 14. 2. 26 (Organ Mountains). In other 
respects his MS. agrees with the data here recorded. The 
determination agrees, but sexes are unnoted. 

Ceratinia euryanassaj Feld. 

Bz.563.L 19.10.25. ? = 85. Minas Geraes. Discoberto. 
''Pap\ilio']y 

10. 11. 25. (S = 86. Minas Geraes. Discoberto. 

m. 9. 26. 5 c? = 87-91, 4 ? = 92-95 (92 and 95 bear 
Brazilian labels). Santos. " In a walk to Montserrat." 
" These Papihones very plentiful in the woods " : this 
referring of course to all specimens taken. 
No data. ? = 96. 

Westwood gives two more individuals captured 26. 9. 26, 
and omits the date 10. 11. 25. The latter may be a slip or 
may be due to the later transposition of labels. In other 
respects and in the determination Westwood's notes agree, 
but sexes are omitted. 

Ceratinia dceta, Boisd. 

Bz. 330. 11. 14. 10. 25. c? = 97. Minas Geraes. Disco- 
berto. '^Papilio {Horta).'" 
It is probable that tliis specimen should bear the number 

336 and that it was captured with 98 on Oct. 15th. See note 

on 108. 

Bz. 336. II. 15. 10. 25. c? = 98. Minas Geraes. " At the 
Discoberto do Antonio Velho. Pap[ilio'\. In Sylvis." 

Bz.-¥ 12. 11. 25. (J = 99. Minas Geraes. " At Mandioca." 
'''■ Lavgsdorji'''' is written on the Brazilian label. 



320 Miss Cora B. Sanders on the lihojnilocera 

12. 2. 2rj. S = 100. Organ Mountains. (As 82, 83.) 
21. 2. 26. ? = 101. „ „ (As 49.) 

No data. ? = 102. 

The numbers and dates agree with Westwood's notes. 
Westvvood's determination was ItJwmia melphis, a synonyni 
of dcHta. The sexes were unnoted. 

Geratinia Barii, Bates. 

26. 5. 29. S = 103. Rio Tocantins, N. of Itabuca, below 
the Falls of Guariba. " SyWa." 
Brit. ]\Ius. '' Ninonia Plew. var. hari'i.'''' 
Named by Westvvood Itliont'ia ninonia. Sex unnoted. 

Mechanitis polyinnia, Linn. 

30. 10. 25. (Date probably erroneous, and should be 3. 3. 28 
or 10. 12. 29. See below.) ? = 104. Minas Geraes. 
" (In the Forest.) On the N.E. side of tiie arraial of 
Sao Joao de Nepomucena." Locality probably erro- 
neous, and should be Goyaz or Pard. 
5. 3. 28. S = 105. Goyaz. " Caught by the Rio Ver- 
melho, near the Carioca Aqueduct, by ' C '." refers 
to Congo, Burcliell''s native assistant. 
7. 6. 29. ? = 106. Rio Tocantins. S. of Para, Sta. Anna. 
7. 7. 29. ? = 107. Pavii. " Eastward of my house." 

1 105 was submitted to the late Mr. Osbert Salvin on Jan. 16, 
1896. He considered it to be the " Guiana fortn of Mechanitis 
polymniay Although without the black hind wing wiiich 
is so common in Guiann, the black markings are strongly 
developed on the secondaries of all the three female f^pecimens, 
I'escmbling many of the individuals from Surinam ^c. The 
occurrence of such strongly marked forms so far to the south 
as Goyaz was a surprise to me. The somewhat faint but 
distinct subapical liglit bar of the fore vving, which is charac- 
teristic in Guiana, is evanescent or absent in these specimens. 
— E. B. P.] 

Westwood records two additional specimens, captured 
3. 3. 28 (Goyaz. " Caught in the town by the Rio Vermelho ; 
by C[ongo]") and 10. 12. 29 (Para. '' Suburbanai "j. On 
the other hand, he does not give the date now affixed to 104, 
viz. 30. 10. 25. It is probable that a label has been trans- 
posed in the manipulation of the specimens, and that 104 
should bear the date 3. 3. 28 or 10. 12. 29. In other respects 
and in the determination Westwood's notes agree with these 
records. 'J'he sexes were unnoted. 



collected by W. J. Burchell in Brazil. 321 

Mechanitis lysimnia^ Fabr. 

Bz.336.II. 15.10.25. ?=108. MinasGeraes. (As 98.) 
[It is probable that this specimen should bear the number 
330 and that it was one of the " Papilio (^Horta) " captured 
on Oct. 14 at Discoberto. Burchell probably accidentally 
interchanged its label with that of 97, either originally in 
Brazil or later when lie set the specimens. The evidence is 
as follows: — The Brazilian note-book shows that two indi- 
viduals believed by Burchell to be one form ^^ Papilio {Ilorta)," 
captured on Oct. 14, were numbered 330, and that two others 
also believed to be one form, taken on Oct. 15 "in Sylvis," 
were numbered 336. Professor Westwood's list, repeated on 
a specimen of each species, agrees witli tiie existing specimens 
in showing one 336 on Mechanitis li/simnia (108) and the 
other on Ceratiuia dteta (98). One 330 is on dceta (97) and 
the other is now missing, but both of Westwood's lists agree 
in recording that it was affixed to a specimen of lysimnia 
which cannot now be found. Either Burchell twice paired 
da:ta and lysimnia as the same form on consecutive days or 
he accidentally interchanged one 330 with one 336. The 
following fact confirms the opinion that he made the latter 
mistake and not the former. A few days later, on Oct. 19th, 
we find in his note-book the followingentry: ^^563 . . . (35^)," 
indicating his belief that the single specimen denoted by the 
first number was the same species as the two individuals 
denoted by the second. Now 563 is Ceratiuia euryanassa 
(85), a species which closely resembles C. dceta, but only 
bears a very rough likeness to M. lysimnia. It is therefore 
probable that 330 was intended for two specimens of M. ly- 
simnia and 336 for two of C. doita. — E. B. P.] 
4.11.25. c?=109, 2 $ = 110, 111. Minas Geraes. 

(As 19.) 
10. 11. lb. 2 c?= 112, 113. Minas Geraes. 
6. 12. 25. (J = 114. Kio de Janeiro. " In an excursion to 
the Summit of tiie Corcovado by the road by the Con- 
vent of Sta. Theresa, and along the Aqueduct." 
31. 1. 26. ? = 115. Kio de Janeiro. (As 66.) 
9. 2. 26. ? = 116. Organ Mountains. (As 21.) 
12. 2. 26. $ = 117. „ „ (As 82, 83.) 

16. 2. 26. $ = 118. ,, „ Near River Pa- 

caque. 
21. 2. 26. ? = 119. „ „ (As 49.) 

28. 2. 26. $ = 120. " On the Rio Mag6." 
1. 3. 26. % =121. " Along the River Mag^, upwards to the 
F.iz^nda da Lag6a." 
Ann. d- Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. 21 



322 On Lepidopiera Rhopalocera from BraziL 

7. 3. 26. ? = 122. Rio de Janeiro. '' At CatomW." 
Bz. 9, 3. 26. S = 123. Rio de Janeiro. 
10. 3. 26. c? = 123 A. Eio de Janeiro. 

15. 9. 26. S = 124. Santos. " Papil[io]. At edge of the 

Forest, at S. Bento Monastery." 
Bz. 14. 12. 26. $ = 125. Cubatao, Lower Slopes of the 
Serra. 

16. 12. 26. $ = 126. Cubatao. " Middle Part of the 

ascent up the Serra." 
4. 3. 28. ? = 127. Gojaz. (As 105.) 

Westwood's name and list agree, except that he includes 
two more specimens which cannot now be found — one distin- 
guished by the number 330, and a second specimen captured 
with 116 on 9. 2. 26. Sexes unnoted. 

Aeria olena, Weyra. 

Bz. 579. I. 21. 10. 25. ? = 128. Minas Geraes. "In a 
rossa at Discoberto, and along a channel (on the margin 
of the Forest) which conducts water to the house." 

Named /. elira in Westwood's list, whicli otherwise 
agrees. Unsexed. 

Ihteroscada gazoria, Godt. 

10. 11. 25. S = 129. Minas Geraes. 

Westwood's list agrees. He calls the specimen " Napeo- 
ffenes?^^ in list, but on the insect itself he had written 
^'Yaninay Hew. f. 116, pi. 19, vol. ii. Hew. Exot. butt. Euri- 
ieaj Dry., not Cramer." Unsexed. 

Heteroscada yanettay Hew. 

Bz.S35.IL 15.10.25. c? = 130. Minas Geraes. (As 36.) 
Agrees with Westwood's list. Named Napeogenes. Un- 
sexed. " Coll. Hew. but not named " in pencil indicates an 
unsuccessful reference to his friend Hewitson. 

Heteroscada fenella^ Hew. 

29. 10. 25. ? = 131. Minas Geraes. (As 72.) 

Agrees with Westwood's list " Lent. Hewitson." The 
name ^' fenella, H." written in pencil by Westwood across 
Burcheli's label. Unsexed. 

MeUncea paraiya^ Reak. 
8. 2. 26. $ ~ 132. Organ Mountain^. (As 10-12.) 



On a Weasel from the Atlas Mountains. 323 

Agrees with Westwood's list, where, however, it is named 
as a var. of egina. '''■ Mech\ egina^^ is written on a label 
attached to the specimen. Unsexed. 

Melincea egina y Cram, 

7. 7. 29. S = 133. Par^. (As 107.) 
28. 7. 29. c? = 134. Par^. 

Bz. 26. 1. 30. c? = 135. Pard. 

Agrees with Westwood's list. Unsexed. 

Melincea ethra, Godt. 

8. 2. 26. S = 136. Organ Mountains. (As 10-12.) 
Agrees with Westwood's list. Named by him MecL ethra. 

Sex unnoted. 

Methona themisto^ Hiibn. 

14.7.29. c?=137. Par^. 

31. 7. 29. 2 c? = 138,139. Pav^. 

Westwood's list indicates the former existence of a fourth 
specimen captured at Par^ on 30. 7. 29. His name agrees. 

Sexes unnoted. 

[To be continued.] J C"/!, 



XXXVIII. — Note on an undescrihed Weasel from the Atlas 
Mountains, and on the Occurrence of a Weasel in the 
Azores. By G. E. H. Baijeett- Hamilton. 

Through the courtesy of the Director and Officials of the 
British Museum of Natural History, I am enabled to publish 
a short description of a weasel which is clearly distinguish- 
able from the forms recognized by me in my paper published 
in this Journal in January 1900. 

This form, which may be known as Putorius nivalis atlas, 
is remarkable for its size and robustness, in which it is per- 
haps only excelled by the true P. n. africanus of Desmarest. 
On the other hand, the line of demarcation between the 
colours of the upper and under surfaces, a highly character- 
istic feature in the weasels, is widely different from that of 
P. n. africanus and other forms with a similar arrangement, 
such as P. n. numidicus, P. n. boccamela^ and P. n. sub~ 
jjalmatuSy and allies it to P. n. ibericus and P. n. siculus, 
b\ its tail, however, which carries a distinct terminal "pencil" 



324: On the Occurrence of a Weasel in the Azores. 

of dark brown hairs, it resembles P. 7i. numidicus and P. n. 
africanus. 

Colour. — Above between *' mummy-brown " and " Mars 
brown " *, the under-fur a shade ligliter. Below, except the 
lower surface of the tail, but including the inner and lower 
surfaces of the fore legs, the soles of the fore feet, and the 
inner and lower surfaces of the hind legs almost down to the 
ankles, white slightly washed with yellow. The line of de- 
marcation is decided, and runs on each side directly from a 
point slightly anterior to the angle of the mouth to its 
debouchment at the shoulders and thence to the hind legs. 
Q'he upper surfaces of all four feet are white for a distance 
of about 13 and 11 mm. in the case of fore and hind feet 
respectively from the base of the claws. In the hind feet 
the white colour only just reaches the soles at their external 
borders. Tiie tail is brown above and below, and terminates 
in a moderately developed " pencil " of longer hairs of a 
deeper shade than the rest of the upper surface. There is 
no trace of white on the ears. 

The dimensions of the hind foot and ear, both taken from 
the type specimen when in spirit, are 42 and 21*5 mm. re- 
spectively. No record was taken of the lengths of either 
head and body or tail in the flesh, but the latter reaches a 
length, including the terminal hairs, of 98 mm. in the dried 
skin. 

The skull, although strongly built, massive, and with 
sagittal and lambdoid crests well developed, is less so than 
that of P. n. africanus of the Azores. The postorbital pro- 
cesses are moderately prominent, the nasal region moderately 
broad and depressed anteriorly, and the posterior narial 
aperture narrowed. The incisive foramina are elongated, 
having a length of about 2 mm., and recall those of the P. ermi- 
neus group. The following are the dimensions (in milli- 
metres) of the type: — Greatest length 48; basal length 44*5 ; 
greatest breadth at zygoma 26 ; palatal length 20. 

The type, a female, no. 2. 1. 7. 4 of the British Museum 
Collection, from the Atlas Mountains, Morocco, was presented 
by Mr. E. G. Meade- Waldo. 

Opportunity may here be taken to point out that the 
specimens recently received by the Britisii Museum bear out 
the opinion, some time since expressed by Professor J. V. 
Barboza du Bocage f, that Desmarest's type specimen of 

* Names of colours printed in inverted commas are taken from 
Mr. Robert Ridgway's ' Nomenclature of Colors,' 1886. 

t Jornal de Sci. Math,, Phys. e Nat. ser. 2, no. xiii. (Lisbon, 1895) 
pp. 24-27. 



Bibliographical Notice. ."25 

P. africanus came, not from Egypt, but from the island of 
St. Thomas, in the Gulf of Guinea, where there occurs a 
form of weasel indistinguishable from the above type. The 
name africanus will therefore be most naturally applied to 
the weasel of St. Thomas and to a similar form of which 
Mr. W. R. Ogilvie-Grant recently procured a specimen at 
Terceira, in the Azores, leaving the name subpalmatus, Hem- 
prich and Ehrenberg, the exact allocation of which has long 
been uncertain, for the weasels (tonnerly known as P. afri- 
canus) of Egypt and Malta, The true africanus is now 
shown to be a far larger and stronger animal than P. n. 
subpalinatus, and it possesses a far more distinct caudal 
" pencil " of dark brown hairs. It has a wavy line of de- 
marcation, and the inucli restricted white colour of the under 
surface is strongly washed with deep " buff-yellow.''' The 
dimensions of the Azorean specimen reach, for the animal 
measured in the flesh, head and body 266, tail 116, hind 
foot 44, and ear 18 mm.; and for the skull, greatest length 49, 
basal length 45*5, greatest breadth at zygoma 28, and 
palatal length 21 ram. It was caught in a rat-trap, which 
had been set for a buzzard. 

The occurrence of a weasel on the Azotes must be re- 
garded as a fact of considerable interest from the point of 
view of the student of geographical distribution, still more 
so as the animal is quite distinct from any known form 
inhabiting Europe or the adjacent portions of Africa. That 
a similar and undistinguishable weasel should be found on 
the remote Island of St. Tliomas is somewhat surprising, but 
it seems a plausible hypothesis that the latter stock may have 
been derived by introduction from the former. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE. 

Report oa the Sm Fisheries and Fishing Industries of the Thames 
Estuary. Prepared by Dr. James Mueie. London : 1903. 
Printed by order of the Kent and Essex Sea Fisheries Committee. 

This report reflects great credit on the enthusiastic naturalist who>. 
almost unaided, has accumulated in its pages an extraordinary mass 
of original and well-arranged information. Much has been done of 
late years for the improvement of the scientific aspect of our sea 
fisheries, but the Thames estuary had been entirely neglected. 

After introducing his readers to the physical formation of the 
Thames estuary and to the history of Leigh-on-Sea, the fishing- 
station where his observations have been made, fhe author deals 
successively with the various members of the fauna which are in 
some way or other of commei'cial importance — Seals and Cetaceans, 



32() Geological Society, 

Food-fishes, Oysters, Mussels and other Molluscs, Shrimps, Lobsters, 
and Crabs, all receiving due notice from both the Jife-history and 
economical points of view. Some of these subjects are treated 
with a profusion of details, much of which is entirely original, 
which raises Dr. Murie's contribution to a high scientific level. 
The compilation of a vast amount of scattered information respecting 
rare occurrences will prove a great boon to workers on the distri- 
bution of fishes on our coasts — a subject on which much remains 
to be done. 

The chapter dealing with the Herring family (Clupeidae) is a most 
important piece of work, and the contribution therein on White- 
bait adds greatly to our knowledge of a question which has been 
frequently discussed before and since Dr. Giinther settled the question 
by ascertaining the Whitebait of the Thames to consist mainly of 
young herrings. Dr. Murie has taken great pains to ascertain the 
nature of the mixed series of small fish &c. which are sent collec- 
tively to the market under this commonly known appellation, and 
he has added 20 to the 11 species which had already been listed 
by Frank Buckland in 1879. 

In dealing with the Weavers (Trachhnis), so notoriously dreaded 
by whitebaiters and shrimpers for their poisonous stings, the author 
contributes a useful footnote recommending the best treatment in 
case of accident. 

Among the more remarkable fishes mentioned in the report, 
Aphia peUucida, the White Goby, deserves special attention. It 
was supposed to be rare in the district, but Dr. Murie finds it 
astonishingly numerous, especially in March and April. According 
to Prof. Collett, who has made a special study of this curious fish 
in the Christiania Fjord, the adults die after breeding, and therefore 
accomplish their life in the course of a year. Dr. Murie throws 
doubt on this conclusion, for reasons which, however, are reserved 
for a later communication. 

In concluding this brief notice, we congratulate the Kent and 
Essex Fisheries Committee on having had the good fortune of 
bringing out a little book which will render such signal service, 
and we look forward to the publication of further instalments of 
the series of Reports of which the first is now before us. 



PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

November 18th, 1903.— Sir Archibald Geikie, D.C.L., D.Sc, F.R.S., 
Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following communications were read : — 

1, ' Notes on some Upper Jurassic Ammonites, with special 
reference to Specimens in the University Museum, Oxford.' By 
Miss Maud Healey. 

In the course of re-arranging the Upper Jurassic fossils in the 



Geological Society. 327 

Oxford University Museum, the attention of the Autlioross lias been 
called to the large amount of prevailing misconception with regard to 
Sowerby's species Ammonites plicatilis and Am. hlple.v. The type- 
specimen of FerisjiJwictes pUcatilis{Sci\v.) is refigured and described. 
It is in the form of a cast, but only an indefinite statement exists 
as to the locality from vrhich it was derived. It appears to be an 
Upper Corallian form, and is usually taken as the zone-fossil of 
that horizon. Sowerby's two figures of Perisphincies hiple.v repre- 
sent different specimens, one of which is dismissed from consideration. 
The other, probably from a Kimmeridge-Clay nodule found in the 
Suffolk Drift, is refigured and described. The Authoress considers 
that it would be wisest to abandon the name altogether, or at least to 
restrict it to the abnormal specimen to which it was first attached. 
The original specimen of Peris pliinctes variocostatiis (Buckland) 
came from the so-called Oxford Clay at Hawnes, 4 miles south of 
Bedford ; but the Authoress gives evidence in favour of her belief 
that it was really derived from the Ampthill Clay. Sowerby's 
Ammonites rotundus is the last species figiired, and it is doubtfully 
identified as a variety of Oleostephanus PaUaslaaus (d'Orb.j. It was 
derived from the Kimmeridgo Clay of Chippinghurst, 6^ miles 
south of Oxford, and is the zone-fossil of the Upper Kimmeridge 
Clay. 

2. 'On the Occurrence oi Edestus in the Coal-Measures of Britain.' 
By Edwin Tulley Newton, Esq., E.E.S., V.P.G.S. 

This genus was originally described from the United States, and 
was afterwards recognized in beds of similar age in Russia and 
Australia. The genus was afterwards placed with Helicoprion 
and Campyloprion in the family Edestidse. The specimen described 
in the present paper was obtained by Mr. J. Pringle from one of 
the marine bands which occurs between the ' Twist Coal ' and the 
'Gin -Mine Coal,' in the Smallthorn sinking of Messrs. Eobert 
Heath & Son's pits at Nettlebank (North Staffordshire). Several 
other marine bands, chiefly met with during the sinking of shafts in 
this coalfield, have been studied by Mr. J. T. Stobbs, who called the 
attention of the Geological Survey to the exposure from which this 
specimen was obtained. The specimen is a single segment of a 
fossil very closely resembling Edestus minor, and consists of an 
elongated basal portion, bearing at one extremity a smoothed, 
enamelled, and serrated crown. A description of the fossil shows 
that it is not to be referred to any existing species, and a new name 
is given to it. While it seems most in accordance with present 
knowledge to regard the ' sj)iral saw ' of HeJicoprion as the enrolled, 
symphysial dentition of an Elasmobranch, possibly allied to the 
Cestracionts, it does not seem nearly so probable that the forms 
referred to Edestus are of the same nature. In the opinion of the 
Author the latter are more likely to be dorsal defences. The paper 
concludes with a bibliography of the subject. 



328 Oeological Society. 

January 6th, 1904.— Sir Archibald Geikie, D.C.L., D.Sc, Sec.R.S., 
Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following communication was read : — 

' Implementiferous Sections at Wolvercote (Oxfordshire).' By- 
Alexander Montgomerie Bell, Esq., M.A., F.G.S. 

This section shows the following beds : — (1) Oxford Clay ; (2) old 
surface, in which are pits or troughs chiefly filled with, gravel and 
enveloped in weathered clay ; (3) a large river-bed, containing gravel 
at the base, and layers of clay above ; (4) Neolithic surface-layer, 
2 feet thick. The gravel of the river-bed contains quartzite-pebbles, 
some of exceptional size, and is covered by a thin lenticular layer of 
peat and sand, yielding thirty flowering-plants and many mosses ; the 
clays over this have probably been formed in a lake, possibly due to 
a beaver-dam. In the gravel-bed are found implements formed of 
flint quarried from the Chalk, or of quartzite from pebbles of the 
Northern Drift, all remarkable for their size, beauty, and freshness, 
together with the remains of large mammals, including the mammoth. 
The old surface, from which the river-bed has been eroded, has 
also yielded implements associated with quartzites, quartz-pebbles, 
and lydianstone, gravel from the Thames Valley, limestone-pebbles, 
Oolitic fossils, and sand. This deposit is regarded as remanie 
from the Northern Drift, probably laid down under the action 
of ice, as shown by the flask-like shape of the pits, the vertical 
position of some of the pebbles, and the jamming-in of masses 
of sand, probably in a frozen condition. Further, the Oxford 
Clay beneath the surface is weathered and shaken to a depth 
of 10 or 12 feet, except where cut off" by the descending depth of 
the river-bed. The implements are small, ordinary in shape, and 
made of flint, not quarried, but mostly taken from the Drift, and 
they are much weathered, stained, and patinatcd. The occurrence 
of an older set of implements, differing so markedly from those of 
the river-drilt, leads the Author to explain the peculiar imple- 
mentiferous drift of Iffley as containing implements of two kinds 
and two. dates. Those that are unweathered are contemporaneous 
with the deposit, and like those of the "Wolvercote river-bed ; while 
those that are stained with ochre, or deeply patinated, have been 
derived, like the Oolitic fossils, Tertiary conglomerate, quartzites, 
and volcanic rocks, from an older deposit. The Author believes 
that the frequent occurrence of weathered and unweathered im- 
plements in a single deposit may be explained generally in this 
way ; and he further infers that the time between the Drift and 
the lliver-bed was prolonged, and that the interval may have been 
as long as that which separates the epoch of the River-bed from the 
present day, his evidence being simply the patination of the flints. 
In conclusion the Author suggests that there are three classes of 
implement-bearing drifts, the ice-drifts being the earliest and the 
river-drifts the latest, while the wash-drifts may belong to more 
than one stage. 



THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATUEAL HISTOEY. 

[SEVENTH SERIES.] 
No. 77. MAY 1904. 



XXXIX. — Tlte Phylogemj of the Tdeostoini. 
By C. Tate Keg an, B.A. 

[Plate VII.] 

In tlie following paper I have tried to give an account of the 
phjlogeny of tlie main groups of tlie Teleostomi, based on 
the evidence of the available morphological data, la forming 
my conclusions I have been helped by criticism and advice 
from Mr. Boulenger and Dr. \V. G. Ridewood, to both of 
whom I gratefully express my acknowledgments. I trust 
that the reasons given for differing from the classifications 
hitherto proposed will prove sufficient: the aim of this paper 
is constructive rather than destructive, and I have not thought 
it necessary in every case to give all the avaihible arguments 
against theories of relationship which I do not accept, but 
have rather tried to establish the ideas of phylogeny which 
are here put forward on a sound morphological basis. 

The class Pisces, as usually understood, comprises Verte- 
brates with jaws, with gills supported by visceral arches, and 
with paired limbs in which the endoskeletal supports have 
not yet attained the pentadactjle arrangement of higher 
Vertebrates. Two subclasses may be recognized — Chondro- 
pterygii and Teleostomi. The latter are distinguished by the 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. 22 



330 Mr. C. T. Regan on the 

development of membrane-bones, including an operculum * 
covering the chamber into which the gill-clefts open. 

The Teleostomi may be divided into five orders, the rela- 
tions of which are expressed in the following diagram : — 

Teleostei. 



Dipneusti. Plapodernii. 



/ .. 
Crossopterygii. 



Chondrostei. 

The Chondrostei and Crossopterygii correspond to the 
groups usually so named ; the Dipneusti comprise the 
Sirenoidei only ; the Placodermi include the Arthrodira, 
Antiarcha, and' Osteostraci ; and to the Teleostei the Ganoidei 
Holostei are added. 

These orders may be defined as follows : — 

Order 1. CHONDROSTEI. 

Median fins with the dermal rays in greater number than 
their endoskeletal supports, which are typically in two prin- 
cipal series, baseosts and axonosts, with an outer series of 
small marginal cartilages. Caudal typically completely 
heterocercal (rarely abbreviate heterocercal or diphycercal). 
Paired fins not notably lobate. Pectoral baseosts articulating 
with an anterior coraco-scapular cartilage and a posterior 
metapterygium f. Ventrals with a well-developed series of 
baseosts articulating internally with a series of axonosts, 
which may be separate or more or less completely fusefl. 
Hyostylic. Hyomandibular without posterior process for 

* In some specialized forms (e. g. Aspredinidge) the operculum is 
■wanting. 

t It is impossible to say whether in the most primitive Teleostomi the 
metapterygium was already developed or whether it was represented by 
a series of separate axonosts. 



Phyhgeny of the Tdeostomi. 331 

the articulation of the operculum; sjmplectic not ossified. 
Branchiostegals not attached to epihjal and ceratohyal. 
Gular plates, if present, not specially enlarged. Clavicle 
distinct from tjie cleithrum. Notochord persistent. Peri- 
cardium * communicating with the coclom. 

Order 2. CroSSOPTERYGII. 

Median fins with the dermal rays often in greater number 
than their endoskeletal supports, which are often in two 
series. Caudal heterocercal or diphycercal. Pectorals 
lobate, with metapterygium often segmented. Ventrals lobate 
or notj with supports variously arranged. Hyostylic. Bian- 
chiostegals replaced by a pair of large gular plates. Clavicle 
distinct from the cleithrum. Vertebral column variously 
developed. 

Order 3. D i P n e u S T i. 

Median fins with the dermal rays In greater number than 
their endoskeletal supports, which are in two series. Caudal 
heterocercal or diphycercal. Paired fins acutely lobate, 
with endoskeletal supports arranged as a segmented axis with 
or without lateral branches. Autostylic, the palato-quadrate 
being fused with the cranium and the hyomandibular reduced 
or absent. Sometimes a pair of large gular plates, but 
branchiostegal rays never present. Clavicle not distinct fro.n 
the cleithrum. Notochord persistent. 

Order 4. P L A C D E R M i. 

]\Iedian fins membranous, without dermal rays, consisting 
of a single dorsal, supported by regular series of baseosts and 
axonosts, and a heterocercal caudal. Pectoral fin, if func- 
tional, represented by a jointed Arthropod-like limb, with 
internal muscles and external dermal plates, sometimes 
reduced to a fixed spine, or absent. Ventral fin, if present, 
with a series of baseosts and a single large axonostal cartilage. 
? Autostylic. Notochord persistent. Usually a well-deve- 
loped dermal armour. 

Order 5. Teleostei. 

Median fins with the dermal rays equal in number to their 
endoskeletal supports, which are typically in one series, the 

* I have taken this character from Bashford Dean, ' Fishes Living and 
Foesil,' p. 200, 

22* 



332 Mr. C. T. Regan oh the 

baseosts being either small or absent. Caudal abbreviate 
heterocercal, homocercal, or diphycercal. Paired fins usually 
not lobate. Pectoral metapterygium sometimes well deve- 
loped and serving for the articulation of the posterior 
baseostSj more often reduced and apparently forming the first 
of the baseost series. Ventral with the dermal rays directly 
attached to a single basal bone, the baseosts rudimentary or 
absent. Hyostylic. Hyomandibular with a posterior process 
for the articulation of the operculum ; syniplectic ossiHed and 
usually suturally united to the quadrate. Branchiostegal 
rays attached to the epihyal and ceratohyal. No paired gulnr 
plates. Clavicle not distinct from the cleithrum. Vertebral 
column variously developed. No communication between 
pericardium and coelom. 

It need hardly be pointed out here that I cannot expect the 
characters used in the above ordinal definitions to ])rove 
constant in every case. Experience shows that, however 
well defined groups may seem to be, as our knowledge of 
them becomes more complete annectent forms come to light, 
and it is self-evident that if we were acquainted with all the 
forms which have existed we should have a perfect phylo- 
genctic arrangement, but no division into groups. Conse- 
quently the generalizations which I have made may or may 
not be applicable to those unsatisfactorily known extinct 
forms {e, g. C/atopteridse) which can only be provisionally 
assigned to a position in the system. 

Chondeostei. 

The Chondrostei, which have been regarded by some as 
modified Crossopterygii, are undoubtedly tiie most generalized 
of all Teleostomi. 

The ventral fins of Polyodon, Acipenser, apd ScapJii- 
rliynchus have been well described and figured by Thacher * 
in 1877, and also by Davidoff + in 1879, the former of whom 
regarded their structure as most important evidence of the 
truth of his theory of the similar origin of the median and 
paired fins. This view was also accepted by Bridge J, who, 
in 1878, referring to Polyodon, wrote : — " The evident 
formation of the ventral fins by the coalescence of a series of 

* Tr. Connect. Ac. iv. 1877, p. 234, pis. i. & ii. 

t Morpb. Jahrb. v. 1879, p. 450, pi. xxviii. See also Wiedersheim, 
' Gliedmassenskelett,' p. GO (1892). 

I Phil. Trans, clxix. 1878, pp. 683-734. 



Phyhgeny <•/ the Teleostomi. 333 

originally distinct cartilugiaous rays is clearly indicative of a 
more primitive condition of tiiese structures than can be found 
in any other living vertebrate anin:ial." 

Tiie Chondrostean ventral fin having been thus described 
as principally composed of a series of basal cartilages 
(baseosts) sujtporting the dermal rays, articulated internally 
to another series of cartilages (axouosts) which exhibited 
some fusion anteriorly, it was inexcusably careless of Cope * 
to propose a classification ignoring this, his order Podopterygia 
(/. e. Chondrostei) being characterized as possessing median 
fins with numerous axonosts, pectoral without axonost and 
rudimentary baseosts, and ventral with one axunost and 
several baseosts. In Smith Woodward's classification t, 
which is based on that of Cope, the structure of the paired 
fins in the Cliondrostei has also remained unappreciated. 
Finally Traquair \, in discussing the evolution of fishes, 
whilst paying considerable attention to the paired fins of 
Crossopterygii and Dipneusti, does not even think them 
worthy of notice in the comprehensive order Actinopterygii. 
!So that it would almost seem as if the structure of the paired, 
fins in the Chondrostei, of the highest importance in any 
discussion as to the affinities of that order and of the very 
greatest interest as evidence in favour of the lateral fin fold 
theory, although well known to the niorphologists, is in 
clanger of being forgotten by tiie systematists. 

'ilie ventral fins of Pnepkurus gladius are even more 
jirimitive than those of Folyudon §, and as they have not yet 
been described, so far as 1 am aware, I propose to do so and 
to compare their structure with that of the anal and pectoral 
fins. All three fins — pectoral, ventral, and anal — strongly 
resemble each other in external appearance, being extended 
and composed of numerous articulated dermal rays, at the 
base of which there is in each case a similar muscular lobe 
projecting beyond the body-wall, and in which the series of 
baseosts is imbedded. 

On dissection the anal fin is seen to be supported by a 
series of cartilages, baseosts, 21 in number, which articulate 
internally with a similar series of axonosts. The latter, 

* Am. Nat. xxi. 1887, p. 1017. 

t Cat. Foss. Fish. (4 vols. 1889-1901) and Vert. Paloeont. (1898). 

X Presidential Address to Zool. Section of Biit. Assoc. (1900). 

§ St. George Mivurt, in lb79 (Tr. Z. S. x. p. 457), described and 
fiuurcd the anal fin of Fohjodon as the ventral, the mistake being due to 
a\s loiigly labelled specimen in the Museum of the College of Surgeons, 
but it is curious to note that on receiving Thacliers paper he did not 
realize this, but supposed the diifcrence to be due to individual variuliou. 



334 Mr. C. T. Regan on the 

however, are reduced in number to 18, owing to the fusion of 
the first 3 and the next 2. The ventral fin is supported by a 
series of 12 baseosts, exactly similar to those of the anal, 
which also articulate with a series of axonosts, which in this 
case are 8 in number, owing- to the fusion of the anterior 5. 
In both anal and ventral the cartilages of the "baseost" 
series, or radials, show a tendency to segment into 3, thus 
forming proximal, median, and distal series of segments, 
whilst external to the last, and completely overlapped by the 
dermal rays, are a series of short " marginal " cartilages. 
In the specimen described the anal fin is 23 mm. in length 
and is composed of 70 dermal rays supported by 21 baseosts, 
whilst the ventral is 11 ram. in length and is composed of 
38 rays supported by 12 baseosts, a proportionate correspond- 
ence sufficiently close to be remarkable. 

I would submit, then, that the extremely similar structure 
of the anal and ventral fins in Psephurus can only be 
explained on the theory of a directly similar origin, and that 
the theory that the structure of the anal is primitive, whilst 
that of the ventral is derived in some way from a biserial 
archipterygium, is fantastic and entirely unsupported by 
evidence. Thus, in an actual living species we have clearer 
and more complete evidence of the similar origin of the 
median and paired fins than in the extinct Gladodus^ which 
has been considered so important. 

The pectoral fin of Psepliurus is more specialized than the 
ventral ; the baseosts are 7 in number, the anterior 3 being 
attached to the large coraco-scapular cartilage, which repre- 
sents the iused anterior axonosts and which underlies a 
membrane-bone, the cleithrum. The posterior axonosts are 
also fused to form a single cartilage, the metapterygium. In 
other living Chondrostei the pectoral fin is very similar to 
that of Faej^hurus, whilst in the ventral fin the extent of fusion 
of the axonosts and the number of the baseosts show some 
variation. In the Palaioniscida?, so far the earliest and most 
generalized Chondrostei known, the ventral fins often had an 
extended * base and were composed of numerous rays. In 
one genus, the Liassic Coccolepis, a series of baseosts have been 
discovered. The axonosts have not so far been distinguished, 
but there is every justification for believing that in this 
generalized family tins so similar to those of Psephurus 
had their supports arranged in the same primitive manner. 
As regards the pectorals, the coraco-scapular cartilage with 

* It is interesting to note that in the Devonian genus Cheirolepis the 

veutial tin is lonp;er than the aual. 



Phylngeny of the Teleostomi. 



335 



tlie overlying- cleithium mu^t be regarded as typical of the 
ancestral Teleostome; whether the fusion of the posterior 
axonosts also is corelated with this, or whether the meta- 
pterygium was represented in the early Teleostomi by a series 
of separate axonosts, there is no evidence to show, but the 
structure of the pectoral in all Teleostomi is easily explicable 
as a modification of that of Psephurus. 

In the structure of their median, as well as of the paired 
fins, the Chondrostei are essentially primitive, and the con- 
dition of the vertebral column also bears witness to their low 
])osition. It appears to me fairly well established for both 
living forms and for those extinct ones which undoubtedly 
belong to this order that the hyomandibular docs not develop 
a posterior process for articulation with the inner face of the 
ojierculum, as is the case in all Teleostei. 




Fig. 1. — Diagrams to show the arrangement of the branchiostegals and 
fruLir plates in a tj'pical Crossoptevygian, Choudrostean, and 
Teleost. A. Ehizodopsis sauroides (after Traqiiair) ; B. Rhabdo- 
lepis macropterus (after Traquair) ; C Amiii calva. /.//., inter- 
gular; y., gular plates; L(j., lateral gulars ; b., brancLiostegals j 
c.h., cerato-hyal; s.op., suboperculum ; nm., lower jaw. 

In the Palceoniscidse the arrangement of the plates supporting 
the gill-membranes and extending forward between the man- 
dibular rami, as described by Traquair *, is one from which the 
conditions which obtain in other Teleostomi are readily deriv- 
able. On each side there is a continuous series of obviously 
homologous plates, the upper two or three of which are en- 
larged as the opercular bones, those following being the bran- 

* Mon. Pala^ont. Soc, Palreonir^cidne, p. 21 (1877j. 



336 Mr. C. T. Eegan on the 

chiostegals, the anterior pair of which are considerably larger 
than the rest and may be termed " gular plates." In front of 
the gular plates there is sometimes an unpaired " intergular." 
The anterior branchiostegals and the gular plates occupy 
the whole of the space between the mandibular rami, to which 
they are apposed, whilst each meets its fellow in the middle 
line. Within the order Chondrostei the gular plates and 
branchiostegals may disappear, but we never get the con- 
ditions characteristic of either Crossopterygii or Teleostei. 

We have only just begun to realize that the clavicles 
proper (infraclavicles) which Parker thought he recognized 
in so many Teleostean fishes (Siluridje, Hemibranchii, Lopho- 
branchii, Ostracion) are entirely wanting in that group, and 
the presence of this bone as a distinct element in the Chon- 
drostei and Crossopterygii becomes therefore of ordinal value. 

The arrangement of the bones of the cranial roof in the 
Chondrostean Palceoniscidge is essentially similar to that of 
the more generalized representatives of the other orders 
(the Dipneusti excepted). Assuming the interfrontal pineal 
foramen to be a primitive structure, we may expect to discover 
a Paleeoniscid-like fish possessing this feature, and had such 
a one existed in the early Silurian it would have been in 
every way fitted to become the progenitor of the Teleostomi. 

Crossopteryqii. 

The Crossopterygii are modified Chondrostei, from which 
order the more generalized forms differ but slightly. The 
lobate pectoral fin has been shown by Dollo * to be an adaptive 
s])ecialization, and is not to be regarded as of greater import- 
ance than tlie lobate pectoral of some Teleosts (e. g. Ferio- 
phthahnus, Pediculati) ; it may easily have been derived from 
the Chondrostean type in the following manner: — 

The pectoral fin began to be used at times as a support for 
the body, and even as an ambulatory limb. This change of 
function produced a changed orientation in the muscular lobe 
at the base of the fin, ■\vliicii, originally parallel to the body- 
A\all and attached to it for its whole length, became set at an 
angle to the body and detached from it posteriorly. As the 
lobe separated tlie dermal rays extended round on to its inner 
side, t The arrangement of the skeletal supports scarcely 

* Bull. Soc. Belg. Geol. ix. 1895, p. 79. 

t I am by no means satisfied that the pectoral fin of the extinct 
genera Tristichopterus and EtistJmiopferon is correctly described as uni- 
basal. That of 7'ristic/toptenis, as originally described and figured by 



Phylogeny of tlie TeJeostomi, 337 

changed, but tlie metapterygium became segmented (or tliis 
segmentation may be primitive, each segment representing an 
axonost). From such an asymmetrical fin the symmetrical 
fins of Geratodus would be derived by an increase in length 
of the lobe and of the number of axial segments and the 
development of posterior cartilages for the support of the 
inner series of dermal rays. The evolution of the ventral 
fins would be on similar lines. 



:)^ >■ 




Fig-. 2. — Diagrams to illustrate the evolution of lobatc paired fins ; the 
axonosts are unshaded, the baseosts shaded 1, jminitive con- 
dition ; 2 and 3, sta;ies seen respectively in ventral and pectoral 
of Acipenser ; 4, obtusely lobate fin ; 5, pectoral of Folypterus ; 
6, acutely lobate fin. 

In the pectoral tin of Poh/pterus there are two basal 
pieces articulated to the coraco-scapular ossifications, which 



Traiiuair (Tr. R. Soc. Edin. xxvii. 1876, p. 383, pi. xxxii. fig-. 9), would 
seem to consist of an axis (nietapteryrriunij of three segments an I of three 
baseosts, of which the first appears to be attached to the coraco-scapular. 



338 Mr. C. T. Eegan on the 

are inserted close toojether and diverge distally. Of these 
the posterior, metapterygiuni, is the longer, whilst the shorter 
anterior one is the first baseost. Polypterus is peculiar 
among Crossopterygii in that the metapterygium is not split 
uj) into or followed by a series of segments, whilst the baseosts 
are numerous and are attached to tlie distal edge of a lamina 
which has developed between the two basal bones, and in 
which an ossification has arisen. Nevertheless this type of 
fin does not appear to me to justify the proposal which has 
been made to regard the Cladistia as a distinct order. 

As to the structure of the ventral fins of the Crossopterygii, 
in those forms in which they were non-lobate this was 
probably as in the Chondrostei, and the modern Polypterus 
has an arrangement similar to that which is sometimes seen 
in Scapliirhynchus — i. e., a single basal piece supporting a 
short series of baseosts. There is evidence, too, that the 
supports of the obtusely lobate ventrals were very similar to 
those of the obtusely lobate pectorals. 

The replacement of the branchiostegal rays by the develop- 
ment of the paired gular plates is a characteristic feature of tlie 



In Eusthenopteron the same arrangement has been described by Whit- 
eaves (Tr. K. Soc. Canada, 1888, p. 87). Before I had seen either of 
these descriptions I had formed the opinion that the so-called " basal 
cartilage" in the pectoral o^ Eusthenopteron tigured by Smith Woodward 
(Vert. Paheout. p. '!'), tig. 123) was probably coraco-scapular, on account 
of its shape and bulk, and it appears to me to bear a most suspicious 
resemblance to the ossification named coraco-scapular bj^ Traquair in 
Tristichojiterus and to the coraco-scapular of the recent Polypterus. The 
so-called postaxial process would then be the downwardly projecting 
portion of the coracoid ; otherwise it seems to me to be inexplicable, since 
the dermal rays do not appear to extend so far, and if such a process 
developed on the basal segment, why not on the second ? 

The alternative supposition, which is the one apparently now adopted 
by Smith Woodward and Traquair (Geol. Mag. 1890, p. lU), is that this 
bone is the basal segment of the axis. If this be so, then it follows that 
in the specimens of Tristicliopterus on which Traquair's description was 
based this large bone had not been preserved or was hidden. 

Unless we assume that Polypterus originated independently of other 
Crossopterygii, it seems to me clear that the primitive Crossopterygian 
must have had a pectoral in which the tirst baseost retaii:ed its attach- 
ment to ihe coraco-scapular, for I regard the theory that the acutely 
lobate synunetrical tin has given rise to the t)btusely lobate asymmetrical 
tin as exploded, and 1 shall require mure i-atisfactory evidence than has yet 
been forthcoming to convince me that this condition is not realized in 
Tristichopterus or Eusthenoptertn, as would appear from the original 
description of each. 

I must add that I have been in correspondence with Dr. Traquair, who 
has very kindly told me that he is not inclined to accept my view, which 
I put forward here merely for the purpose of stating a case. 



Phylogeny of the Teleostomi. 339 

Ciossopterygii, but the supposed homology of the lateral gulars 
with the brauchiostegals is doubtful. As has been pointed out 
above^ in the Pak«oniscida3 the gular plates and branchiostegal 
rays are serially homologous, whereas the Crossopterygian 
lateral gulars are plates developed between the principal gulars 
and the mandibular rami. Moreover, whilst the Palaeoniscid 
brauchiostegals are so imbricated that each overlaps the one 
in front of it, the lateral gulars exhibit precisely the reverse 
arrangement. Nevertheless, in the Devonian Palseoniscid 
CAet^-o/e/'z's, as figured by Traquair *, the anterior branchio- 
stegal extends forward between gular plate and lower jaw, 
and this might be regarded as leading to the Crossopterygian 
condition. 

In the Crossopterygii we see the development of the bone 
which Boulenger has shown to be the representative of the 
irquaniosal of higher Vertebrates. This is fused with the 
prajoperculum in Polypterus, but coexists with it in several 
extinct forms, and corresponds to the upper bone of the 
po.storbital (as distinct from the circumorbital) series of the 
Pala^oniscida?. The bone internal to it, which is the one 
usuiilly called squamosal in fislies, is without doubt the true 
suprateniporal t, and should be so named throughout the 
Teleostomi, whether or no it includes a " pterotic " ossification 
in certain Teleosts, whilst the series which lie posterior to the 
parietals and true supratemporals might be termed dermo- 
occipitals, thus avoiding confusion with the true supraoccipital. 

Many Crossopterygii have a pineal foramen, a feature as 
yet undiscovered in any Chondrostei, and they must have 
evolved in the Silurian from some primitive type belonging 
to the latter order. 

DiPNEUSTI. 

The relations of the Dipneusti to the Crossopterygii have 
been elucidated by DoUo % i'^ ^ convincing essay. He gives 
good reasons for believing that Dipttrus is the most generalized 
ot all Uipneusti, and that it has originated from a Crosso- 
pterygian type closely allied to Holoptychius. It is only 
necessary to add iiere that his views as to the specialized 
character of the lobate paired fins receive additional con- 
firmation from the demonstration of the primitive nature of 
the non-lobate paired fins of the Chondrostei. 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) xv. 1875, p. 237. 

t This conclusion is not invalidated by the fact that Tohjpterus has no 
suprateniporal, the bone so named by Eoulenger being- the " accessory 
hyomaiidibular" of Traquair. 
' X Bull. See. Belg. Geol. ix. 1895, p. 79. 



340 



Mr. C. T. Re^an on the 



Placodermi. 

Tlie close relationship of the Coccosteidie and Asterolepidai 
jiad been generally recognized until they were so widely and 
unnecessarily separated by Cope, a proceeding which has 
found more support than it deserved^ and I have no hesitation 
in uniting the groups of which these families are represen- 
tative, together with the Osteostraci, in a single order of 
leleostomi. It has b:'en stated that the bones of the skull 
of the Coccosteidaj cannot be homologized with those of 
other Teleostomes ; but, as has recently been pointed out by 
Jjfikel *, if we take a generalized type such as Coccosteus, the 




Fiy. 3. — Diag-rauis to show the arraugement of the boues of the cranial 
roof in Coccosteus (A) and in a typical Crossopterygian {Rhizo- 
dopsis) (B) (both after Traquair). vi.o., median dermo-occipital ; 
I.O., lateral dermal occipital; p., parietal ; /., frontal ; ptf., post- 
frontal ; s.t., supratemporal ; ^;2n., pineal ; etk., ethmoid ; pinx., 
prffimaxillary ; so., suborbital ; oj)., operculum. 

cranial roof-bones are arranged as in a generalized Crosso- 
pterygian or Stegocephalian. Posteriorly we see the three 
large dermo-occipital plates which we so frequently meet 
with in the Ehizodontidag and Osteolepidse. In front of these 
are the paired parietals and frontals, the latter bounding the 
orbits laterally and partly separated medianly by a pineal f 

* Sitzb. Ges. naturf. Berlin, 1902, p. 103. 

t The pineal plate occupies the position of the pineal foramen of 
some Osteolepids. 



Phylogeny of the Teleoslomi. 31:1 

plate. Paired postfrontals and suprateniporals are well 
developed, whilst anteriorly a median ethmoid separates the 
prromaxillaries. A single large bone on the cheek which 
sends forward a process below the orbits represents the 
snb- and postorbitals, and may include the maxillary also. 
The opercular bones are represented by the operculum only. 
The nostrils are lateral, between praimaxillary and ethmoid. 
Gular plates and branchiostegal rays are apparently wanting. 
In the arrangement of the bones of the cranial roof Coccosteus 
is almost a typical Crossopterygian, and the arrangement of 
the supports of the dorsal fin in two regular series and tlie 
structure of the ventral fin, which appears to be essentially 
similar to that of Foli/pterus*, cannot be said to negative this 
view. 

A comparison of Coccosteus with Pterichthys shows the 
following important points of agreeaient :: — ^ 

(1) The anterior part of tlie trunk is enclosed in an armour 

of bony plates which are not united to those of the 
head, so tliat tlie latter is freely movable. 

(2) There is a single dorsal fin which is membranous. 

(3) There is a single opercular bone f and a pitted pineal 

bone. 

(4) The dermal armour \ is in hoth cases composed of dense 

bone loith a cancellated structure in its thicker portions, 
with an outer layer of ganoine, ivith a tuherculated 
surface, and ivith open grooves for the sensory canals. 

(5) The arrangement of the bones of the head, but espe- 

cially that of the dermal plates of the body, can 
easily be reduced to a common plan. 

In the skull of Pterichthys we recognize posteriorly tlie 
three dermo-occipitals, the suprateniporals, and the operculum 
of Coccosteus, whilst anteriorly the median ethmoid and 
laterally the large suborbital plate are still in the same relative 
positions. The prgemaxillaries are now eiitirely on the lower 
surface, but, as in Coccosteus, they seem to border the nostrils. 
The orbits have approached each other until they are only 
separated by the pineal plate. The postfrontal is fused with 
the suborbital. 

If Jfekel be correct in regarding Ilomosteus as intermediate 

* It is noteworthy tliat Coccosteus resembles Polijpterus in the position 
of the nostrils also. 

t In both cases this bone has been interpreted by some authorities as 
other than opercular, so that it would bo perhaps better to say " there is in 
both a similarly placed bone which ma}' be regarded as an operculum." 

X See Smith Woodward, ' Vertebrate Pakeontology,' p. 12 (181)8), and 
Cat. Foss.Fish. ii. p. xix (1891). 



342 



Mr. C. T. Regan on the 



between Coccostens and Pterichthys, then the frontals have 
been displaced forwards and have either disappeared or 
become fused with the ethmoid or with the suborbital plates, 
and the so-called postmedian represents the parietals. On 
the other hand, there is the possibility that this element may 
be frontal in origin and that the median dermo-occipital may 
include the parietals, and I incline to this latter view. 





Fi^-. 4. — Ventral plates of trunk-armour of (A) Pterichth/s (after Tra- 
quair) and (B) CoccQsteus (after Traquair). i.L, interlateral ; 
s., lateral spine; ji., pectoral limb; a.m.v., anterior median 
ventral ; p.7n.v., posterior median ventral ; ci.o.I., anterior 
ventro-lateral ; p.v.L, posterior ventro-lateral. The faint lines 
indicate the extent of the overlap ; the suture between the 
interlateral and the lateral spine in Coccosteus has been inserted. 

The arrangement of the plates of the armour of the trunk 
is on a very similar plan in both Coccosteidte and Astero- 
lepida?, 1 or 2 median dorsal plates, 1 or 2 pairs of anterior 
and posterior lateral plates, and on the ventral surface 4 large 
plates in exactly the same position and overlapping each 
other and a smaller four-sided median piece in a very similar 
manner, whilst a small anterior median plate may or may 
not be present. The semilunars of the Asterolepidai seem to 
correspond to the elements (interlaterals) which' have been 
regarded as clavicles in the Coccosteidse. 

The case of Acanthaspis may be cited as evidence of the 
similarity of the plates of these two families in structure and 
arrangement. This genus, according to Smith Woodward *, 

* Vert. Palfeont. p. 16. 



Phylogeny of the Tehostomi. 34:3 

" 1ms a dermal armour resembling- that of the Antlarcha in 
minute structure and a ventral plastron quite similar to that 
of the latter. The lateral appendages, however, instead of 
being complex and movable, are simple and fixed." Never- 
theless Traquair* has' given good reasons for regardinc; 
Acanthaspis as a Coccosteid, and it would even seem that the 
fixed spinous appendage may be diagnostic of that family. 

So far, tlien, Coccostens has been shown to resemble the 
more generalized Crossopterygii in the arrangement of the 
bones of the cranial roof, and reasons have been given for 
regarding the Asterolepidte as closely related to the Cocco- 
steid;\) f. 

What, then, of the peculiar pectoral limb of the Astero- 
lepidai ? It has been sometimes assumed that this is not 
homologous with the pectoral fin of other fishes, but evidence 
in support of this assumption has not been forthcoming. 
Bashford Dean even goes so far as to say that these ap- 
pendages are now known to be the lateral head-angles [? of 
CepJialaspis] produced and jointed for locomotion. This 
extraordinary theory is evidently based on a complete mis- 
conception as to the position of the Asterolepid limbs, and so 
needs no discussion. Smith Woodward seems to think that 
the fixed spinous appendage of Acanthaspis in some way 
supports the view of the independent origin of the Asterolepid 
pectoral, and I suppose therefore that he regards it as a stag-e 
in the development of the latter. Personally, I am unable to 
imagine that a fixed spine could possibly give rise to a jointed 
Arthropod-like limb with internal muscles. In fact, the 
structure of such a limb, articulated to an anterior plate of 
the body, in ^Yhich latter is a large foramen, indicating that 
tendons, blood-vessels, and nerves passed to the muscles of 
the limb from the body, postulates for me an unarmed ancestor 
with a muscular limb ah-eady developed. Just as the 
similar limbs of the Crustacea are generally held to have been 

* Geol. Mag. (3) x. 1893, p. 148. 

t The reasons which ha^ e been gi^en for regarding Coccosteids and 
Asterolepids as not related are (1) the more vascular bone of the latter, 
(2) the presence of specialized paired tins in the former, and (3) the well- 
ossified jaws of the Coccosteids. With regard to these, the resemblances 
in the structure of the bony plates are very remarkable, and the diti'ereuces 
are evidently not well marked, or there could be no doubt as to the 
position of a genus after the minute structure of the bone had been ascer- 
tained. The Asterolepid pectoral is surely specialized enough, and it is 
purely gratuitous to assume its non-homology with that of other tishes. 

As to the uon-ossitied lower jaw of the Asterolepids, instances are not 
•wanting in Chondrostei and Teleostei of degeneration of membrane-bones 
or of the reversion of a bone to its primitive cartilaginous condition. 



344 Mr. (1 T. Regan on the 

derived from the Annelid parapodia, muscular projections 
used in progression, by increase in size accompanied by 
hardening and segmentation of the exoskeleton, so do I con- 
ceive the Asterolepid limb to have been derived from the 
lobate Crossopterygian pectoral fin, already being used to 
support the body and for ambulatory progression, by the 
development of dermal plates on the ranscular lobe of the fin 
at the same time that the anterior part of tire trunk became 
armoured. The fixed spinous a])pendage of the Coccosteidse 
seems to represent the pectoral limb of the Asterolepidre, so 
that we niay regard the former as the more generalized in 
the structure of the skull, the latter in that of the pectoral 
limb. 

We now pass to the Cephalaspidte and the related forms 
included in the Osteostraci. The reasons for regarding these 
as allied to the Asterolepidaj have been given by Smith 
Woodward, and they appear to me suflacient and convincing, 
and may l^e briefly summarized here. In both groups we 
have a similar caudal region, with a single dorsal fin in the 
same position and with the caudal fin heterocercal, with a 
well-developed lower lobe. Then, again, in two Osteostracan 
genera, Tremutaspis and Didymaspis, the anterior part of the 
trunk is enclosed in armour, consisting of a dorsal shield to 
which a ventral shield is opposed, the dorsal shield being- 
distinct from the head-shield in the former genus, but fused 
with it in the latter. Since the head-shield is continuous, 
the nostrils must have been inferior, as in the Asterolepidaj, 
whilst the orbits are approximated and separated only by a 
pineal ])late, as in that family. Finally, the exoskeleton is 
composed of true bone in its inner layers, as in other 
"Ganoid" fishes. Where I differ from Dr. Smith Wood- 
ward with respect to this group is that whereas he looks 
upon the genera which most nearly approach the Asterolepidaj 
as the most specialized, J. regard them on that account as the 
most generalized, and the loose pineal plate and the ganoine 
layer of Tremataspis appear to me in favour of my view. 
Conceived as specialized and degenerate Asterolepidaj, the 
structure of the Osteostraci is easily explicable, but I cannot 
reconcile the Asterolepid structure with the idea that they are 
a further development of the Osteostraci or of anything like 
them, whilst if the resemblances between Asterolepidie and 
Coccosteidc\3 are due to convergence (as they must be if they 
belong to difi:erent subclasses), then morphology has ceased to 
be a guide to relationship. Finally, the Heterostraci must 
be consideredj since they have often been associated with tlie 



PhylogeuTj of the Teleostomi. 345 

Cephalaspidse, although it has long been known that they 
differ from them fundamentally in the microscopic structure 
of their dermal armour, bone lacunge being entirely absent, 
whilst there is great similarity to the tooth-structure of the 
Elasmobranchs. Lankester has strongly maintained that the 
Heterostraci and Osteostraci are an unnatural association, 
and as long ago as 1867 he wrote*: — "The Heterostraci 
are associated at present with the Osteostraci because they 
are found in the same beds, because they have, like Cepha- 
laspis, a large head-shield, and because there is nothing else 
with which to associate them — the shields are not so closely 
similar in plan, much less in histological structure f, as to 
warrant any inference of similarity in other parts." Within 
the last few years Traquair:]: has discovered new forms 
which seem to place it beyond doubt that the Heterostraci 
are armoured Chondropterygii. He has also discovered a 
new genus, Ateleaspi's, which he considers is annectent 
between Heterostraci and Cephalaspid;e, but this view I am 
not prepared to accept. Ateleaspi's is certainly very closely 
allied to Cejyhakispi's, but I cannot see that there is the least 
reason for regarding it as allied to anything else. The 
shield is divided superficially into hexagonal areas, which are 
compared to those of Cephalaspis, in which genus this 
appearance has been shown by Lankester § to be due to the 
arrangement of the vascular canals, which may even cause 
the shield to crack along these lines, whilst in pi. x. fig. 5, a 
specimen of Cepkalaspis asper is figured in which the polygonal 
areas are very strongly brought out by the great pressure and 
the infiltration to which the shield has been subjected. If 
Lankester is correct, and the polygonal areas of Cephalaspis 
are due to the arrangement of the vascular canals, then they 
are not due to the coalescence of originally separate poly- 
gonal pieces, as suggested by Traquair, who believes he has 
found in Ateleaspis a stage in this development. Traquair's 
idea that the superficial tubercles of the shield of Ateleaspis 
represent originally separate Ccelolepid denticles appears to me 

* Mon. Palseont. Soc, Cephalaspidae, p. 62 (1867). 

t The difference in structure of the dermal armour of Fterafipis and 
Cephalaspis is essentially that between a ■' placoid " and a " ganoid '' scale. 
There is no reason why the former should not have given rise to the 
latter and to membrane-bones, by fusion and by the development of a bony 
substratum, more than once. On the other hand, the evidence shows that 
the Teleostomi, as here understood, are monophyletic. 

X Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, xxxix. 1899, p. 827 et seq., and Rep. 
Brit. Assoc. 1900, p. 773. 

§ ' Cephalaspida3,' p. 10. 

Ann. d: j\[ag. N. Hist. Scr. 7. Vol. xiii. 23 



346 Mr. C. T. Regan on the 

still less valid, and might be applied with equal force to any 
of the nuraex'ous Ganoid fishes with tuberculated bones, and 
surely it is a retrograde step to suggest that structures which 
in Cephalaspis have been shown to be posterior extensions of 
the head-shield may after all be pectoral fins. 

In fact, the evidence that the Coccosteidas are Teleostomi, 
that the Asterolepidge are allied to the Coccosteidae, and that 
the Cephalaspidse have been derived — through the Trematas- 
pidas — from the Asterolepidse, is so clear, that I am com- 
pelled to regard the Ateleaspid structure as a modification of 
that of the Cephalaspid. 

T E L E S T E I. 

The reasons for regarding the Teleostei and Chondrostei as 
distinct orders and for including the Holostei with the former 
are apparent in the diagnoses given above. The Holostei 
may then be regarded as the first Teleostean suborder*, dis- 
tinguished from the Malacopterygii by their well-developed 
splenial and by one or more of the pectoral baseosts being 
attached to the metapterygium. Whether certain features of 
resemblance between Polypterus and the Holostei, of which 
the articulation of the operculum to a posterior process of the 
hyomandibular is the most important, are to be interpreted as 
derived from a common ancestor or as due to convergence ia 
not yet clear. 

The Pal^ontoloqical Evidence. 

It may be said that the conclusions as to the evolution of 
the Teleostomi expressed above are not in accordance with 
the pakeontological evidence ; but to this I reply that they 
are in accordance with the morphological evidence, which is 
clear and sufficiently complete, whilst the geological record is, 
and must be from the nature of the case, very incomplete. 
The Teleostomi probably originated from Pleuropterygian 
Elasmobranchii in the Lower Silurian, and the Crossopterygii, 
with their specialized offshoots the Dipneusti and Placo- 
dermi, must have rapidly evolved, since all are well represented 
in the Lower Devonian, and the highly specialized Cepha- 
laspidae are found in the Upper Silurian. In the same way 
that generalized Reptilia gave rise to the host of forms which 

* Provisionally, for I am inclined to think that none of the characters 
■which have been used to distinguish between Holostei and Malacopterjgii 
•will prove satisfactory. 



Phylogeny of the Teleostomi. 347 

were characteristic of the Secondary period, including tlie 
highly specialized Iclithyosauria and Pterosauria, which 
declined and were replaced by a new race, the Mammalia, 
derived also from the same generalized stock, so must we 
conceive the primitive Teleostomi as giving rise to the 
Crossopterygii, with their specialized offshoots tli^ Dipneusti 
and Placodermi, and remaining dormant to develope later on 
into the typical Chondrostei. There is no justification for 
regarding the Crossopterygii as less specialized than the 
Chondrostei because they were the earlier dominant group. 
The non-recognition of the true position of Cephalaspis as a 
specialized Asterolepid seems to have been due to its occur- 
rence in the Upper Silurian ; but when we consider that, in 
spite of the imperfect geological record, we know that types 
so divergent as Cheirolepis, TristicJiopterus, IloloptychiuHj 
DipteruSy Coccosteus, Homosteim, Plerichthys, and Cephalaspis 
were already in being in the Lower Devonian, we may feel 
assured that some of these, and numerous annectent forms 
also^ must have existed long before. 



Summary and Conclusions. 

The main results of the foregoing paper may be stated as 
follows : — 

(1) The Chondrostei are the most generalized Teleostomi. 

(2) The Crossopterygii differ from them 

(a) in the lobate pectoral fin ; 

[h) in the larger paired gular plates. 

(3) The Placodermi (Coccosteidse, Asterolepidae, Cephalas- 

pida3) are a natural group, not related to the Hetei- 
ostraci, which are Chondropterygii. They may 
probably be regarded as armoured primitive Crosso- 
pterygii, this view being most in accordance with 
(a) the arrangement of the cranial roof-bones in 

Coccosteus ; 
{h) the structure of the ventral fin in Coccosteus ; 
(c) the structure of the pectoral limb of the Astero- 
lepidse. 

(4) The Dipneusti probably originated from more specialized 

Crossopterygii, e. g. from the neighbourhood of the 
Holoptychiidre. 

(5) The Teleostei differ in so many respects from the 

Chondrostei that they should rank as an order, in 
which the Holostei are included. 

23* 



348 On the PhyJogeny of tlie Tdeostomi. 

In the Teleostomi and the Chondropterygii * the evolution 
of the paired fins has proceeded independently, but sometimes 
on parallel lines, from the earliest stages. The median fins 
of the Teleostomi also tend to undergo the same modifications 
as the paired ones, but this comparison must not be pushed 
too far. The most primitive condition is that which we have 
seen in the anal and ventral fins of Psephurus: (1) dermal 
rays much more numerous than the baseosts, which form a 
well-developed series^ attached internally to a series of 
axonosts, the anterior of which show a tendency to fusion. 
From this stage is easily derived that which is seen in the 
anal fin of Eusthenopteron, or in the ventral of Polypterus 
or ? Coccosteus, {. e. (2) dermal rays more numerous than 
the baseosts, which are attached to a single cartilage or bone 
formed by the fusion of the axonosts. The third stage (3), 
in which the baseosts are rudimentary or absent and the 
deimal rays are attached direct to the axonostal bone, is 
exemplified in the anterior dorsal of the Coelacanthidse and 
the ventrals of the Teleostei. 

Two conditions met with in the median fins are not 
paralleled in the paired ones. The first is a modification of 
stage (1) described above, and is that seen in the Teleostei, 
baseosts small or wanting, dermal rays equal in number to 
the axonosts. The second is derived from stage (2), and is 
that seen in the posterior dorsal of Holoptyckius, in which 
there is a single axonostal cartilage, whilst the baseosts are 
numerous, crowded, and apparently subdivided, some being 
attached to others instead of to the axonost. 

Similarly the paired fins undergo modifications which 

* Thaclier (Tr. Conn. Ac. iii. & iv. 1877) deduced the theory of the 
similar origin of median and paired fins from their similar structure in 
the Elasmobranchii and Ohondrostei. Balfour, from a study of Elasmo- 
branch development, also deduced the similar origin of median and paired 
fins. He concluded that in modern Elasmobranchii the ventral fin retains 
in all essential respects its primitive arrangement, and that the pectoral 
metapterygium represents the pelvic basipterygium. He also wrote : " I 
should be much more inclined to hold that the fin of Ceratodus has been 
derived from a fin like that of the Elasmobranchii by a series of steps 
similar to those which Huxley supposes to have led to the establishment 
of the Elasmobranch fin, but in exactly the reverse direction." 

I prefer these conclusions to the more recent ones of Cope and Smith 
Woodward, who regard the fins of modern Elasmobranchii and Chon- 
drostei as highly specialized, and I would point out that the Ichthyotome 
pectoral must have been derived from the Pleuropteryj^ian type in the 
same way as the paired tins of the Dipueusti from those of the Chon- 
drostei, the axis, or metapterygium, representing the series of axonosts, 
and not being derived from an elongate baseost. 



On Ileteroptera from the Transvaal, o49 

cannot be paralleled in the median ones, when the axonosts 
form the axis of a lobate fin, and these have already been 
discussed in treating of the order Crossopterjgii. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII. 

Ftg. 1. Anal (A.), ventral (V.), and pectoral (P.) fins oiPsephurus gladius, 

the two last from the ventral or inner aspect. 
Ftg, 2. Thesame,dissected to show the supporting cartilages, cor., coraco- 

scapular; jw;!., metapterjgium ; a., axonosts; n, baseosts (radials) ; 

m., marginals. 



XL.—Rhjnchotal Notes.— XXlll. By W. L. DISTANT. 

Heteeoptera from the Transvaal. 

The British Museum has secured a set of the specimens of 
Rhynchota collected by the Rev. H. A. Junod at Shilouvane, 
Zoutpansberg, Northern Transvaal, and this paper refers to 
undescribed species found in the collection. The Gapsidte 
have already been described {ante, p. 196 et seq.), while the 
Homoptera, poorly represented, are reserved for future treat- 
ment. The greater part of the Zoutpansberg district possesses 
a subtropical climate and is much covered with bush and 
dwarf forest, thus being in strong contrast with the high and 
barren veld which constitutes so large a portion of the Trans- 
vaal landscape, I was therefore not greatly surprised to find 
both many new species and others known in entomological 
record, which I had neither seen nor secured during four 
years' collecting in other parts of the Transvaal. Two 
genera, Geomorpha and Phonolibes, both hitherto represented 
only by a single West-African species, are now found to have 
each a representative species in North Transvaal. 

All the types are contained in the National Collection. 

Fam. Pentatomidae. 

Subfam. Ctdnin^. 

GnatJwconus elongatus, sp. n. 

Elongate ; black ; lateral margins of pronotum, basal half 
of lateral margins of corium, second and base of third joints 
of antennse, tibiae (excluding apical third), lateral margins of 
the fourth, fifth, and sixth abdominal segments, and the apical 



350 Mr. W. L. Distant on 

margin of anal segment to the abdomen pale ocliraceous ; 
a large discal spot to corium creamy white ; lateral lobes of 
the head very thickly finely punctate ; pronotum (excluding 
ihe transverse callose area and lateral margins), scutellum, 
and corium somewhat coarsely punctate ; membrane pale 
bronzy. 

Allied to G. tibialis, Stal, also found in the Transvaal, but 
much more elongate ; pronotum with the lateral margins 
continuously narrowly ocliraceous, but basal margin con- 
colorous ; apex of scutellum concolorous, &c. 

Long. 5 mm. 

Geomorpha Junodi, sp. n. 

Fuscous brown ; head, anterior area of pronotum, and legs 
testaceous ; a narrow, transverse, callose fascia to pronotum 
at about one third from anterior margin^ and central fused 
spots to fourth and fifth abdominal segments, ocliraceous ; 
connexivuni piceous, the marginal tubercles ocliraceous ; 
membrane obscure brownish ochraceous, with piceous suff"u- 
sions ; head moderately long, profoundly sinuate in front of 
eyes, lateral lobes longer than central lobe, a little outwardly 
and upwardly dilated at their apices, which do not quite 
meet; autennai mutilated in typical specimen; pronotum 
strongly and somewhat transversely rugose behind the pale 
transverse callose fascia, the anterior area with some very 
coarse punctures, the lateral angles very broad, obtusely 
angularly prominent ; scutellum short, broad, its base trian- 
gularly elevate, continued in a central carination to apex, its 
surface strongly rugose, with four small obscure ocliraceous 
spots on basal area ; corium opaque, coarsely punctate, its 
lateral margin about as long as, and its inner margin only 
extending a little beyond middle of, scutellum ; membrane 
reticulate, not quite reaching apex of abdomen ; body beneath 
considerably suffused with ochraceous. 

Long. 10 ; exp. pronot. angl. 7^ mm. 

Fam. Coreidae. 

Sub fa m . C 'oreik^t:. 

Division Pe T ASCEL AK i A. 

Carlisis serrahilis, sp. n. 

Head above and antennaj black ; basal annulations to 
second and third joints of antennae, a central fascia to head 
beneath, and rostrum (excluding apex) ochraceous ; pronotum 



Heteroptera from the Transvaal. 351 

either pieeous suffused with ochraceous, or ochraceous suffused 
with pieeous, extreme anterior area pieeous, beyond which is 
a transverse ochraceous line, three abbreviated longitudinal 
ochraceous lines at base, the lateral margins always black or 
pieeous ; scutellum black, its central lateral margins, apex, 
and a central longitudinal line more or less obscurely ochra- 
ceous ; corium ochraceous, much suffused with pieeous or 
black ; membrane black ; connexivum black, spotted with 
ochraceous, the spots bifid above; body beneath and legs 
black, opaque; anterior and anterior lateral margins and a 
central fascia to prosternum, a central fascia to mesosternum, 
a broad central spot to metasternum, and lateral margins of 
corium as seen beneath, ochraceous ; anterior and intermediate 
femora (excluding apices), an obscure central annulation to 
tibiffi, and the second joint of tarsi testaceous. First and 
fourth joints of antennae subequal in length, second and third 
joints longer and almost subequal ; pronotum sparingly 
punctate, with its lateral margins very coarsely serrate for 
their whole length ; scutellum transversely wrinkled ; corium 
very sparingly punctate ; anterior and intermediate femora 
denticulate beneath near apex, posterior femora incrassate, 
obtusely convexly dilated at about middle of inner margin ; 
anterior lateral margins of corium blackly granulate. 
Long., ^ ? , 26-28 mm. 

Division GONOOERARIA. 

Plinachtus trilineatus^ sp. n. 

Head ochraceous, obscurely punctate, with three longitu- 
dinal black lines — one central, the other two from near base 
of antennse to ocelli ; antennse with the first, second, and 
third joints castaneous, fourth pale fuscous, with its base 
ochraceous ; pronotum ochraceous, thickly brownly punctate, 
extreme lateral margins and the posterior lateral angles 
castaneous ; scutellum ochraceous (excluding margins and 
apex), blackly punctate; clavus stramineous, blackly punc- 
tate ; corium subroseus, blackly punctate ; membrane dark 
bronzy brown ; body beneath and legs ochraceous ; a spot on 
each side of pro-, meso-, and metasterna, and three basal 
spots on each side of second, third, fourth, and fifth abdominal 
segments black ; first, third, and fourtli joints of antennai 
subequal in length, second longest; rostrum reaching the 
intermediate coxae ; lateral pronotal angles acutely spinous, 
their apices directed a little forward. 

Long. 17 mm. 



o52 Mr. W. L. Distant on 

Subfam. Alydin^. 
Mirperus nigrofasciatuSy sp. n. 

Ochraceous, coarsely punctate; a lateral fascia on each 
side of head^ two discal longitudinal fasciae to pronotum 
(not reaching anterior margin), a large central spot and 
narrow sublateral fascia to mesonotum, two longitudinal fasciaa 
to abdomen and between thera on basal area two narrower 
and ill-defined fasciae, black ; legs piceous, with ochraceous 
suffusions ; coriurn with the punctures thickly black towards 
apical area and the lateral margins stramineous ; membrane 
pale piceous, its apical margin pale hyaline ; antennae with 
the first, second, and third joints brownish ochraceous, fourth 
joint mutilated, first and second joints subequal in length, 
third longest ; rostrum piceous above and reaching inter- 
mediate coxee ; the punctuation very coarse and strong on 
pronotum, more finely punctate on scutellum and coriurn ; 
head finely granulate ; posterior femora in male incrassate 
and spined beneath, two subapical spines longest; posterior 
tibial strongly curved, almost as long as femora. 

Long. 9| mm. 

Mirperus robustus^ sp. n. 

Dull ochraceous, darkly punctate ; head and anterior area 
of pronotum thickly greyishly pilose; membrane greyish 
brown, with scattered small piceous spots ; head beneath, 
disk of sternum and two oblique fasciae on its apical areas, 
a central and a waved fascia on each side of abdomen beneath, 
apex of rostrum, and the femora black ; an oblique line and 
a small basal spot on each side of head beneath, tibiae, and 
antennge dull ochraceous ; annulations to anterior and inter- 
mediate tibiffi, bases and apices of posterior tibiaj, and apices 
of tarsi black ; basal joint of antennaj shorter than head, 
about equal in length to second joint ; rostrum reaching the 
intermediate coxa? j connexivum ochraceous, spotted with 
black. 

Long. 9 mm. 

Fam. Lygaeidse. 

Division Oesillaeia. 

Nysius ruhromaculatus, sp. n. 

Head, anterior area of pronotum, and scutellum testaceous, 
pronotum (excluding anterior area) ochraceous ; a spot on 



Iletero^Jtera from the Transvaal. 353 

head near each ocellus, centre of anterior margin and a sub- 
basal line to pronotuni, and basal margin of scutellum black ; 
corium pale hyaline, its apical angle broadly reddish testa- 
ceous ; membrane pale hyaline, its apical area suffused with 
testaceous and piceous ; body beneath testaceous ; legs stra- 
mineous, apices of femora and tibia? a little darker ; antennce 
ochraceous, basal joint and apex of second a little darker, 
second, third, and fourth joints subequal in length, basal 
joint shortest, not reaching apex of head ; head strongly 
attenuated and laterally sinuate in front of eyes; pronotura 
very coarsely punctate ; scutellum with a subbasal transvers3 
carination, which is centrally continued to apex. 
Long. 4^ mm. 

Division Aphanaria. 

Aphanus atomarius, sp. n. 

Ochraceous, thickly punctured witli brown ; head reddish 
ochraceous, lateral margins and apex, margins of central lobe, 
two large basal spots, and eyes black ; pronotum with black 
lines enclosing an irregular transverse space on anterior area, 
the lateral margins moderately laminately refiexed ; scutellum 
with a black line occupying nearly centres of lateral margins 
and two longitudinal black lines at apex ; corium with the 
apical angle black ; legs ochraceous ; abdoaien beneath casta- 
neous ; head beneath, disk of sternuui, a central longitudinal 
fascia to abdomen, anterior femora (excluding apices), apices 
of intermediate and posterior femora, and apices of tibi^ and 
tarsi black. Antenna? mutilated in the six specimens now 
before me. 

Long. 5-5^ mm. 

Allied to A. orientalis, Dist., from British India. 

Fam. Reduviidae. 

S u b f a m . Stenopodinji:. 

DiTHMAEUS, gen. nov. 

Body moderately elongate^ a little posteriorly widened ; 
head subcyliudrical, not narrowed anteriorly and between an- 
tennae armed with two porrect spines, eyes inserted at about 
one tliird from base, behind and between which the surface is 
transversely tuberculate and there contains the ocelli, extreme 
base narrowly pedunculate ; antennse strongly pilose, first 
joint nearly as long as head, second twice as long as first j 



354 Mr. W. L. Distant on 

rostrum reaching the anterior coxse, first and second joints 
subequal in length ; pronotum rather more than twice as 
broad at base as at anterior margin, transversely constricted 
at middle, centrally longitudinally broadly excavatedj lateral 
margins sinuate, posterior angles acutely prominent, anterior 
angles shortly subtuberculously prominent ; apex of scutelluni 
produced in a somewhat long semierect spine ; hemelytra 
reaching apex of abdomen, the last with its margins a little 
dilated ; abdomen beneath flatly depressed, but with a very 
strong central longitudinal ridge ; anterior angles of pro- 
sternum shortly spinous ; legs of moderate length, anterior 
femora strongly incrassate and shortly spinous beneath. 

Allied to ArgoUs by the two anterior spines to head, but 
difi'ering by the incrassate and spinous anterior femora. 

Dithmarus atromaculatus, sp. n. 

Cinnamon-brown ; antennae and legs stramineous ; clavus 
and anterior area of corium of a creamy hue ; membrane slaty 
grey ; an elongate spot to clavus^ a broken discal spot 
and a larger apical spot to corium, and a very small basal 
and a large discal spot to membrane black ; connexivum 
spotted with creamy white ; anterior femora beneath mode- 
rately suffused with piceous ; the tarsi and apices of tibias 
ochraceous. 

Long. 17 mm. 

Subfam. Harfactobin^, 

Phonolibes bimaculatus, sp. n. 

Black, greyishly pilose ; base and apex of head, two rounded 
discal spots and margins of lateral angular areas to pro- 
notum, margins and central carina to scutellum, connexivum, 
posterior margin to prosternum, lateral margins of meso- and 
metasterna, coxje, trochanters, and abdomen beneath san- 
guineous ; lateral areas of abdominal segmental incisures and 
anal abdominal segment black ; first joint of antennee about 
as long as head and subequal in length to third, second short, 
about half the length of third. 

Long. 9^ mm. 

Allied to the West-African P. venustus, Stal, from which 
it differs by its smaller size and altogether different markings; 
the pronotum is also narrower and much less profoundly 
longitudinally impressed. 



Ileteroptera from the Transvaal. 355 

Harpactor femoralisy sp. n. 

Black; legs and lateral margins of abdomen testaceous; 
apices of femora, bases and apices of tibias, and the tarsi 
black ; first joint of antennse about as long as head ; anterior 
lobe of pronotum broadly centrally sulcate towards its base, 
posterior lobe obscurely granulate ; scutellum foveateat base, 
its apex robustly porrectly produced ; legs longly pilose ; 
first joint of rostrum about reaching eyes, second joint about 
twice as long as first. 

Long. 12^ nun. 

Sphedanohstes corallinusj sp. n. 

Coral-red ; corium and anterior and intermediate tibise dull 
ochraceous ; antennas, eyes, apex of head, ocelli and a short 
line behind them, outer area of corium, posterior tibial, apices 
of anterior and intermediate tibiae, and the tarsi black ; 
membrane pale hyaline ; first joint of antennte about as long 
as proiiotum and scutellum together ; both lobes of pronotum 
centrally longitudinally sulcate ; membrane passing apex of 
abdomen ; femora moderately nodulose. 

Long. 8 mm. 

Endochus cinnamopterus, sp, n. 

Cinnamon-brown ; body beneath, connexivum, rostrum, 
and legs pale ochraceous ; lateral pronotal angles black ; 
head almost as long as pronotum, transversely constricted 
between the eyes, first joint of antennae bright castaneous and 
about as long as anterior femora, its apex and the second and 
third joints ochraceous; rostrum with the first and second 
joints almost subequal in length ; pronotum transversely con- 
stricted before middle, the anterior area a little sculptured and 
medially impressed, the posterior area sparingly ochraceously 
]nlose, posterior margin truncate, the lateral posterior angles 
shortly, laterally, spinously produced ; membrane pale 
bronzy ; apices of femora and the whole of anterior and 
intermediate tibiai cinnamon-brown ; abdomen not angularly 
dilated, beneath with lateral series of small black spots, one 
on each segment ; head on each side behind base of antennte 
tubcrculate, but not spinous. 

Long. 21-22 mm. 

Endochus straiiiinipes^ sp. n. 
Fttscous brown ; body beneath and legs stramineous ; head 



356 Miss Cora B. Sanders on the Bhopalocera 

slightly shorter than pronotum, with a rather long semierect 
spine a little behind the base of each antenna ; first joint of 
rostrum distinctly longer than the second ; first joint of an- 
tenna; stramineous, about as long as anterior femora, remaining 
joints mutilated; pronotum elongate, finely transversely con- 
stricted before middle, the posterior lobe finely granulate, 
posterior lateral angles longly, spinously, laterally produced ; 
corium a little darker in hue and finely greyishly pilose ; 
membrane bronzy ; abdomen moderately angularly dilated on 
each side at the junction of the fifth and sixth segments ; 
legs somewhat longly pilose. 
Long. 13^ mm. 



XLI. — The Collections of William John BurcheU, D.G.L., in, 
the Hope Department^ Oxford University Museum. 

IV. On the Lepidoptera RhopaJocera collected hy W. J. 
BurcheU in Brazil, 1825-1 830. By Cora B. Sanders, 
of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. 

[Concluded from p. 323.] 
II. DaNAINjE. 

Anosia erippus^ Cram. 

Bz. 122. L 15. 8. 25. S = 140. llio de Janeiro. " In a 

cross-lane about halfway between the Gloria Hill and 

Botafogo Bay. All found on plants." "Papilio.'" 
10. 1. 26. S — 141. Rio de Janeiro. Praia (irdnde and 

S. Joao de Carahy. 
27. 1. 26. ? = 142. Rio de Janeiro. 
31. 1. 26. J = 143. Rio de Janeiro. (As 66.) 
26. 2. 26. 2 cJ = 144, 145. NearFrechal and the Rio Mage. 

Brazilian date and later copy on 145. 
1. 3. 26. 2 ? = 146, 147. (As 121.) Brazilian date and 

later copy on 147. 
13.3.26. (^ = 148. Rio de Janeiro. "FromMage. a.[m.]." 
13. 3. 26. ? = 149. Rio de Janeiro. '^ a.[m.].'' 
1. 4. 26. c? = 150. Rio de Janeiro. " in the Valley of 

Catumbi." 
3. 4. 26. ? = 151. Rio de Janeiro. " Along the Carioca 

Aqueduct." 
23. 9. 26. 2 c? = 152, 153. Santos. 



collected hy W. J, Burchell in Brazil. o57 

Bz. 3. 11. 26. ^ = 154. Santos. " On Monserrat.^' 

12. 11. 26. ? =155. Santos. "In the Forest above the 
Monastery of Sao Bento," 

14. 6. 29. S = 156. Para. 

16. 6. 29. 2 c? = 157, 158. Para. Brazilian date and h^ter 
copy on 157. 

23. 6. 29. ? == 159. Para. 

4. 7. 29. S = 160. „ 

11. 7. 29. S = 161. „ 

1391. + 14. 7. 29. cT = 162. Para. 

Bz. 1397. + 14. 7. 29. = 162 a. Para. A c? Danaine pupa- 
case from wliich the butterfly had emerged. Obviously 
the pupa of 162. 

■ ' -v Both dates and botli f 
13ol' i "^^"^^^^'^ written > = 162 B, 162 C. Para. 

1 A n or»" thus on one labeL \ 

14. 7. 29. } 

Two ? Danaine pnpaj which had died. The species is 
probably the same as 162 A. Both are much gnawed, perhaps 
by parasites, perhaps at a hiter date by A^ithreni. Both pupte 
on a single pin, which bears an original Brazilian label with 
the number 1391 in addition to the later label with the two 
numbers and the two dates. 
8. 8. 29. ? = 163. Para. 

The remaining lists in this paper were not in Westwood's 
handwriting. 

The dates agree, except that the former existence of four 
or, perhaps, five additional specimens is indicated ; another 
with the data of 149, another with those of 159, a specimen 
with the number 131^ captured on 16. 8. 25 (Rio. "Above 
the Theresa Convent; and on the woody hill [or hills] alono- 
the Aqueduct"), and one captured on 30. 10. 25 (Minas 
Geraes. " In the forest. On the N.E. side of the arraial of 
Sao Joao de Nepomucdna.") The date 5. 7. 29 follows 
4. 7. 29 in the list without the usual intervening mark which 
indicates a separate individual. Its insertion may be merely 
a copyist's error. If, however, this is not the case, the 
additional specimen was captured at Pard. The only name 
given in the list is Banais. 

Beyond this point no reference to sex indicates that no 
determination is given in the list. 

Tasitia ^gt'lippus, Cram. 

Bz. 110. II. 15. 8. 25. ? = 164. Rio de Janeiro. (As 140.) 
Bz. 900. I. + 2b. 10. '26. (J =165. Minas Geraes. (As 
37, 38.) 



358 Miss Cora B. Sanders on the Rhopalocera 

31. 12. 25. S — 166. Eio de Janeiro. '' Excursion to the 
Summit of the Corcovado ; from Gatdte and up the valley 
o£ Laranjeiros." 

26. 1. 26. ^ = 167. Rio de Janeiro. " In a botanical and 

entomological excursion to the Barra Vermelha, Morro 
de Ladeira and Catombi." 

27. 1. 26. ? = 168. Kio de Janeiro. 
1. 3. 26. S = 169. Mage. (As 121.) 

7. 3. 26. ? = 170. Rio de Janeiro. '^ At Catombi." 

9. 3. 26. ? = 171. „ „ 

13. 3.26. ? =172. „ „ «A.[M.]." 

24. 12. 26. ? = 173. Cubatao. " At Rio das Pedras and 
Cubatao." 

20. 8. 27. ? = 174. N.W. of Mogy Mirim. " Urisdnga 
to Itupeba." 

Bz. 3. 12. 28. ? = 175. Porto Real [Nacional]. 

29. 1. 29. 2 c? = 176, 177. Porto Real [Nacional]. 

B2.1309.+ 11. 2. 29. c?=178. Porto Real [Nacional]. 
" Papilio. The flight of this is remarkable, for it does 
not always hover by a constant motion of wings, but 
frequently sails with wings half extended, without moving 
them at all ; nor is it very visible by wliat movement it 
sails along." 

27. 2. 29. ? = 179. Porto Real [Nacional]. 
17.3. 29. 2 c? =180, 181. „ „ 

22. 3. 29. 2 ^ = 182, 183. „ „ Brazilian date 

and later copy on 182. 

Bz.+ 23.3. 29. ? =184. „ „ 

24. 3. 29. S = 185. „ „ " Manga." 

28. 3. 29. 2 c? = 186, 187. „ „ Brazilian date 

and later copy on 187. 

The dates in Westwood's list agree, except that the former 
existence of three additional specimens is shown, viz. another 
of the same date as 164, another with the date of 180, 181, 
and a specimen captured 2. 3. 29 (Porto Real = Nacional). 
The fact that Burchell captured two specimens on 15. 8. 25 
is also shown by his note-book. The only name given is 
Banais. 

[I was extremely interested to read Burchell's note on 
specimen no. 178, inasmuch as it exactly describes a common 
mode of flight in the allied Danaine Anosia plexippus. I was 
much struck with it in the Northern United States in the 
summer of 1897, for I had never seen a butterfly sail in the 
same manner before. The appearance produced by the half- 
extended wings was singularly boat-like, the resemblance 
being much increased by a continual oscillation from side to 



collected hy W. J. Burchell in Brazil. 359 

side, like tlie roll of a vessel. The underside of these Danainre 
is even more conspicuous than the upperside, and it occurred 
to me that the significance of the peculiar attitude and move- 
ment was to display the underside during flight. The 
metliod adopted is probably the only means by wliich this 
end could be achieved. — E. B. P.] 

Lycorea halia, Hew. 

10. 11. 25. = 188. Minas Geraes. 

31. 12. 25. = 189. Rio de Janeiro. (As 166.) 

i?^.+ 1.3. 26. = 190. Magd. (As 121.) 

Bz. 10. 3. 26. = 191. Rio de Janeiro. 

Bz. 19. 3. 26. = 192. „ " In the Valley of 

Catombi.'' 
1. 4. 26. = 193. „ " In the Valley of 

Catumbi." 
30. 10. 27. = 194. E. of Goyaz. On road from Meia 

Ponte. " Conceicjio." 
24. 12. 27. S = 195. Goyaz. 

Name and dates agree with Westwood's list, except that he 
refers to a ninth specimen captured on 8. 2. 26, " Organ 
Mountains (in a ride to the Cattle Pounds and the Milho 
Rocja)." 

[These specimens may afford a deeply interesting instance 
of change in something under three quarters of a century, 
or, on the other hand, the results may be merely due to a 
deepening in the tint of a yellowish pigment owing to age. 

Lycorea halia is an outlying member of Blandford's 
Group 3, "East Brazilian Type," Division (a), having '' the 
apical spots on the fore wing yellow." This important group 
was shown by Mr. W. F. H. Blandford to the Entomological 
Society in 1897 (see Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., May 5, 1897). 
It is mainly characterized by a bright yellow horizontal band 
traversing the hind wing parallel with the inner margin of the 
fore wing. The Lycorea^ being an outlying member of the 
group, has a pale yellowish band, which is very different from 
the bright tint of the more centrally placed members, such as 
the species of HeJiconius. Now Burchell's specimens are 
far more removed from the group than those of recent date, 
inasmuch as the band is but slightly paler than the tawny 
ground-colour of the wing. In favour of the view that a 
change has actually occurred and is here registered are the 
following facts: — (1) the specimens are, as a whole, singu- 
larly perfect ; (2) one specimen is lighter than the rest, its 
band being of a shade common in recent specimens ; (3) the 



360 Miss Cora B. Sanders on the RJwpalocera 

yellow band, the characteristic feature of the group, is a very 
special and peculiar one among the numerous patterns and 
colour combinations of Neotropical synaposematic groups ; 
(4) that a butterfly which is outlying to-day should be still 
more outlying seventy-five years ago is not surprising. Rapid 
change is more probable in a case of this kind than perhaps 
in an}'- other. On the other side it must be remembered: — 
(1) that the yellow tints of some butterflies are very apt to 
darken ; (2) that similar dark forms of Lycorea halia are to 
be found in collections of much less age, or even occasionally 
in recent consignments. 

The latter argument, of course, supports both sides of the 
case. 

It is not too much to hope that the question may be settled 
by intentional exposure or other experiments upon the yellow 
pigment of recent s|)ecimens, as well as by the investigation 
of all available material. 

Miss Sanders and I have already carefully compared the 
Burchell specimens with the series at Oxford, in the British 
Museum, and in the Godman-Salvin Collection, and there 
can be no doubt about the existence of a marked difference 
between the bands of the Burchell specimens as a whole and 
those of more recently captured individuals of L. halia. 

When in the later pages of this memoir the Heliconiinse 
belonging to the same group are recorded, it will be con- 
venient to reproduce typical examples of as many members 
as possible by the best photographic processes which we 
can command. I think that the differences of shade can be 
accurately rendered in this manner and made available in a 
half-tone plate.— E. B. P.] 

Ituna lUone, Cram. 

Bz. 12. 11. 26. = 196. Santos. " Forest by S. Bento." 
Date and name as in Westwood's list. 



III. Sattein^. 
Pierella lamia, Sulz. 

13. 5. 29. 2 c? = 197, 198. Rio Tocantins, Carolina. ''Boa 

Vista in Sylva densa " on 197. There are two Brazilian 

labels on 198 : " Sylva densa " on one, " 13. 5. 29 Boa 

Esper " on the other. 

Date as in Westwood's list, where, however, only one 

specimen is mentioned. 198, a very poor specimen, was 



collected by W. J. Burchell in Brazil. 36 1 

found among" duplicates and recognized by Burchell's hand- 
writing on the label. The printed " Burchell Collection " 
label affixed to the specimens at Oxford was wanting. 

When the name is not referred to, it is to be understood 
that none is given in Westwood's list. 

Pierella nereis, Drury. 

14. 1. 26. ? = 199. Rio de Janeiro. (As 29.) 
14. 2. 26. ? = 200. Organ Alountains. Near R. Pacaqu^. 
Dates as in Westwood's list. 

Pierella astyoche^ Erich. 

7. 8. 29. ? = 201. Par^. 
Date as in Westwood's list. 

Pierella lena, Linn. 

Bz.+ 19. 5. 29. ? = 202. Descent of Rio Tocantins. 
Rio Araguay. 
Date as in Westwood's list. 

Pierella dracontis, Hiibn. 

Bz. + 24. 7. 29. ? = 203. Par^. 
4. 12. 29. S = 204. Para, S. Jose. 
Dates as in Westwood's list. 

Anchiphlehia archcea, Hiibn. 

12. 3. 26. S = 205. Rio de Janeiro. " Carioca Aqueduct." 
Westwood's list includes another specimen captured on 
22. 3. 26 (Rio. " Along the Aqueduct to the head of the 
Valley of Laranjeiros "). 

Euptychia ocirrhoe^ Fabr. 

Bz. 190. I. 8. 9. 25. ? = 206. Rio de Janeiro. " Along 

the Aqueduct. Papilioy 
31. 12. 25. S = 207. Rio de Janeiro. (As 166.) 
Bz.-\- 7. 3. 26. S = 208. Rio de Janeiro. " AtCatombf." 

9. 3. 26. 2 c? = 209, 210, ? = 211. Rio de Janeiro. Bra- 

zilian date on 209. 

10. 3. 26. ,S - 212. Rio de Janeiro. 

12.3.26. ?=213. „ "Carioca Aque- 

duct." 

15.3.26. (^ = 214. „ "Catombi. In 

plantis." 

16. 3. 26. c? = 215. „ " In the upper part 

Ann. iSs Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. 24 



3(i2 Miss Cora B. Sanders 07i the Rhopalocera 

of the Valh^y of Oatombi, and along the road thence to 
Rio Coniprido and Matto Porcos." 

17. 3. 26. 2 c? = 216, 217. Rio de Janeiro. _ " Along the 

Carioca Aqueduct, and descending the high hill men- 
tioned (31. 1. 26) into the valley of Catombi. But they 
were mostly along the Aqueduct, and only a few on 
the hill." Brazilian date on 217. 

18. 3. 26. ? = 218. Rio de Janeiro. Along the Carioca 

Aqueduct. 
Bz. 20. 3. '2Q. ? = 219. Rio de Janeiro. Along the Carioca 

Aqueduct. 
Bz. 21. 3. 26. 2 c^ ? = 220, 221. Rio de Janeiro. Along 

the Carioca Aqueduct. 
22. 3. 26. S = 222. Rio de Janeiro. Along the Carioca 

Aqueduct. 
1. 4. 26. S = 223. Rio de .Janeiro. (As 193.) 

19. 5. 29. 2 (J ? = 224, 226. R. Tocantins. (As 202.) 

7. 6. 29. ? = 226. R. Tocantins. Near Paul. '' Sta, 

Anna." 
1. 8. 29. S = 227. Par^. 

18. 9. 29. ^ = 228. Ynii, S. Jose. " In umbrosis SilvK." 
24. 10. 29. c? = 229. „ „ " In Sylva." 

15. 11. 29. S = 230. „ „ " Caminho de Cha- 

mdnte." 
Bz. 5. 1. 30. (? = 231. Pav^. 

All the twenty-six specimens here recorded agree with 
Weslwood's list, but the latter also contains thirteen indi- 
viduals which cannot now be found. Of these, five were 
captured on dates unrepresented by existing specimens, viz.: — 
one taken 7. 11. 25 towards the end of the expedition into 
Minas Geraes, three taken at Rio on 13. 3. 26, 19. 3. 26, 

3. 4. 26, and one taken at Goyaz (Caminiio de Carreira) on 
10. 4. 28 respectively. The remaining eight specimens are 
made up as follows: — One more individual captured on 
7. 3. 26, one more (viz. No. 7 05^) on 17. 3. 26, two more on 
9. 3. 26, one more on 16. 3. 26, one moie on 18. 3. 26, two 
more on 20. 3. 26. 

Although unnamed in the list, sprcimen 227 bears a label 
"with the name ^^ Erq^tychia ocirrhoe^^ written by Westvvood. 

Euptychia moUinaj Hiibn. 

1. 8. 29. 2 ? = 232, 233. Par^. Brazilian date and later 
cojiy on 233. 

4. 8. 29. ? = 234. Par;?. 

5. 8. 29. $ = 235. „ 



collected hy W. J. DurcMl in Braci'L 363 

8. 8. 29. ? = 236. Pani. 

Bz. 15. 11. 29. 2 ? = 237, 238. Para. (As 230.) 
^ Westwood's list agrees, except that it mentions three addi- 
tional individuals captured at Para,— one on 4. 7. 29 and two 
on 4. 12. 29. The name given is Neonympha molliaa. 

Euptychia herse, Cram. 

^2.4-23.7.29. c?=239. Pant. "Between my house 
and the city." 
Westwood's list agrees. 

Euptychia cJiIoris, Cram. 

31.5.29. c? = 240. R. Tocantins, near Paid. "Baiao: 

p.[m.]." 
Westwood's list agrees. 

Euplyclda cosmophila, Hiibn. 

20. 3. 26. = 241. Rio de Janeiro. Along the Carloca 
Aqueduct. 

This specimen was submitted to Dr. F. D. Godnian, who 
confirmed the identification. 

Westwood's list agrees. 

Euptychia cluena, Drurj. 

10. 3. 26. 2= 242, 243. Rio de Janeiro. 

1055. n. 17. 3. 26. 2= 244, 245. Rio de Janeiro. (As 
216, 217.) " Both these caught in deep woods, as the 
preceding." The latter refers to 351, and indicates cap- 
ture " in the forest down the hill." 

18. 3. 26. 2= 246, 247. Rio de Janeiro. Along the Garioca 
Aqueduct. Brnzilian date on 246. 

20.3.26.3=248-250. Rio de Janeiro. Along the Carioca 
Aqueduct. Brazilian date on 248. 

3. 4. 26. =251. Rio de Janeiro. Along the Carioca 
Aqueduct. 
245 is probably the only female. 
Westwood's list agrees, except that the date 10. 2. 26 ia 

substituted for 10. 3. 26. This is almost certainly a mistake 

of the copyist. It may be mentioned, however, that on the 

former date Burchell was in the Organ Mountains. 

Euptychia mynceay Cram. 

10. 8. 29. = 252. Pard. 

30. 11. 29. = 253. Pard, S. Jos^. 

24* 



364 !Miss ( *()ia B. Sanders on the BhopaJocera 

Euptyclna penelope, Fabr., = c?a?-jssa, Cram, 

Bz. 1332.-{- 2. 3. 29. =254. Porto Keal [Nacional]. 
^^ Popilio. In woody places among the bushes. This 
and its congeners fly in a very hovering zigzag manner 
low among tlie bushes and herbage." 

Bz. lo. 3. 29. = 255. Porto Real [Nacional]. 

7. 6. 29. = 256. li. Tocantins. (As 226.) 

27. 7. 29. = 257. Pard,. 

15*. 1*1. 29. = 258. Park, S. Jos^. (As 230.) 

It is probable that the individuals of myncea and penelope 
are considered together in Westwood's list. The dates here 
recorded agree, except that 10. 8. 29 (252) is replaced by 
10. 2. 29, probably a clerical error. The list furthermore 
includes individuals captured on 29. 12. 28 (Porto Real) and 
18. 6. 29 (Par^). 

Euptychia sp. 

28. 5. 28. 2 (? = 259 (PI. VI. fig. 8), 260. Goyaz. '' Peak 

near C^nta Gd,llo." " In summitate montis." Burchell's 

label, written in England, is reproduced to the right of 

and below figure 8. 

These specimens were submitted to Dr. F. D. Godman, 

who is unable to name them. Mr. F. A. Heron considers 

that the markings best agree with E. similis (Butl.), but lie 

points out that the eyes of the latter are hairy, while those of 

259, 260 are naked. In the character of the distal end of the 

cell of the fore wing these specimens also best agree with 

simtlis and its allies. The marked development of the ocelli 

on both wings is peculiar, together with the extent to which 

they appear on the upper surface. The fore wing is especially 

remarkable in these respects. The species is almost certainly 

new and both striking and distinct; but the specimens are 

unfortunately in such poor condition that it is impossible to 

make either of them types. As the locality and time of year 

are precise, it is to be hoped that some naturalist in Brazil 

will capture examples which may be described, and named 

after the great traveller and observer. 

Westwood's list agrees. 

Euptychia electra^ Butl. 

Bz. 1306.+ 8. 2. 29. 2=261 (PI. VI. fig. 9, showing 
underside), 262 (fig. 10). Porto Real [Nacional]. " Bo- 
racao." 
" This genus is entirely sylvan, and delights to hover 

low among the herbage and thicker foliage. This was 



collided hy W. J. Burchell in Brazil. 365 

cauglit in the Carasco, or tliicker campo-woods ; and another 
afterwards caught in the back yard." 

The two labels atfixed to each specimen are reproduced on 
the Plate to the right side of the respective figures. The 
lower number, written less carefully and with thicker lines, 
is in each case an original Brazilian label. The upper number 
and date, w-ritten by Burchell after his return, are upon a 
sejiarate piece of paper, although the overlapping upper edge 
of the older label is in each case invisible. 

Bz. 10. 2. 29. = 263. Porto Real [Nacional]. 

These three specimens were submitted to Dr. F. D. Godman, 
who writes (Feb. 27, 1904) : — " Your specimens, wliicli 
exactly resemble six 1 have from Chapada, have the four 
ocelli on the hind margin of the underside of the fore wings 
strongly marked, whereas in Butler's type [of electro], which 
is fron) Baliia, they are obsolete ; but 1 have specimens 
sliowing all intermediate gradations from Brazil. These ocelli 
in the Satyridse generally vary much both in size and distinct- 
ness, and are not a very good character for distinguishing a 
species." 

The ocelli mentioned by Dr. Godman are well seen in fig. 9 
of the accompanying Plate VI. 

Westwood's list agrees. 

Eupty cilia armilla, Butl. 

8.11.28.6=264-269. Near Porto Real [Nacional]. 
" Corrego Raiz." Brazilian dates on 266, 268, and 269. 
No data. =270. • 

These specimens were kindly named for us by Dr. F. D. 
Godman, F.R.S. 

Agrees with Westvvood^s list, exceyit that the latter includes 
a seventh individual captured 8, 11. '2di, a second without 
data, and an individual captured 10. 2. 29 (Porto Redl). 

Euptychia liturata, Butl. 

26. 9. '26. = 271. Santos. " In a walk to the Chapel on 

Montserr^t.-" 
Bz. 30. 8. 28. = 272. Near Jaragua. " Estiva." 
1250. + 11. 9. 28. 2=273,274. Between Jaragua and 
Cavalcanti. " Traliiias, R. Vendinha." '^ JPapUio, 
Flying low among grass in woods or margin of woods, 
in considerable numbers. They have the same habits 
and. hovering mode of flight as their congeners at the 
Caj)e of Good Hope." Brazilian label and later copy 
on 274. 



366 Miss Cora B. Sanders on the Rhopalocera 

Tliese specimens were also named for us by Dr. F. D. 
Godman. 

Westwood's list probably a2;rees, except that an additional 
ndividual captured 11. 9. 28 is mentioned. Another indi- 
vidual, captured 26. 11. 26, is probably 297, accidentally 
associated with liturata instead of camerta. 

Euptychia acmeniSf Hiibn. 

10. 3. 26. 2= 275, 276. Rio de Janeiro. Along the Carioca 

Aqueduct. 
18. 3. 26. 2= 277, 278. Rio de Janeiro. Along the Carioca 

Aqueduct. Brazilian date on 278. 
21. 3. 26. = 279. Rio de Janeiro. Along the Carioca 

Aqueduct. 

3. 4. 26. = 280. Rio de Janeiro. Along the Carioca 

Aqueduct. 
Westwood's list agrees. 

Euptychia camerta, Cram. 

Bz. 350. 11. 15. 10. 25. 2=281, 282. Minas Geraes. 

"At the Discoberto do Antonio Velho; P[a/)<7io]." 
Bz. UIO. I. 16. 10. 25. = 283. Minas Geraes. Discoberto. 

"Papilio:' 
^2. S^^p. /.+ 23. 10. 25. =284. Minas Geraes. Disco- 
berto. "Pfl/)[//?'o]." 
91/^. IL 25. 10. 25. 2 = 285, 286. Minas Geraes. 

^'- P[ppil{o]. At Discoberto, near Joao Pedro's house.'* 

Brazilian label and later copy on 285. 
Bz. -1002. 1.+ 27. 10. 25. =287. Minas Geraes. ''At 

Sao Joao de Nepomucena and on the road from Discc- 

berto. Fap[ilio\.'" 
28. 10. 25. 2= 288, 289. Minas Geraes. (As 72.) 

4. 11. 25. 3= 290-292. „ (As 19.) 

5^.+ 6. 11. 25. =293. Minas Geraes. "At Capitao 

Leite''s." Near Nepomucena. 
9. 2. 26. = 294. Organ Mountains. " By the River 

Pacaque.''* 
Bz. 17. 3. 26. = 295. Rio de Janeiro. (As 216, 217.) 
Bz. 20. 3. 26. = 296. „ Along the Carioca 

Aqueduct. 
26. 11. 26. = 297. Santos. (As 8.) 
7. 3. 27. 3= 298-300. Near S. Paulo. " Morumby. Walk 

to Porto." " In Silva " on 299, " Sylva " and date on 

Brazilian label on 300. 



collected by W. J. Burchell in Brazil. 367 

21. 3. 27. = 301. Near S. Paulo. " On Road W. beyond 

Pi^(;a da Aleyria." 
8. 4. 27. =302. Near S. Paulo. 
23.4. 27. =303. „ 
10. 5. 27. 2= 304, 305. Near S. Paulo. " About the Tiete 

and near Sta. Amin." 

18. 6. 27. = 306. Near S. Paulo. 

22. 3. 28. = 307. Near Goyaz. 
1. 4. 28. = 308. 

19. 4. 28. = 309. 

Bz. 30. 4. 2S. = 310. Near Goyaz. 

Bz. 12. 6. '2^. = 311. 

Bz. 1303. I.+ 4. 2. 29. = 312. Porto Real [N"acioiial]. 

^^Fapilio. Caught in tlie back yard, and perhaps only 

a weather-worn variety." 

5. 2. 29. = 313. Porto Real [Nacional] . 
Bz. 6. 3. 29. = 314. Porto Real [Nacional]. 
Bz. 9. 3. 29. = 315. „ „ 

15. 3. 29. = 316. „ „ 

Bz.+ 17.3. 29. =317. „ „ 

B'.+ 9. 4 29 = 318 

22.4.29. =319. Porto Real [Nacional]. ''Various"' 

[? places]. 
^^. + 19. 5. 29. = 320. On R. Tocantins. R. Araguay. 
2(). 5. 29. = 321. R. Tocantins, N. of Itaboca. Near 

Falls of Guariba. 
26.6.29. 2=322,323. Pard. "Near my house (Poniba 

Roqinlia)." Biazilian date and later copy on 323. 

6. 7. 29. = 324. Pard. 
27. 7. 29. = 325. „ 

10. 9. 29. = 326. Para, S. Jos(^. 

17. 10. 29. = 327. 

8. 11. 29. 2= 328*, 329. Pak, South of S. Jose'. 

15.11.29. =330. Para, S, Jose. " Camiaho de Cha- 

monte." 
8. 12. 29. = 331. Para, S. Jose. " Suburbans." 

Westwood's list agrees in a remarkable manner with this 
long series of specimens. He separated the individuals into 
four sets (unnamed), apparently influenced by the develop- 
ment of the eye-spots upon the underside. The only differ- 
ence is the substitution in his list of 22. 4. 2!) for 22. 4. 29, 
probably a mistake in copying, and the omission of 297. 
The latter was probably included with the individuals of 
litui'ata. 



368 Miss Cora B. Sanders on the Bkopalocera 

Euptychia quantius, Godt. 

9. 2. 26. S = 332. Organ Mountains. " Bj the River 
Pacaque." 

This specimen has been submitted to Dr. F. D. Godman, 
"who considers that the species is probably quantius. 

Westwood's list agrees. 

Euptychia 7-enata, Cram. 

27.8.28. (J = 333. NearJaragua. Goiavelra. " All these 
Lepidoptera were caught at the lord of the rivulet at 
Goiaveira, at 5 P.M." 

26.5.29. ?=334. On E. Tocantins. (As 321.) " Silva." 
Westwood's list agrees, except that 26. 8. 29 is substituted 

for 26. 5. 29, ])robably a copyist's error. 

Euptychia vxarmorata, Butl. 

^z. + 14. 2. 26. =335. Organ Mountains. Near R.Pacaque. 

13. 4. 27. = 336. Near S. Paulo. 

Bz. 10. 5. 27. = 337. Near S. Paulo. " About the Tiete 
and near Sta. Anna/^ 

14. 6. 27. = 338. Near S. Paulo. 
Westwood's list agrees. 

Euptyche libye. 

31. 5. 29. =339. R. Tocantins. BaiSo. «p.[m.]." 

17. 9. 29. = 340. Paid, S. Jos^. 

17. 11. 29. 2= 341, 342. Pard, S. Jos^. 

7. 1. 30. = 343. Pard. 

Westwood''s list agrees, except for an additional specimen 
captured 10. 8. 29 (Pard). 

Taygetis valentina^ Cram., form euptychidia, Butl. 

12. 5. 28. = 344. Goyaz. *' Caught in the woodhouse." 
^ We owe this determination to the kindness of Mr. F. A. 
Heron. 

In Westwood's list 15. 5. 28 is substituted for 12. 5. 28. 
The words " Caught in the woodhouse " are present, proving 
that the discrepancy is merely a copyist's error. 

Tayqetis Andromeduy Cram. 
9. 3. 26. = 345. Rio de Janeiro. 



collected hy W. J. Burcliell in Brazil. 369, 

Bz. 10. 3. 26. = 346. Rio de Janeiro. 

Bz. 19. 3. 'l(^. = 347. „ " III the Valley 

of Catombi." 
Westwood's list agrees. 346 was separated as another 
form. 

Taygetis virgilia, Cram. 

Bz. 191. I. 8. 9. 25. = 348. Rio de Janeiro. Along the 

Aqueduct. '^Papilio. In sylva; in crepusculo volitans" 

10. 3. 2t). =349 (PI. VI. fig. 12; Burchell's manuscript label 

is reproduced below the fiuure). Rio de Janeiro. 
Bz. 1054. II. n.S. 26. =350. Rio de Janeiro. (As 
216, 217.) " Both these Papiliones were caugiit in the 
I'orest down the hill." The Brazilian number and later 
copy without date on 350. 
i2J^S.+ 7. 9. 28. 2= 351, 352 (fig. 11 ; Burchell's reference 
number and date are reproduced to the right of the 
figure). Between Jaragua and Cavalcanti ; near Rio 
Maranhao. Fe Gu^rda Mor. " At twilight in deep 
shady wood, where we slept this night. Has a hovering 
motion and settles on the ground. P.M." Biaziliaii 
label and later copy on 351. 
Westwood's list agrees. He separated out 351, 352, evi- 
dently on account of the character described below. 

The Burcliell specimens from Rio Maranhao (351 and 352) 
show a rufous border on hind wing altogether absent from the 
long series of this species in the Hope Collection. This 
character becomes common in Central America. Thus we 
read in the Rhopalocera of the ' Biologia Centrali- Americana ' 
(vol. i. p. 97) : — " The rufous margin, howeverj is more com- 
monly seen in specimens from northern localities." The 
occurrence of the character in a pronounced form in both speci- 
mens from a locality near the opposite end of the range of the 
species may therefore indicate a local change or replacement 
of form in seventy- five years. It is much to be hoped that a 
traveller who has the opportunity of retraversing this part 
of Burchell's route may enable us to compare the two 182'5 
specimens with a good series from the same locality. 

The striking ditierence as regards the hind marginal border 
of the hind wings between 351, 352, and the specimens from 
Rio (348-350) is well shown in figs. 11 and 12 on Plate VI. 

Taygetis echo, Cram. 

Bz, 16. 4. 28. = 353. Goyaz. " Morru de Canta Gallo." 
" In hurto proprio." 



370 Miss Cora B. Sanders on the Bhopalocera 

Compared with Godman-Salvin Coll. (6 L. Amazons, 
1 N. Brazil, 1 no locality.) The Burchell specimen has a 
broader brighter yellow band on fore wing than these, or six 
Hope Coll. specimens (not Brazilian). 

Westwood\s list agrees. 

Pedaliodes 'plianiaSy Hew. 

9. 2. 26. $ = 354. Organ Mountains. " By the River 
Facaque.^^ 
Westvvood's list agrees. 



In addition to the individuals which Westwood's list shows 
to be missing from certain of the above-mentioned species, 
three small categories separated out in the list have not been 
traced at all. They are as follows : — 

Hipparchia V. Two individuals — 14. 6. 27 and isgg. 2 1. 7. 29. 
„ XXVn. One individual— 27. 8. 28. 

„ XXXV. Four individuals — 11 §. 15. 7. 25, one 

without data, and the two following, which are 
certainly erroneous: 131, shown by the note- 
book to be a Cicada ; 153, which is similarly 
found to be a Cassida. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VL 

The Plate has been printed from a half-tone blocli prepared from a 
beautiful photograph of the actual specimens taken in the Oxford Univer- 
sity Museum by Mr. Alfred Robinson. All the figures are the natural 
size. 

Fig. 1. Leucntlniris phenomoe, Dbl. & Hew., n. subsp. BurcheW. A repre- 
sentation of specimen 64, the type of the subspecies. The heavier 
black markings which are characteristic of Burchelli as compared 
with phenomoe are at once apparent when figs, 1 and 2 are con- 
trasted with 3 and 4. Burchell's label, written in England, is 
reproduced to the right of the figure. 

Fig. 2. Another example of the form shown in fig. 1. A representation 
of 65. Burchell's label, written in England, is reproduced to 
the right of the figure. 

Figs. 3 & 4. Two ex&xn.'^les oi Leucothyris phenomoe, Dbl. & Hew. Repre- 
sentations of specimens 60 and 6 1 respectively. Burchell's 
labels, written in England, are reproduced to the right of the 
figures to which they respectively refer. 

Fig. 5. Dircenna dero, Iliibn. A representation of specimen 74, Tlie 
black markings are far less heavy than in figs, 6 and 7. On the 



collected hy W. J. Burchell in Brazil. 371 

other hand, it must be remembered that 74- is a male, wliile 68 
and 72, the specimens represented in figs. 6 and 7, are females. 
74 is also more worn than the other two, and this tends to 
diminish the depth of the black markings. But, making all 
allowances, 74 must always have been much less heavily 
marked than 68 and 72. liurcheH's label, written in England, 
is reproduced to i he right of the figure. 
Fiff. 6. Dircejina deru, Hiibn., form rho'eo, P'eld. A representation of 
specimen 68. II. W. Bates believed that this form is replaced 
by typical dero in S.E. Brazil, and yet six out of Burchell'8 
eight specimens from this very locality are rho'eo. Burchell's 
label, written in Brazil, is reproduced to the right of the figure. 
Fig. 7. Dircenna deru, Iliibn., form rho'eo, Feld. A representation of 
specimen 72, another heavily marked form, although the 
median nervures of the hind wing are much less suffused with 
black than in the specimen shown in fig. 0, which is peculiar in 
this respect among all Burchell's captures. Burchell's label, 
written in England, is reproduced to the right of the figure. 
The figure appears to represent a butterflj- with shorter broader 
wings than those of the originals of figs. 5 and 6. This is merely 
the effect of fore-shortening, the wings of the former having 
drooped after resetting. The obvious difference in the figures 
is a convincing demonstration of the false impression of form 
conveyed by the old British mode of setting with sloping wings. 
Fig. 8. Etiptychia sp. A representation of specimen 259. Burchell's 
label, written in England, is reproduced to the right of and 
below the figure. 
Fig, 9. Euptychid electra, Butl. A representation of the underside of 
specimen 26 1 . The four small submarginal ocelli on the fore 
wing, which are so distinctly shown in the figure, are obsolete 
in the type of electra, from Bahia. Burchell's two labels are 
reproduced to the right of and rather below the figiu'e. Tlie 
lower number, which is really on a separate label, was written 
in Brazil, the upper number and the date in England. 
Fig. 10. Euptychiu electra, Butl. A representation of the upperside of 
specimen 262. Burchell's two labels are reproduced to the 
right of the figure. They were written as described in fig. 9. 
Fig. 11. Tayyetis virgilia, Cram. A representation of specimen 352. 
The label, written by Burchell in England, is reproduced on the 
right side. The rufous hind marginal border of the hind wings 
is well indicated. This feature, which is characteristic of 
Central-American specimens, is here found in both of Burchell's 
captures (7. 9. 28) from the Maranhao River, to the N.E. of 
Goyaz. 
Fig. 12. Taygetis virgilia, Cram. A representation of specimen 349. 
The label, written by Burchell in England, is reproduced below 
the figure. The pale brown border of the hind wings is seen to 
be very different from that of fig. 11. The appearance here 
shown is common to all three specimens from Rio (348 -350 ), 
just as that of fig. 11 is common to the two from the Rio 
Maranhao. 



372 Mr. W. F. Kirhy—Xotes on Phasmidse 



XLII, — Notes on Pliasniidaj in the Collection of the British 
Museum [Natural Historj/), South Kensington, with Descrip- 
tions of new Species. — No. I. By W. F. KiRBY, F.L.S., 
F.E.S. 

The Phasmidfe have been less studied tlian any otlier family 
of Orthoptera, and the classitication is still in a rather 
unsatisfactory state. Many genera are at present somewhat 
isolated, owing probably to the incompleteness of our collec- 
tions, and many others include discordant sections which 
require new names. Nor do we appear to possess sufficient 
material to enable us to judge of the real value of even 
such important characters for defining natural groups as the 
length and structure of the antenn£e and of the median cell, 
and the presence or absence of the areole at the end of the 
tibiae beneath. I would suggest that the shape of the median 
segment may perhaps be found to be of great importance, 
especially whether it is pointed, rounded, or truncated in front. 
As I find myself unable to adopt Brunner von Wattenwyl's 
arrangement of 1893 in its entirety, I have drafted out the 
iollowing provisional arrangement of subfamilies: — 1. Loncho- 
dinse ; 2. Bacteriinge ; 3. BacilliuEe (including Bacillidse and 
('litumnidse of Brunner) ; 4. Diaphomerinae ; 5. Bacteriinte; 
G. Phryganistriiiise ; 7. Palophinae; 8. Necrosciinie ; 9. Acro- 
])hyllin8e; 10. Eurycanthinse; 11. Heteropteryginse ; 12. Ani- 
sumorphinaj; 13. Prisopinaj; 14. Pseudophasminaej 15. Aschi- 
phasmmse; 16. Phylliinse. 

Subfam. I. Loncrodinje. 

Lonchvdidcp, Brunner (pt.). 

Includes Old-World species with long antennae and a short 
median segment. Most of the genera are apterous, but one 
or two [Oxyartes, Stal, for instance) have rudimentary wings. 

Genus St^LONCHODES, Kirb., n. n. 
Lonchodes, pt., Gray (nee sect, typ.) ; Slal (restr.). 

'J'ype, L. geniculatus, Gray. 

1 his is Gray's second species, but his own description 
actually contradicts the characters of the genus Lonchodes; 
yet 8ial has selected it as the type, an utterly unwarrantable 
action. A considerable number of sj)ecies may be tempo- 
rarily included in Stcelonchodes^ but the genus will probably 
be soon subdivided. 



tn the British Museian. 373 

Stcelonchodes gracillimus, sp. n. 

Long. Corp. 100-116 ram. 

Male. — Long and slender, rufous or rufous-brown, more or 
less varied with blackish bronze or olive-green ; aiitennge 
bronzed ; head and pronotum rufous ; mesonotum, metanotutn, 
and median segment bronzy brown, except at their extre- 
mities, which are rufous ; one specimen, however, is uniform 
olive-green over nearly the whole of these parts ; abdomen 
either bronzy black, with tawny bands at the extremities of 
the segments, or rufous as far as the sixth or seventh segment 
and black beyond, with or without two white spots at the end 
of segments 8 and 9 ; legs very long and slender, the middle 
legs somewhat shorter than the others; all the femora 
rufous nearly to the extremity ; the rest of the legs bronzy 
black above and somewhat paler below ; middle and hind 
femora finely serrated beneath towards the extremities, hind 
femora extending beyond the base of the sixth segment of the 
abdomen. 

Ilab. Tonkin (Than Moi), June and July (Fruhstorfer). 

Allied to S. praon and stouiphax, Westw., but larger. 
The very long and slender legs, with red femora, are very 
characteristic. 

Genus Lonchodes, Gray et auct. 

Bixippus, StSl. 

Gray's description of this genus and of his first species, 
L. longipes^ clearly indicates that as the type. 

Lonchodes (?) viridis, sp. n. 

Female. — Bright green, with the following exceptions: — • 
antenna?, except towards the base, a square spot at the extre- 
mity of the first four segments of the abdomen (reckoning the 
median segment as the tirst), and a dot on the sides of each 
corresponding sutiire black or blackish ; and a salmon-coloured 
streak on the sides of the meso- and metanotnm, separated 
below by a green line from a salmon-coloured line, bordered 
below by a yellow one. Legs short, of nearly equal length ; 
femora thick, straight, except for the usual curve at the base 
of the front femora, and with a semicircular lobe at the 
extremity of each lower carina, those on the front femora 
small, those on the others conspicuous. First joint of front 
tibial lobate above and nearly as long as the remaining joints. 
Head and body unarmed, but with a fine carina runniri"- 



B74 Mr. W. F. Kirby — Notes on PliasmiJfe 

down the whole length, and tliickly but finely granulated, 
especially on the thoracic segments, which causes them to 
appear very finely denticulated on the sides. Prothorax with 
a raised carina in front and a central transverse sulcus. 
Abdominal segments 2-7 at least twice as long as broad, 
the eighth to tenth strongly carinated, the ninth shortest 
and transverse, the others only slightly longer than broad ; 
the tenth indented in the middle, to expose the small but 
strongly carinated eleventh ; operculum boat-shaped, strongly 
carinated on its hinder half, and not excavated at the extre- 
mity, which extends as far as the tenth segment. 

IJab. Tonkin (Than Moi), June and July {Fruhstorfer). 

Described from two specimens. 

This interesting species will probably become the type of a 
new genus when the Lonchodinge are revised. 

Dimensions. 

mm. 

Long, corporis 105-118 

„ capitis 7 

„ pronoti 4| 

„ mesonoti 19-21 

„ metanoti, cum segm. med. . . 18-19 

„ fern, ant 19-20 

„ „ med 14-16 

„ „ post 17-19 

Genus OXYARTES, Stal. 
Oxyartes lamellatus^ sp. n. 

Male. — ^Rather slender, brown ; head with six tubercles on 
the hinder edge; antennse pubescent, greenish brown, darker 
towards the ends of tlie joints, nearly as long as the body, 
and composed of about sixty joints, irregularly longer and 
shorter ; pronotum with two erect spines near togetlier in 
front, and two longer ones (wider apart) behind the first lobe ; 
mesonotum smooth, inclining to greenish, with a pair of strong 
spines near together in front and five pairs beliind (one pair on 
each side of tiie median line, one pair in front of these, sepa- 
rated by the median line, and one pair on each side before the 
base of the almost obsolete tegulae), there is also a lateral row 
of shorter spines, followed by a lower row of tubercles ; meta- 
notum with two spines between the bases of the wings and 
three larger ones on the metapleura ; wings black, paler at 
the base and on the costa, narrowly oval, and extending as 
far as the middle of the median segment ; meso- and meta- 
pectus studded witli black tubercles, a distinct tubercle on the 



in the British Museum. 875 

median line above towards tlie extremity of each abdominal 
segment. Legs pubescent, cariiiated ; femora with two or 
three small teeth on each side beneath before the extremity. 

Female. — Larger and stouter than the male and darker 
brown, but inclining to grey on the head, y)ronotum, antennae, 
and legs; antennae spotted witli brown on most of the joints; 
head with ibur short and broad tubercles on the hinder edge, 
two central and two lateral ; mesonotum rugose, covered with 
tubercles and laterally with short spines, continued on tlie 
meso- and metapleura; mesonotum with two strong spines 
near the middle in front, the left-hand one with a smaller 
spine adjoining it ; there are also two strong spines, wider 
apart, towards the hinder extremity, and at tlie hinder edge 
itself three or four close together on each side ; metanotuni 
and abdomen rugose and more or less granulated, two short 
spines on the latter between the wings, which are blackish 
and broader than in the male ; abdomen with a short tooth 
near the extremity of each segment in the median line, and 
from the sixth segment to the extremity strongly carinated, 
the carina on the seventh segment rising into a large lamella 
for the greater part of the segment, preceded by a smaller 
one on the sixth. 

Hah. Tonkin (Than Moi), June and July [Fruhstorfer) , 

Described from one male and two females. 

Allied to 0. despectus, Westw., but larger, and with stronger 
and differently arranged spines. 

Dimensions. 

6. 2- 

mm. mm. 

Long, corporis 84 102-] 25 

„ capitis 8 7-9 

„ pronoti 5 7-9 

„ mesonoti 19 20-29 

„ metauoti, cum segm. med 11 13-15 

„ segm. med G 8-9 

„ fern, ant 2.) 21-25 

„ „ med 19 18-21 

., „ post 31 21-25 

;, al 6 8-9 

Lat. al H 3-4 

Genus PeomachuS, Stal. 

Promachus (?) Icetus^ sp. n. 
Apora lata, Brunner, MS. 

Long. corp. 65-82 mm. 

Male. — Green ; rather slender, front and hind legs of 



376 JVutes on Phasiuidte in the British Museum. 

nearly equal length, the latter extending nearly to the extre- 
mity of the fifth segment of tiie abdomen ; middle legs 
shorter than the others. Face varied with whitish, and base 
of the antennse shading from green into blue. Pronotum 
with a transverse sulcus just before the middle; raesonotum 
with four or five large asymmetrical black spines, thickened 
at the base, and with a row of concolorous denticulations on 
the sides, followed by a black spine before the base of the 
four iiinder legs ; hind femora slightly denticulated beneath 
at the extremity ; median segment about two fifths of the 
length of the metanotura, rounded in front; segments 2-6 of 
the abdomen with a small terminal tooth on the median line ; 
all the segments of the abdomen longer than broad, except 
the tenth, which is carinated, but scarcely indented at the tip ; 
operculum boat-shaped, scarcely longer than the ninth 
segment; cerci short, stout, slightly incurved. 

Female (long. corp. 110 mm.). — Bright green; rather 
stout, but tapering towards both the head and tail ; a brownish 
line running along the lateral borders of the thorax and 
abdomen ; mesonotum with some small scattered black 
tubercles, or, rather, granules ; meso- and metapleurae spinose 
on the dark lateral line already referred to ; abdomen with 
some more or less complete double carinations on the median 
line of the hinder segment, and with a single slightly undu- 
lating carina on each side ; there is a small tubercle or spine 
at the end of the first seven segments, including the median 
segment ; on segments 2-7 stand two or three green tubercles 
above the lateral line ; the tenth segment is twice suddenly 
contracted at the sides and terminates in an obtuse triangle 
above; the double median carina on the ninth coalesces into 
a single steep carina, which continues to the extremiiy of the 
tenth ; operculum pointed and channelled, extending beyond 
the tenth segment to more than twice the length of tlie latter. 

Hab. Tonkin (Matton Mountains, 2000-3000 metres), 
April and May [Fruhstorfer). 

The male of this species is closely allied to P. Wallaceiy 
Westw., from Aru, the type of the genus, but is easily distin- 
guished by the spineless head and the black spines on the 
mesonotum. The female, however, like that of the following 
species, wants the long, projecting, spear-like process above 
the operculum, so conspicuous in tliat of P. Wallacei. The 
specimens were received under the MS. name of Apora loeta, 
Brunn. The specific name I have of course retained, but 
tiie generic name is preoccupied in Polyzoa, and is therefore 
inadmissible. 



On the Oenus Ortmannia, Railib. 377 

Promachus (?) bicolor, sp. n. 

Long. Corp. 55-57 mm. 

Male. — Rufous ; the antennte, spines, a broad band down 
the middle of tlie body, bisected by the rufous carina, an 
interrupted lateral line, and the legs beyond the apical fourth 
of the femora black or blackish. Head with two pairs of 
spines near the back ; pronotum deeply sulcated before the 
middle, with a pair of long spines on the front lobe and small 
lateral ones at the front angles, and two pairs of spines (the 
first longest) on the second lobe. Mesonotum with five pairs 
of spines (the last pair approximating) on the central region, 
and a row of six spines on each side on the lateral black line ; 
metanotum, median segment, and several of the basal seg- 
ments of the abdomen with a pair of central spines, diminish- 
ing in size hindwards ; there are also two strong lateral spines 
on the metanotum and two on the meso- and metapleurge. 
Segments of the abdomen hardly twice as long as broad ; 
hind legs rather longer than the others, extending as far as 
the extremity of the seventh segment of the abdomen. 

Female (?) . — Larger and stouter ; testaceous, mottled with 
blackish; the spines arranged nearly as in the male; legs 
shorter, stouter, and carinated ; hind femora extending rather 
beyond the fifth segment of the abdomen ; abdomen with a 
sinuous carina on the sides of the segments, segment 10 
tripartite at the extremity ; except the front lobe of the pro- 
notum, the whole median line of the thorax and abdomen is 
traversed by a very strong raised carina. Abdomen without 
terminal spine ; operculum not projecting beyond the last 
segment. 

JIab. Tonkin (Than Moi), June and July (Fruhstorfer) . 



XLIIL — On the Genus Ortmannia, Rathb., and the Mutations 
of certain Atyids. By E. L. Bouvier *. 

The shrimps of the family Atyidse belong exclusively to 
fresh water. Despite their adaptation to this special medium 
and the strange aspect of their most typical forms, they 
attach themselves by a series of genera to the most primi- 
tive of the marine shrimps. From Xiphocaris, of which the 
chelffi are normal and are furnished with exopodites on all 
the feet, one passes to Atycephyra, in which the exopodites 
have disappeared on the three posterior pairs of feet, to 
Caridina, which have no expodites and whose anterior 
* Translated from the ' Comptes Rendus,' t. cxxxviii. p. 446. 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. 25 



378 M. E. L. Bouvler on the Genus Ortniannla, Ratlib., 

chelae are alone modified, then to Ortmannia, M. Rathbun 
[Atijoida, Ortmann), in which the modifications take place 
in the chelae o£ the first two pairs of feet, and at last one 
comes to the terminal forms of the family, the Afi/ce, of which 
the very curious chelae are split right down to the base and in 
consequence are devoid of a palmar region. Further, in the 
genus Ati/a itself it is possible to establish a series of species 
"which progressively depart from Ortmannia. By its small size 
and its rostrum, subtriangular and toothed below, A. serrata 
presents some resemblance to Ortmannia mexicana, Sauss. 
(0. potimirim, F. Miiller), whilst A. gabonensis, Giebel, 
A. robifsta, A. Milne-Edwards, and many other forms stand 
out at first sight by their very marked adaptive characters : 
large size, rostrum laterally serrated, feet of the third pair 
singularly strong and robust, &c. 

It appears that Ortmannia is separated from all species 
of Ati/a by two very constant characters : on the one 
hand, the form of the chelae, which are normal, with a 
relatively short mobile digit and a well-difi'erentiated palmar 
region ; on the other, the development of the carpus, which 
is longer than wide, at least in the feet of the second pair. 
These two characters are of the first importance; they 
bring tcgether Ortmannia^ Caridina, and Atycepliyra^ whilst 
they separate them considerably from the Atyce. 

In studying the Atyidge in the collection of the Museum, 
a batch of shrimps, collected at Honolulu by M. Ballieu, 
particularly attracted my attention. These shrimps were 
Atyidas of small size, all adult, and in other respects very 
much aliii.e ; but some presented all the characters of Atya 
bisukafa, Sp. Bate, whilst others belonged very clearly to 
the genus Ortmannia. 

In 1901, Miss Mary Rathbun made an analogous observa- 
tion on the Atyidai collected on the Sandwich Islands by 
Mr. Henshaw ; she grouped in the species of Sp. Bate all 
the examples with short carpi and chelae split down to the 
base ; the others she regarded as types of a new Ortmannia^ 
0. Henshawi. I found myself confronted by the same 
forms, but I was led to regard them quite differently from 
Miss Rathbun. 

Setting aside the generic characters affecting the carpi and 
chelae, these two forms resemble one another in all respects : 
same structure of rostrum, antennae, buccal appendages, same 
tegumentary ornaments, everywhere the most absolute 
identity — somewhat strange in species belonging to different 
generic types. More than this, the two forms have that 
similarity of appearance which characterizes all the repre- 
sentatives of a single species, and which, in the deter- 



and the Mutations of certain Atyids. 379 

mination of species, is a more rapid and sometimes a surer 
.Guide than the examination of morphological characters. 
In my opinion, Ortmannia Henshawi is neither more nor 
less than a form of Atya hisulcata, a form which has 
the curious character of recalling the immediate ancestral 
form of Atya. We have not here to deal with an ordinary 
dimorphism, sexual, produced by season or locality : the 
specimens of M. Ballieu were collected in the month of May, 
1877, in the vicinity of Honolulu, perhaps with one stroke of 
the net ; in both forms there are the same variations of size 
and sex. Some females of Atya hisulcata are charged with 
ova, whilst the females of the //e^s^aw;/ variation have none; 
but in another consignment, also made by M. Ballieu, the 
females of this variation carry a remarkably large charge 
of ova. 

I should not perhaps have hazarded the foregoing con- 
clusion if the Museum material had not permitted me to 
extend it to other quarters of the globe. 

In 1890, M. Alluaud collected in a torrent on the Amber 
Mountain, in Madagascar, a small shrimp which presented 
all the characters of the genus Ortmannia, but differed from 
the modification Henshawi by specific characters ; latterly 
the Museum has received from Sainte Marie, in Madagascar, 
a small batch of shrimps *, in which examples of Atya and 
Ortmannia absolutely resembling one another (setting aside 
generic characters) were mixed. The specimens of the first 
form appeared to me to be classifiable as Atya serrata, 
Sp. Bate : those of the second resembled that from the 
Amber Mountain ; they have all the specific characters of 
Atya serrata, and represent certainly, in my opinion, a modifi- 
cation of this species. This will be, if desired, the modification 
AUuaudi of A. serrata. 

A. serrata exists also in the island of Bourbon, where 
Maillard, about 1854, obtained three specimens, which are 
now in the Museum. The modiHcation AUuaudi of this 
species was found, in 1893, by M. Alluaud in the ravines of 
the mountains of Salasie and Helbour. Another specimen 
was taken by M. Alluaud, in 1890, in Mauritius ; the typical 
A. serrata has not yet been noted in this island, but one 
cannot doubt its existence there as well as in Eeunion. 

These modifications are of great interest, because they put 
in evidence one of the mechanisms by which new types are 
produced and definitely established through more primitive 
types which may persist or disappear. 

* These shrimps were captured in a little rivulet near Sainte Marie 
in October 1895, and were presented to the Museum by M. Edouard 
Chevreux. 

25* 



ijgO On the Genus Ortmannia, RatJib. 

[ In face of these modifications, one cannot doubt but that the 
Atyce are the direct descendants of Ortmannia, and that, in the 
case of certain species, this derivation is not yet a definitely 
accomplished fact. It is naturally among the small forms, 
nearer than any others to the primitive Atyidae, that this 
condition of unstable equilibrium is seen still to exist, in 
which the same creature may indifferently present the form 
of the past or of the future : Ati/a hisulcata and Atya serrala 
are still in this stage. In Ortmannia americana the 
primitive form alone exists ; either it has persisted after 
having produced the Ati/a, or it is in a state of evolution 
towards the production of this kind, which is more probable. 
In Ati/a hrevifrons, de Man, on the contrary, the primitive 
form seems to have disappeared, bequeathing a very marked 
stamp to its descendant, which is small like the Ortmannia 
and provided as it is with locomotor feet of small power. 
A. hrevifrons is a common species in the islands of the 
Pacific ; it has never been noticed under the form Ortmannia, 
but it is possible that in some island it persists still in that 
state. 

It goes without saying that in the most typical Atyce 
(^A. robusta, A. scabra, &c.), which are greatly modified and 
of large size, one would not expect to find specimens having 
the Ortmannia form. 

Here, then, manifestly are mutations by atavism which 
show us how new types are formed and old types persist. 
Actually, Atya bisulcata and A. serrata are represented by 
individuals of two kinds — the one with chelfe split down to 
the base, the other with normal chelas. If these species were 
social, the individuals of each type might be called upon to 
play a different role in the colony, and to a certainty the 
characters which distinguish them would go on exaggerating 
themselves in consequence. 

May we not explain in the same way the mysterious 
presence of polymorphic individuals in the societies of ants 
and termites? and the starting-point of the polymorphism 
of these forms, would it not be an atavic mutation similar 
to that of the Atyce? 

1 return to the domain of pure systematics. The genus 
Ortmannia should persist, but it comprises up to the present 
time, it appears, only a single independent species — 0. mexi- 
cana, of Tropical America. The modification Henshawi of 
Atya bisulcata and the modification Alluaudi of Atya serrata 
are clearly Ortmannia; but they represent species in course of 
evolution, which, according to circumstances, may persist or 
disappear as Ortmannia ; it is useful to look upon them no 
longer as independent species, but as the atavic form of the 



On a neio Species o/Acis. 381 

species of Atya which issued from it. It is easy to verify upon 
the spot the exactness of the views expressed in this note. 
Those who do not accept them may always regard the two modi- 
fications described above as distinct species of Ortmannia *. 

XLIV. — Notes on a new Species of Acis. By W. D. 
Hendekson, M.A., B.Sc, Zoological Laboratory, the 
University, Aberdeen. 

While working along with Prof. J. Arthur Thomson over a 
collection of Indian-Ocean Alcyonarians I recognized the new 
species here described. It was included in a collection made 
by Prof. W. A. Herdraan in Ceylon. 

The colony is large and fan-shaped, rising to a height of 
149 mm. and having a maximum width of 167 mm. 

From a conical base, which has a flat spreading margin and 
is attached to a mass of worm-tubes, the short main stem 
arises. At a distance of 14 mm. from its origin, where it 
lias a diameter of 3*5 mm., it divides into two principal 
branches. 

The branching is for the most part confined to one plane, 
but several of the smaller branches and twigs arise at right 
angles to the principal plane of branching. The branching 
is very profuse and at several points shows anastomosis of 
the branches, but this is by no means common. The branches 
are cylindrical, but there are traces of slight flattening in the 
plane of branching. The twigs arise usually at right angles 
to the branches, and their tips as well as those of the branches 
are slightly clavEfte. 

The polyps are small and are scattered over the whole 
s^urface of the stem and branches. In no place can it be said 
that they are confined to three surfaces, nor can any attempt 
at lateral arrangement be seen. The verruca3 are very small 
and the polyps can be completely retracted within them. 
The edges of the verrucse show a variable number of spines 
which project above the slightly conical operculum formed by 
the tentacular spicules when the polyps are withdrawn. 

The superficial coenenchyma of the stem and the branches 
presents a striking appearance, due to the arrangement of the 
large flat whitish spicules and to their being outlined against 
tiie darker ground-colour of the stem and branches. 

The spicules of the general coenenchyma are flat and multi- 
tuberculate, varying very much in size and shape. The 

* M. Ortmann regards Atya bisuJcata, Spence Bate, as an Ortmannia 
(Atyotda), although the examples studied by the English author had the 
true Atyau chelae ; 1 may add that M. Ortmann does not appear to have 
observed the curious variations of this species. 



382 Mr. 0. Thomas on a 

tubercles are low and rougli and very numerous. Many of 
the larger spicules extend the whole distance between two 
adjacent polyps, and sometimes even exceed this length. They 
fall into three groups, fairly distinct in shape : — (a) large 
modified fusiform spicules, which taper more or less towards 
the ends and measure from '9-3 mm. in length by "25-45 mm. 
in breadth ; (b) squamous or scale-like spicules, often with 
slightly lobed margins, which measure from "S-l"! mm. in 
length by •4-*6 mm. in breadth ; and (c) large modified 
squamous spiculeSj consisting of a flattened tuberculate basal 
portion and of a projecting part which forms the projecting 
spine of the verrucas. They measure, in length by breadth 
in millimetres, as follows : — "7 X '5, '6 X '4, '5 X "3. 

In the polyps there are slender spindle-shaped and club- 
sliaped spicules. They are often slightly curved and either 
taper to both ends or are blunt and rounded at one end and 
pointed at the other. Many of these exhibit fairly prominent 
spines towards the thicker end. They vary considerably in 
size, being from '3-*5 mm. in length and from •02-06 mm. 
in breadth. They are found chiefly in the tentacles, where 
they form an operculum to the retracted polyp ; but an incom- 
plete and irregular crown or collar is formed by them at the 
base of the tentacles. 

In colour the spicules vary from white to semitransparent, 
while the whole colony has a whitish-brown appearance. 

This species differs from Acis pustulata in not having 
violet- coloured opercular spicules and in the branches not 
being compressed in the plane of branching. It also differs 
from Acis orientalis in having the polyps on all sides of the 
stem and branches and in the branching not being confined 
to one plane. 

From the fact that it was collected in Ceylon waters I 
propose to name it Acis indica^ to mark it as distinct from 
Acis orientalis. 

Hah. Deep water off Galle, Ceylon. 



XLV. — A new Bat from the United States, representing the 
European Myotis (Leuconoe) Daubentoni. By Oldfield 
Thomas. 

The subgenus Leuconoe * has not been hitherto recognized 
as occurring in North America, but Myotis yumanensis should 
probably be regarded as a member of the group, although 
not a strongly marked example of it. 

* Type, Myotis Daubentoni, the " Wasser-Fledermaus." 



neio Bat from the United States. 383 

Now, liowever, I am able to record that Leuconoe in its 
most typical form does occur in that continent; for Mr. J. 
ffolliott Darling, a naturalist already known to zoologists for 
liis work in Mashonaland, has recently presented to the 
British Museum a bat, obtained in the Yellowstone Park, 
which is evidently closely allied to the typical species of the 
subgenus, M. Dauhentoni. 

Thanks to the kindness and generosity of the authorities of 
the United States National Museunij I have had for com- 
parison with Mr. Darling's bat a complete series of North- 
American ]\h/otis, as worked out in Mr. G. S. Miller's fine 
monograph of the group. None of the bats there described 
can be confused with it, nor have any species been described 
since. 

It may be called 

Myotis {Leuconoe) carissima, sp. n. 

Closely allied to the European M. Dauhentoni, which it 
evidently represents in North America. 

General characters and proportions as in Dauhentoni. 
Sides of muzzle heavily whiskered. Ears narrow, of medium 
length ; laid forward in the spirit-specimen they just reach 
to the tip of the nostrils ; their inner margin evenly convex 
below, slightly concave before the tip, which is narrowly 
rounded off; outer margin excavated above, slightly convex 
below; basal lobe well marked, rounded. Tragus rather 
short, with straight inner margin, narrowly rounded tip, 
sloping outer margin, and well-defined basal lobe. 

Feet very large, their length more than two thirds that of 
the tibia; claws medium. 

Wings attached to the side of the metatarsus. Calcars 
very long, more than double the length of the free portion of 
tlie uropatagium, their tips forming prominent lobules exactly 
as in Dauhentoni; no postcalcareal lobules. Tail scarcely 
])rojecting from membrane. Wings hairy for about half an 
inch on each side of the body, above and below ; base of 
uropatagium thinly haired, its free edge quite without fringe. 
Toes with tufts of hair overiianging the claws. 

Colour above and below (in spirit) uniformly smoky 
blackish, the tips of the hairs indistinctly bufFy or pale 
brown. Ears, wing-membranes, and feet also blackish. 

Anterior premolar about twice the size of the second, 
decidedly drawn inwards, but in older specimens it might 
take its place in the general line. 

Dimensions of the type (measured on the spirit-specimen) : — 

Eorearin ii^:! mm. 

Head and body -ia ; tail 36 ; head 17 ; car 13 x 8; tragus 



384 Mr. O. Thomas on Three neio Bats. 

on inner edge 5*5 ; thumb 8 ; third finger, metacarpus 33, 
first phalanx 11'5, second phalanx 10*5, third phalanx 7*2; 
fifth finger, metacarpus 31, first phalanx 9, second phalanx 9 ; 
tibia 16; hind foot (c. u.) 11; calcar 16; free border of 
uropatagium 6. 

Ilab. Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone Park, N.W. 
Wyoming. Alt. 8000 feet. 

Ti/pe. Female (just adult). B.M. no. 4. 4. 25. 1. Col- 
lected September 1903; presented by J. ffolliott Darling, Esq. 

" Caught flying about the Lake Hotel, although the weather 
was snowy."" 

This bat is very closely allied to M. Dauhentom, but has 
a more strongly whiskered muzzle, rather larger ears, a less 
projecting tail-tip, and appears to be darker in colour 
throughout. 

My own inclination would still, however, be to regard it 
as a subspecies of M. Daubentoni ; but as I am not writing a 
general monograph of the group, it seems better in tlie case 
of a United States bat to conform to the ideas about nomen- 
clature prevalent in that country. 

From M. yumanensis saturatus. Miller, apparently its 
nearest American ally, M. carissima is readily distinguishable 
by its much longer forearm and still larger feet. M. suh- 
ulatus, Say, of similar size, has conspicuously smaller feet 
and broader ears. 

The British Museum also contains another bat, from Lake 
Winnipeg, collected by Sir John Richardson, which appears 
to be referable to M. carissima, but is unfortunately in too 
bad a condition for certain determination. It was referred by 
Dobson to M. lucifugus, but is certainly not that species. 
Allowing for the great altitude of Lake Yellowstone^ the 
occurrence of the same species at Lake Winnipeg, considerably 
further north, would be quite natural. 

In the Old World M. Daubentoni occurs in Scandinavia, 
and, as Dobson says, " attains the most northerly range of 
all the species of the genus." 



XLVI. — Three new Bats, African and Asiatic. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

Hipposideros Commersoni and its subspecies. 

The bats currently referred to H. Commersoni fall into four 
groups, divisible by size, by the number of supplementary 
nose- leaves, and by colour. 



Mr. O. Thomas on Three new Bats. 385 

The common mainland form is the largest, witli a forearm 
measurement of 95 mm. and upwards, and with the lower 
tooth-row (front of canine to back of nis) about 15 mm. It 
lias four well-developed supplementary leaflets, and often the 
rudiment of a fifth. In coloration it has the brown and white 
markings described by Peters well defined and distinct, except 
in such individuals as have the reddish suffusion so often 
found in members of this genus. 

Its synonymy appears to be as follows : — 

Hipposideros Commersoni gigas^ Wagn. 

Hhinolophus gigns, Wagn, Sj-n. PhyUorhhia vittata, Peters, and 
Phijllorhina Co)nmersoni, var. marwiiiensis, Noack. 

In Madagascar the typical //. Gommersoni, Geoff., is found : 
small (forearm about 80-90 mm. ; lower tooth-row about 13) ; 
supplementary leaflets three, the rudiment of a fourth being 
occasionally present ; coloration dull greyish, with but little 
indication of the characteristic dark dorsal marlcings. 

In the island of San Thome, on the opposite side of Africa, 
is found a somewhat similar form, H. Commersoni thomensisj 
Bocage, which agrees with true Commersoni in essential 
characters, but is even darker, and has a prominent whitish 
spot on each shoulder at the insertion of the antebrachial 
membrane. 

Finally, in British East Africa and Zanzibar there occurs 
a form agreeing with Commersoni and thomensis in size, but 
■with the four leaflets of gigas and well-defined colour- 
markings. It may be briefly diagnosed as follows : — 

Hipposideros Commersoni mostellum, subsp. n. 

Size small, as in Commersoni. Supplementary leaflets 
four, with rudiment of a fifth. General colour wiiitish, the 
brown Y-shaped marking of the back well defined ; under 
surface creamy whitish, a brown line across each shoulder 
separating off a white patch at the insertion of the ante- 
brachial membranes. 

Skull and teeth as in true Commersoni, the cheek-teeth 
conspicuously smaller than in gigas. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in skin) : — 

Forearm 92 mm. 

Skull : length from cingulum of canine to back of occipital 
crest 32 ; basal length to cingulum of canine 26*5 ; zygo- 
matic breadth 18; mastoid breadth 15; upper cheek-teeth, 
front of ^>^ to back of m^ 8"4: ; front of lower canine to back of 
7?Jo 13. 



386 Mr. O. Thomas on Three neio Bats. 

Ihib. (of type). Tana R., British East Africa. Otlier 
specimens from Zanzibar. 

Type. Male. B.M. no. 89. 3. 8. 3. Presented by H. C. V. 
Hunter, Esq. 

lihinolophus Denti, sp. n. 

Allied to the European E. euryale, but smaller. 

Size very small, among the smallest species of the genus. 
Ijeading characters (in the order used in Dobson^s synopsis) : 
posterior upper premolar separated from the canine, though 
not very widely, the small anterior premolar in the tooth-row, 
towards its outer side; horizontal portion of the sella not 
widely expanded, though (allowing for shrinkage in the dried 
skin) it would appear to be more so than is usual in the 
allied species ; upper margin of the posterior connecting 
process forming a marked projection, rounded terminally, 
rising considerably above the summit of the front of the sella ; 
sides of the vertical process of the sella parallel, summit 
broadly rounded off; antitragal notch shallow. 

Horseshoe large, covering most of the muzzle, circular, its 
anterior edge sharply notched in the centre ; lancet short, 
conical, its sides evenly convergent upwards, thickly covered 
with fine fur, similar in colour and quality to that of the head. 
Ears of medium size, their inner margin evenly convex, tip 
sharply pointed, upper half of outer margin slightly concave ; 
antitragal notch not deep and the lobe itself comparatively 
little convex. Hind limbs slender and delicate. Wiiigs from 
the lower third of the tibiee. Interfemoral membrane tinely 
fringed posteriorly. 

Fur close and tine, about 7 mm, long on the back. General 

colour above pale grey, the individual hairs dull whitish, with 

dark brown tips. Under surface nearly white. Membranes 

brown, the plagiopatagium and interfemoral inconspicuously 

i edged with white. 

iSkuU with the nasal convexity more developed than in 
a. euryale, less than is figured in Peters's R. lohatus *. 
Palate ending opposite the posterior edge of the internal lobe 
of m^. 

Dimensions of the type (those in inverted commas taken 
by the collector in the flesh) : — 

Forearm 42 mm. 

" Head and body Al" ; '' tail 21 " ; '' ear 20 " ; nose-leaf 
(dry) 9'2 X 6'3 ; lower leg and foot (c. u.) 25'5. 

* lleiso Mossamb., Saug. pi. xiii, fig. 17. 



Mr. O. Thomas on Three new Bats. 387 

Skull : greatest length 17 ; basal lengfcli to front of canines 
13'2 ; Lreadth of brain-case 7*6 ; palatal bridge 1"9 ; front of 
upper canine to back of m"^ O'd ; front of lower canine to back 
of ms 6'6. 

Ilah. Kuruman, Bechuanaland. Alt. 1300 m. 

Tijpe. Male. B.M. no. 4. 4. 8. 2. Original number 7. 
Collected 24th January, 1904, by R. E. Dent. Two 
specimens. 

" Caught in a house." 

This species, the smallest of South-African FJiinolophi^ 
seems to represent R. euryale, but may be readily distin- 
guished from that, as from all others, by its proportions, its 
pale colour, the high attachment of its wing-merabranes, and 
its unusually hairy lancet. 

Pipistrcllus raptor, sp. n. 

A rather large species, with long head, proportionally short 
forearms and tibia?, and with a bone in the very large penis. 

Size rather large, form clumsy. Head long, half the length 
of the forearm, almost equally broad in front and behind. 
Muzzle swollen, smooth and rounded ; the nostrils small, their 
edges not projecting ; middle line above more deeply grooved 
between the glands. Ears rather small ; base of inner edge 
with a very narrow hem ; inner margin straight, tip narrowly 
rounded off, outer margin evenly but slightly convex to the 
shallow emargination separating the low basal lobule. Tragus 
short, broad, broadest opposite the lower third of the inner 
edge, the latter straight or slightly concave, tip rounded, 
outer margin evenly convex, basal lobule distinct, triangular. 
Wings to the base of the toes. Hind limbs short, feet stout 
and heavy. Calcar reaching about halfway towards the tip 
of the tail, its end marked with a projecting lobule ; post- 
calcareal lobe short, but very broad and distinct, supported 
by a well-marked supplementary cartilage. Tail rather 
short, of seven vertebrse and a terminal rudiment, involved 
in the membrane practically to its tip. Penis enormous, as 
long as or longer than the tibia, the development being 
mainly in the lengthening of the glans (which is slender and 
contains a long os penis) and the prepuce ; the latter is club- 
shaped, well-haired, grooved above terminally. 

Fur extending on to the wing-membranes for about one 
third of an inch on each side of the bodj^ and for a similar 
distance on the interfemoral ; below, a slightly wider area is 
hairy. Scattered hairs present on cars, the external basal 
lobe thickly hairy externally. 



388 Mr. G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton on some 

General colour above dark bistre brown, the ends of the 
hairs prominently lighter, buffy brown. Below, similar but 
ligliter. Hinder aspect of pubis bufFy to base of hairs. 

Siiull long and low, with a very deep nasal notch. Teeth 
on the whole like those of P. cei/lonicus [P. indicus, Dobs.). 
Inner incisors long, their secondary cusp well developed, 
postero-external ; outer incisors just equalling in length the 
secondary cusp on tiie inner ones and with an indistinct, low, 
postero-internal, basal cusp, and a posterior hollow for the 
tips of the lower canines, as in P. ceylonicus. Large pre- 
molar close to back of canine; the well-developed small pre- 
molar visible with difficulty from without. Lower incisors 
slender, scarcely overlapping. Lower canines with a broad 
cingulum, making its section circular. Anterior lower pre- 
molar three fourths the height of the second. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in spirit) : — 

Foream 37 mm. (range 36-39). 

Head and body 51; tail 36; head 18; ear 13*5; third 
finger 65 ; tibia 12 ; hind foot (c. u.) 9 ; penis 15, its terminal 
portion (with the bone) 11. 

Skull : greatest length 14*5 ; upper length in middle line 
12 ; basal length in middle line 10*9; zygomatic breadth 10"6 
interorbital breadth 6'1 ; constriction 4 ; mastoid breadth 8'6 
length of brain-case 5'7 ; front of canine to back o(m^ 6 
front of lower canine to back of m^ 6*1. 

Hah. Tonkin. 

Tyjje. Adult male in British Museum. Collected by 
Mr. H. Fruhstorfer. Six specimens examined. 

This species may be readily distinguished from all its allies 
by tlie enormous size of the penis and the presence of a bone 
in that organ. From Dobson's " Vesperugo afinis," only 
known from a female, it may be separated by its shorter and 
fewer-jointed tail, stouter feet, shorter tibiae, and other 
characters. P. hrachypterus^ Temm., of which I have not 
seen a specimen, has shorter outer incisors and the wing- 
membrane arises from the tarsus ; described originally from 
an old male in spirit, no mention is made of the penis. 



XLVII. — Notes and Descriptions of some new Species and 
Subspecies of MustelidaB. By G. E. H. Bareett- Hamilton. 

In working through the Mustelidse in the British Museum of 
Natural History 1 find several forms which seem to me to be 
worthy of recognition mainly because they are either distin- 
guishable as local races of well-known species, or, as in the 



new Species and Subspecies of Mustelldce. 389 

case of the Greenland stoat, are sufficiently differentiated to 
claim a title to full specific rank. 

Firstly, as regards the pine-marten, I find a tendency to 
deeper coloration and a brighter throat-patch in the southern 
representatives of the species. I propose for these the sub- 
specific name Mustela mai-tes latinorum, and I take as type of 
the subspecies a male (no. 95. 4. 16. 1) froai the Nurri 
Mountains, Sardinia, presented by Mr. E. N. BuKton. 

In this specimen the general colour is between " seal- 
brown " * or " mummy-brown," darkest on the tail, limbs, 
and, to a less degree, the central dorsal region. The 
yellowish-brown underfur, yellower than in British martens, 
frequently shows through the long outer hairs. The ears are 
edged and faced with dirty brownish-white hairs. The exten- 
sive throat-patch is rich " orange-buff,^' deepest near its ■ 
centre. It reaches from the " interramia^' f, where it sends 
forward a small central projection, to slightly behind the 
region of attachment of the fore limbs, near which it is 
interrupted by one or two detached areas of the brown colour. 
Its edges are sinuous. 

No dimensions taken from the animal whilst in the flesh 
accompany the specimen; but it was evidently an adult male, 
having a hind foot and ear measuring 41 and 35 mm. respec- 
tively in the dried skin. 

The dimensions of the skull are : — Greatest length 90 mm. ; 
basal length 84 ; palatal length 43 ; zygomatic breadth 51. 

I have also examined examples of this form obtained by 
Messrs. Oldfield Thomas and R. I. Pocock in Majorca and 
Minorca. 

Amongst the polecats, I find in the south a tendency to 
assume yellow underfur and face-markings, while in Central 
Europe the face-markings are more extensive, and both they 
and the underfur are whiter. 

As type of the former subspecies, which may be known as 
Putorius j)utorius aureolas, I take no. 94. 3. 12. 1 (a female), 
killed at Ferrol, Spain, on the 23rd of June, 1893, and 
presented by Dr. V. L. Seoane. 

The colour, above and below, is deep seal-brown, especially 
dark upon the limbs and chest. The ears are edged with 
dirty yellowish white, and the cheeks, upper lip, interramia, 
and a band running up from the latter between the eye and 

* Names of colours in inverted commas are fi-om Mr. R. Eid^-wav's 
' Nomenclature of Colors,' 188G. ° ^ 

t I adopt this term from a suggestion of Mr. Oldfield Thomas. 



390 Mr. G. E. II. Bavrett-IIamilton on some 

ear on each side, but not extending to the crown of tlie head, 
are of the same colour. The underfur is yellowish buff. 

The dimensions of the hind foot and ear, taken from the 
dried skin, are 61*5 and 19 mm. respectively. 

The dimensions of the skull are : — Greatest length QQ mm. ; 
basal length 60; palatal length 31 ; zygomatic breadth 44. 

The Central-European polecat, on the other hand, has a 
nearly white underfur, and the long outer hairs are nearly 
black. The facial markings also are nearly white and the 
two bands between the eyes and ears are carried upwards 
until they meet and form a V-shaped mark, with the blunt 
|)oint of the V lying on the forehead between the eyes pointing 
anteriorly. 

This subspecies may be known as P. putorius manium. 
I take as the type no. 2. 8. 4. 24 (a male), procured by 
Mr. Zollikofer at Teufin, Apfenzell, Switzerland. 

The dimensions are: — Head and body 408 mm.; tail 
(without end-hairs) 145; hind foot 62; ear 25. 

It seems probable that a paper by M. Drion, Jun.'^, in 
which he distinguishes a yellow and a black race of polecat, 
both existing in Belgium, but with different habits, habitat, 
and character, was based upon the overlapping and inter- 
grading of these or other continental races. M. Drion states 
that in both of his races he found the male about one third 
larger and stouter than the female, and the young dark iti 
colour and hardly assignable to either form. 

The large weasel named by Pallas Mustela sibirica, and 
which has a wide range in Siberia, seems to be divisible 
into a number of subspecies. In this animal there is probably 
a considerable difference between the summer and winter 
coats, the former being some shade of brown, the latter of 
yellow. I find two forms which cannot be identified with 
any previously published description of any known subspecies. 
These are : — 

Putorius sibin'cus noctis, subsp. n. 

Form as in P. sihiricus typicus. 

Coloration. Above near " vandyke-brown," shading grad- 
ually without line of demarcation into a tint between " russet " 
and " tawny olive " beneath ; the tail a shade lighter than the 
brown of the upper surface, but with the tip darker. Anterior 

* Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Lett. Beaux-Arts Belg. S(5r. 3, t. xiv. pp. 305- 
368 ; translated in ' Zoologist,' 1895, pp. 366-369. 



nev) Species and Sub.'^pecies of Mustelklae. ' 391 

half of intevramia, edg-es of lowei- lips, angles of mouth, 
and a sprinkling of hairs about the nose white. 

Dimensions: from label, ''length 20 inches'"^; hind foot 
(measured in dried skin) without claws 54 mm. ; tail (ditto) 
including end-hairs about 170; ear about 15. 

The skull is not perfect, but presents the following dimen- 
sions : — palatal length 25 mm. ; zygomatic breadth 31. The 
mesopterygoid fossa is attenuated anteriorly ; the incisive 
foramina are ample and elongated. 

Ti^ps (an almost mature male), no. 99. 3. 1. 11, from 
San-yen-tze, China, 5th August, 1S9G ; procured by 
Mr. F. W. Sty an. 

Putorius sihiricus ixoctis is clearly separated by its dull 
coloration from all its allies of the Asiatic mainland. The 
type is evidently iu summer coat. 

Putorius sihiricus miles, subsp. n. 

Form as in P. sihiricus typicus. 

Coloration. Above between " russet ^^ and ''cinnamon- 
rufous," shading into " orange-rufous " or " ochraceous 
rufous" on the underside, and becoming darker on the upper 
surface of the head. Upper surfaces of the feet, interraraia, 
upper lips, and a spot behind each nostril dirty white, shading 
into ochraceous tints on the throat. 

Di?nensions from the dried skin : — Hind foot 45 mm. j 
ear 15. 

There is no skull. 

Type. No. 74. 1. 16. 2, from Dauria, Eastern Siberia; 
received from Professor Taczanowski. 

The bright underside of this weasel renders it distinguish- 
able at a glance from all other described forms. 

Turning to the true weasels, I may remark here that the 
subspecific name Putorius nivalis italicus proposed by me 
for the Italian weasel is preoccupied by Achille Costa^s 
name " var. meridionalis " *, of which it must accordingly 
stand as a synonym. The type locality of P. nivalis meri- 
dionalis is " in Italia meridionali continentali." 

Amongst the ermines or stoats I find the following forms. 
Firstly, a specimen from British North America does not 
agree with any description by American naturalists of the 

' * Anu, del Museo Zool. della R. Univ. di Napoli, anno 1j:Go, p. 40 
Adated 1P69). 



392 Mr. G. E. 11. Barrett-Hamilton on some 

various forms wliicli inhabit that continent. It may be 
known as 

Putorius arcticus imperii^ subsp. n. 

Form as in P. ermineus or arcticus^ but smaller and with 
the tail longer than that of the latter. 

Coloration of type specimen. Upperside (with exceptions 
to follow) golden brown (between " tawny olive/'' " raw 
vimber," and " mars brown ^'), the crown of the head darker. 
Dorsal borders of ears, a tuft of hairs at their anterior angle 
on each side, upper lips, chin, interramia, and upper throat 
white. Underside (except as above) deep " primrose-yellow,'^ 
including the inner and posterior surfaces of the fore legs, the 
whole of the fore feet, the distal half and inner side of the 
hind feet, and the under surface of the tail nearly to the dark 
pencil. Line of demarcation well defined and straight, the 
brown colour not encroaching on the underside. Tail with 
conspicuous dark terminal pencil. 

The skull corresponds with Dr. Hart Merriam's description 
of that of P. arcticus. 

Dimensions of the type (taken from the dried skin) : — 
Hind foot 38 mm. ; ear 20; tail (including terminal hairs) 
129; tail-pencil 71. 

The somewhat damaged skull has : — Zygomatic breadth 
25 mm. ; palatal length 17 ; length of upper molar series 11, 
of lower molar series 12. 

Type. No. 63. 10. 28. 1, from Fort Simpson, British 
Columbia ; received from Mr. B. R. Ross. 

P. arcticus imperii appears to be a smaller race of P. arc- 
ticus, from which it differs also in the possession of white 
ear-borders and upper lips, a less deeply yellow underside, 
and a longer tail. 

Secondly, the specimens long since brought home by 
Mr. H., C. Hart from Greenland show that tiiere are in that 
country two forms of stoat. Of these the first is a well- 
defined species, apparently not very clearly related to its 
allies either of the Old World or of the New. It may be 
known as 

Putorius audaXj sp. n. 

General characters. — Size moderate ; tail short, with well- 
developed dark pencil ; colours of upperside not encroaching 
upon underside. 

Coloration. Above between "wood-brown" and "mars 



new Species and Subspecies of Miisteli Jse. 303 

brown," the line of demarcation straight and decided. Below 
white, tinged with yellow on the flanks, neck, and near the 
legs, the white colour including also the upper lips, fore and 
hind feet (but not conspicuously), the inner and anterior 
surfaces of lhe limbs, but not the under surface of the tail, 
which is barely lighter than the upper surface. Tail with 
dark pencil commencing at about the middle point. Underfur 
of upper surface near white. 

The akuU, as compared with that of American stoats, is 
characterized by its broad, somewhat massive, and depressed 
rostrum and moderately conspicuous postorbital processes. 
It is shorter and far less massive than that of P. ermineus; 
the posterior region lias a peculiar rounded appearance when 
viewed from above, wliich is characteristic, but difficult to 
describe. The audital buUas are shortened as compared with 
those of P. ermineus. 

Dimensions of the type (taken from the dried skin) : — 
Hind foot (without claws) 40 mm.; tail (including terminal 
hairs) 19G ; tail-pencil 63. 

The somewhat damaged skull has a zygomatic breadth of 
about 25 mm. ; palatal length 18 ; length of upper molar 
series 10"50, of lower molar series 12. 

Type. No. 78. 6. 26. 5 ; secured by Mr. H. C. Hart at 
Discovery Bay, North Greenland. 



A second skin was brought home by Mr. Hart from latitude 
82° N., longitude 59° 20' W., in Hall Land, in the very far 
north of Greenland. This specimen appears to me to be a 
form of P. arcticus, Merriam, and I accordingly propose for 
it the subspecific name 

Putorius arcticus polaris, subsp. n. 

Form and general characters as in P. arcticus, Merriam. 

Coloration. Above golden brown, the underfur near 
white ; upper lips, interraraia, and upper throat white ; re- 
mainder of underside deep " primrose-yellow,^'' this colour 
running in a slightly lighter shade to the underside of the 
tail (except the terminal pencil) and the fore feet. Line of 
demarcation direct and as in P. audax. 

There were no dimensions or skull with this specimen. In 
the dried skin the hind foot measures about 38 ram. and the 
tail (including terminal hairs) 105, with a pencil of &2. 

Type. No. 78. 6. 19. 11 ; locality as abDve. 
Ann. cfc Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. xiii. 26 



391 On some new Species and Subspecies of Mastern]a3. 

Lastly, I find that true P. ermineus of Scandinavia * may 
be distinguished from its southern representatives, such as 
those of Britain, by the fact that it has the underside of the 
tail (except the distal part occupied by tlie terminal pencil) 
of the same colour as the underside generally, whereas in 
British stoats the tail (except in cases of winter whitening) 
is unicoloured all round. A second, and, to my mind (since 
it is of deep physiological significance), far more important 
distinction is the absence of winter whitening in soutiiern 
stoats. Southern examples may therefore be distinguished 
subspecifically under the name of 

Putorius ermineus stahilis, subsp. n., 

with no. 98. 5. 13. 2 (a female, dated the 18th of February, 
1895), from Blandfbrd, Dorset, presented by Mr. J. C. Mansel- 
Pleydell, as the type. 

I add a description of the British stoat, not taken from the 
type, but from a series : — 

Coloration. Entire upper surface of both sexes (except the 
end of the tail) in summer with the long outer hairs between 
" mummy brown " and " mars brown, ^^ the underfur lighter 
and near '' Isabella colour/"" usually concealed, but in speci- 
mens in old faded caat showing through the tliin outer hairs. 
Under surface (except that of the tail) white, wi'h a strong 
wash of yellow which about reaches "primrose-yellow^' in 
extreme, but by no means rare, cases at all seasons, the white 
colour extending to the upper lips and the inner surfaces of 
all four legs to the ankles and wrists, but not to the tail. 
Line of demarcation definite and decided, the brown colour 
not encroaching upon the underside. Tail with the hairs 

* The nomenclature of the northern stoats must be regarded as en- 
tirely provisional. Dr. Merriam clearly emphasizes the close relationship 
between his arcticiis and true erminezis by the remark that the former, 
" though specifically distinct, is strictly the American representative of 
the Uld-World enninea " (' North-American Fauna,' no. 11, p. 16, 1896J. 
Kemembering-, then, what different conceptions are prevalent between 
naturalists of the Old and New World in regard to the uses of spjcific 
and subspecihc names, that Baird's Putorius Knneii [' JNIamaials of North 
America &c.,' pp. 172-3, 1859) of Chukchi-Land and Bering's (Straits 
(Arikamtchitchi Island) is a small yet " perfect miniature " of ermineus, 
and that Dr. Allen cannot Hud any tangible characters whereby to separate 
stoats from North-eastern Siberia and Europe (Bull. Amer. Mas. N. Hist, 
vol. xix. art. iv. pp. 174-17(5, March 81, iDOuj, we may look forward to 
the strong possibility that botli Kdiieii and arcticus with all its subforuis 
may eventually tind their true status as subspecies o^ ermi/ieffs. 



BihliograpJncal Notices, 395 

beginning to lengtlien and deepen in colour at a point about 
halfway from the extremity until they form a large black 
terminal tuft or pencil, having a variable length, bat often 
reaching 100 mm. Feet often, but variably, white, either 
partially or wholly. In winter the white of the under surface 
may extend upwards, according to locality, until the animal 
becomes completely white or white washed with yellow, the 
black tuft of the tail alone retaining its dark colour. The 
margins of the ears, being amongst the tirst to whiten, show 
this colour to a variable extent in many specimens otherwise 
apparently in full summer coat; for a similar reason the feet 
may be partially white at all seasons of the year. 

The average dimensions (in millimetres) of a series are 
(approximately) : — 

Skin. Skull. 



Head and Hind Greatest Basal Palatal Zygomatic 

body. Tail. foot. Ear. length, lenj^tli. length, breadth. 

Males .. 2(39 111 48 22 51 47 30 22 

Females. 244 90 42 20 46 42 25 19 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Mostly Mammals. By R. Lydekker. Pp. 383 ; 16 plates. 
London : Hutchinson & Co. 1903. 

To a very large number of readers the essays in this volume will be 
right heartily welcomed as old friends finally uuited under peculiarly 
happy circumstances. By a careful process of gleaning from the 
pages of 'Knowledge/ 'Nature,' 'The Tield,' and 'The Asian,' 
Mr. Lydekker has produced a really delightful volume. Full of 
matter for thoughtful consideration, it will be cherished as guide, 
philosopher, and friend by those who live in the country, or are 
called away into wild places far from the haunts of men, where 
books are not, save those that are carried for their own intrinsic 
worth. 

Perhaps the most fascinating chapters in the volume are those 
referring to the coloration of animals. Save the chapter on 
cowrie-shells, mammals only are dealt with under this head, but, as 
many will know already, these chapters are strikingly original and 
suggestive. 

To the traveller the chapters on " Celebes : a Problem in Distri- 
bution " and " Deserts and their Inhabitants " will serve as incen- 
tives to observation, no less than those on coloration ; whilst the 



396 Bibliograpldcal Notices. 

Btaj'-at-home naturalist will find equally helpful studies in the 
essays on domesticated animals. But these are by no means the 
only subjects treated of in this volume. Extinct animals, armour- 
clad whales, monkey finger-prints, frogs and toads, and scorpions 
are amongst the other subjects noticed, and all alike are of ex- 
treme interest. 

The book is well printed, tastefully got up, and well illustrated, 
there being no less than sixteen full-page plates, the most remark- 
able of which is a photograph showing girafltes in covert. The 
volume would make a handsome gift-book. 



Catalogue of the Lepidoptera PhaJo'/ncn in the British Museum. 
Volume IV. Catalogue of the Noctuidfe in the Collection of the 
British Museum. By Sir George F. Hampson, Bart. London : 
Printed by Order of the Trustees, 1903. 8vo. Pp. xx, 689. 
Plates Iv.-lxxvii. 

"We congratulate Sir George Hampson and the authorities of the 
British Museum on the publication of the fourth volume of the 
great Catalogue of the Moths of the world, which has been appearing 
at intervals during the last six years. With Volume IV. the great 
family of Noctuidce is commenced, with one of the largest and most 
important of the subfamilies, the Agrotince, of which no less (han 
1126 species are described, by far the larger proportion of which 
have only been made known within the last few years. To the 
entomologists of the present day, the wonderful increase in our 
knowledge of insects and the large collections now in existence 
appear marvellous. So did Hewitson's collection of Exotic Butter- 
flies to the older generation of naturalists who were his contem- 
poraries ; but hundreds of the most beautiful butterflies in the world, 
which are now to be found iu every first-rate collection, were either 
unique and unattainable, or undiscovered in his time, and he did not 
live to see them. Our knowledge of motlis has also very largely 
increased, though it cannot be supposed to be so forward as in the 
case of butterflies, for three reasons :' firstly, because they are much 
more numerous ; secondly, because many of them are less brightly 
coloured, and thus less attractive, and are therefore less assiduously 
collected ; and, thirdly, because many are nocturnal insects and are 
therefore really more difficult to collect. But nothing is more likely 
to encourage and extend the knowledge of moths than comprehensive 
and well-illustrated works like Sir George Hampson's. 

In addition to the coloured plates, there are 125 text illustrations, 
representing structural details. Many larvae are described, those of 
North- American species by Dr. Harrison G. Dyar ; but there are no 
illustrations of larvae, which the character of the book would perhaps 
hardly admit of. Very full tables of species are given under genera, 
or, in the case of the larger genera, under sections ; and we are glad 
to notice that when a number of generic names are included under 
a more comprehensive one (as in the case of Euxoa, Hiibn., ]). 153) 



BihUograijhical Notices. 397 

the types of the various names are indicated. This will be very 
useful for future reference. 

At the end of the volume we find a list of unrecognized species, 
Borae of -which will probably be identified and referred to their 
proper position at some future time. 



The Fauna of British India^ indudlng Cej/Ioii and Burma. Pub- 
lished under the authority of the Secretary of State for India in 
Council. Edited by W. T. Blanford. — Mhynchota. Vol. II. 
Part 1 (Heteroptera). By W. L. Distant. London, 1903. 
Pp. X, 242; figs. 1(57. 

As we are informed that the next part of this work, completing the 
second volume, will appear very shortly, we will defer our detailed 
notice until then, and confine ourselves for the present to recording 
the publication of the present instalment, which extends from 
Fam. 4. Lygoeida) to the commencement of Fam. 12. Ileduviida;. 



Memoirs of the Geological Surveif. — Paltnontologia ladica. Series IX. 
'The Jurassic Fauna of Cutch. Vol. Ill, Part 2. The Lamelli- 
hranchiata. No. I. Genua Trigonia. By F. L. Kitchix, M.A., 
Ph.D., Geol. Survey England. 122 pages, Ful. Plates I.-X. 
Calcutta, London, and Berlin, 1903. 

The Trigonia; of Cutch here figured and described have been selected 
from among the Lamellibranchs collected by Wynne, Tedden, 
Stoliczka, and Blanford, and entrusted to Dr. Kitchin, of London, 
lor examination and description. The strata from which they came 
are known as the following groups : — I. The Oomia group, probably 
combining the Cretaceous, Neocomian, partly the Portlandian ; 
II. The Katrol, probably combining the Kimmeridgian and Ox- 
fordian, and constituting the L^pper Jurassic of Cutch ; III. The 
Charec, probably representing the Kelloway strata, Middle Jurassic 
of Cutch ; IV. The Patclmm, probably representing the Bath Oolite 
group. These are enumerated in the second edition of the ' Manual 
of the Geology of India,' 1893, p. 217. 

The classification of